Inhibitory potential of repurposed drugs against the SARS-CoV-2 main protease: a computational-aided approach.
ABSTRACT: The exponential increase in cases and mortality of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has called for a need to develop drugs to treat this infection. Using in silico and molecular docking approaches, this study investigated the inhibitory effects of Pradimicin A, Lamivudine, Plerixafor and Lopinavir against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. ADME/Tox of the ligands, pharmacophore hypothesis of the co-crystalized ligand and the receptor, and docking studies were carried out on different modules of Schrodinger (2019-4) Maestro v12.2. Among the ligands subjected to ADME/Tox by QikProp, Lamivudine demonstrated drug-like physico-chemical properties. A total of five pharmacophore binding sites (A3, A4, R9, R10, and R11) were predicted from the co-crystalized ligand and the binding cavity of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. The docking result showed that Lopinavir and Lamivudine bind with a higher affinity and lower free energy than the standard ligand having a glide score of -9.2?kcal/mol and -5.3?kcal/mol, respectively. Plerixafor and Pradimicin A have a glide score of -3.7?kcal/mol and -2.4?kcal/mol, respectively, which is lower than the co-crystallized ligand with a glide score of -5.3?kcal/mol. Molecular dynamics confirmed that the ligands maintained their interaction with the protein with lower RMSD fluctuations over the trajectory period of 100 nsecs and that GLU166 residue is pivotal for binding. On the whole, present study specifies the repurposing aptitude of these molecules as inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro with higher binding scores and forms energetically stable complexes with Mpro. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
Project description:The recent outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 disease, also known as COVID-19, has emerged as a pandemic. The unavailability of specific therapeutic drugs and vaccines urgently demands sincere efforts for drug discovery against COVID-19. The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is a critical drug target as it plays an essential role in virus replication. Therefore for the identification of potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, we applied a structure-based virtual screening approach followed by molecular dynamics (MD) study. A library of 686 phytochemicals was subjected to virtual screening which resulted in 28 phytochemicals based on binding energy. These phytochemicals were further subjected to drug-likeness and toxicity analysis, which resulted in seven drug-like hits. Out of seven, five phytochemicals viz., Mpro-Dehydrtectol (-10.3?kcal/mol), Epsilon-viniferin (-8.6?kcal/mol), Peimisine (-8.6?kcal/mol), Gmelanone (-8.4?kcal/mol), and Isocolumbin (-8.4?kcal/mol) were non-toxic. Consequently, these phytochemicals are subjected to MD, post MD analysis, and MM/PBSA calculations. The results of 100?ns MD simulation, RMSF, SASA, Rg, and MM/PBSA show that Epsilon-viniferin (-29.240?kJ/mol), Mpro-Peimisine (-43.031?kJ/mol) and Gmelanone (-13.093?kJ/mol) form a stable complex with Mpro and could be used as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. However, further investigation of these inhibitors against Mpro receptor of COVID-19 is needed to validate their candidacy for clinical trials. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
Project description:The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has now emerged as a global health problem and is responsible for high mortality and morbidity. The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) emerged as a promising drug target because of its essential role in the processing of polyproteins, which is translated from viral RNA. The present study reports a designed novel hybrid antiviral molecule (VTRRT-13.V2.1) against SARS-CoV2 main protease. A series of different combinations of hybrid antiviral were generated from nonspecific antiviral molecules currently used to control COVID-19. To enhance the specificity of the designed hybrid antiviral molecule, the core pocket region of the active site of Mpro protein was targeted. In-silico screening, molecular mechanics, molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) analysis identified a hybrid VTRRT-13.V2 molecule. Retrosynthetic analysis and combinatorial synthesis generated 1000 analogs of VTRRT-13.V2 molecules. Docking, molecular mechanics, and MDS analysis selected VTRRT-13.V2.1 as a possible inhibitor for SARS-CoV2 main protease. Comparative analysis of all the results showed that VTRRT-13.V2.1 have the highest docking Glide score (-12.28 kcal/mol) and best binding energy (-52.23 kcal/mol) as compared to the other hybrid constructs such as VTRRT-13.V2 (-9.47 and -47.36 kcal/mol), VTRRT-13 (-8.9 and -47.55 kcal/mol), and current antiviral investigated. The mutational sensitivity screening showed that binding residues of Mpro are not present in mutation hotspots. It was also observed that VTRRT-13.V2.1 does not have any human off-targets. SARS-CoV2 main protease is essential for the survival of this virus; hence, a designed novel hybrid antiviral molecule (VTRRT-13.V2.1) might be useful to control the infection of COVID-19 infection.
Project description:COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) primarily appeared in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. At present, no proper therapy and vaccinations are available for the disease, and it is increasing day by day with a high mortality rate. Pharmacophore based virtual screening of the selected natural product databases followed by Glide molecular docking and dynamics studies against SARS-CoV-2 main protease was investigated to identify potential ligands that may act as inhibitors. The molecules SN00293542 and SN00382835 revealed the highest docking score of -14.57 and -12.42?kcal/mol, respectively, when compared with the co-crystal ligands of PDB-6Y2F (O6K) and 6W63 (X77) of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. To further validate the interactions of top scored molecules SN00293542 and SN00382835, molecular dynamics study of 100?ns was carried out. This indicated that the protein-ligand complex was stable throughout the simulation period, and minimal backbone fluctuations have ensued in the system. Post-MM-GBSA analysis of molecular dynamics data showed free binding energy-71.7004 +/- 7.98, -56.81+/- 7.54?kcal/mol, respectively. The computational study identified several ligands that may act as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. The top-ranked molecules SN00293542, and SN00382835 occupied the active site of the target, the main protease like that of the co-crystal ligand. These molecules may emerge as a promising ligands against SARS-CoV-2 and thus needs further detailed investigations. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
Project description:Recent outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has raised serious global concern for public health. The viral main 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (Mpro), known to control coronavirus replication and essential for viral life cycle, has been established as an essential drug discovery target for SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we employed computationally screening of Druglib database containing FDA approved drugs against active pocket of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro using MTiopen screen web server, yields a total of 1051 FDA approved drugs with docking energy >-7?kcal/mol. The top 10 screened potential compounds against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro were then studied by re-docking, binding affinity, intermolecular interaction, and complex stability via 100?ns all atoms molecular dynamics (MD) simulation followed by post-simulation analysis, including end point binding free energy, essential dynamics, and residual correlation analysis against native crystal structure ligand N3 inhibitor. Based on comparative molecular simulation and interaction profiling of the screened drugs with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro revealed R428 (-10.5?kcal/mol), Teniposide (-9.8?kcal/mol), VS-5584 (-9.4?kcal/mol), and Setileuton (-8.5?kcal/mol) with stronger stability and affinity than other drugs and N3 inhibitor; and hence, these drugs are advocated for further validation using in vitro enzyme inhibition and in vivo studies against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
Project description:The recent outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 has quickly become a worldwide pandemic and generated panic threats for both the human population and the global economy. The unavailability of effective vaccines or drugs has enforced researchers to hunt for a potential drug to combat this virus. Plant-derived phytocompounds are of applicable interest in the search for novel drugs. Bioflavonoids from <i>Rhus succedanea</i> are already reported to exert antiviral activity against RNA viruses. SARS-CoV-2 Mpro protease plays a vital role in viral replication and therefore can be considered as a promising target for drug development. A computational approach has been employed to search for promising potent bioflavonoids from <i>Rhus succedanea</i> against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro protease. Binding affinities and binding modes between the biflavonoids and Mpro enzyme suggest that all six biflavonoids exhibit possible interaction with the Mpro catalytic site (-19.47 to -27.04?kcal/mol). However, Amentoflavone (-27.04?kcal/mol) and Agathisflavone (-25.87?kcal/mol) interact strongly with the catalytic residues. Molecular dynamic simulations (100?ns) further revealed that these two biflavonoids complexes with the Mpro enzyme are highly stable and are of less conformational fluctuations. Also, the hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface mapping on the Mpro structure as well as biflavonoids were utilized for the further lead optimization process. Altogether, our findings showed that these natural biflavonoids can be utilized as promising SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors and thus, the computational approach provides an initial footstep towards experimental studies in <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>, which is necessary for the therapeutic development of novel and safe drugs to control SARS-CoV-2. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma Research highlights <i>Rhus succedanea</i> biflavonoids have antiviral activity. The molecular interactions and molecular dynamics displayed that all six biflavonoids bound with a good affinity to the same catalytic site of Mpro. The compound Amentoflavone has a strong binding affinity (-27.0441?kcal/mol) towards Mpro. The binding site properties of SARS-CoV-2-Mpro can be utilized in a novel discovery and lead optimization of the SARS-CoV-2-Mpro inhibitor.
Project description:A new SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) belonging to the genus Betacoronavirus has caused a pandemic known as COVID-19. Among coronaviruses, the main protease (Mpro) is an essential drug target which, along with papain-like proteases catalyzes the processing of polyproteins translated from viral RNA and recognizes specific cleavage sites. There are no human proteases with similar cleavage specificity and therefore, inhibitors are highly likely to be nontoxic. Therefore, targeting the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro enzyme with small molecules can block viral replication. The present study is aimed at the identification of promising lead molecules for SARS-CoV-2 Mpro enzyme through virtual screening of antiviral compounds from plants. The binding affinity of selected small drug-like molecules to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, SARS-CoV Mpro and MERS-CoV Mpro were studied using molecular docking. Bonducellpin D was identified as the best lead molecule which shows higher binding affinity (-9.28 kcal/mol) as compared to the control (-8.24 kcal/mol). The molecular binding was stabilized through four hydrogen bonds with Glu166 and Thr190 as well as hydrophobic interactions via eight residues. The SARS-CoV-2 Mpro shows identities of 96.08% and 50.65% to that of SARS-CoV Mpro and MERS-CoV Mpro respectively at the sequence level. At the structural level, the root mean square deviation (RMSD) between SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and SARS-CoV Mpro was found to be 0.517 Å and 0.817 Å between SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and MERS-CoV Mpro. Bonducellpin D exhibited broad-spectrum inhibition potential against SARS-CoV Mpro and MERS-CoV Mpro and therefore is a promising drug candidate, which needs further validations through in vitro and in vivo studies.
Project description:COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) is a transmissible disease initiated and propagated through a new virus strain SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2) since 31st December 2019 in Wuhan city of China and the infection has outspread globally influencing millions of people. Here, an attempt was made to recognize natural phytochemicals from medicinal plants, in order to reutilize them against COVID-19 by the virtue of molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study. Molecular docking study showed six probable inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro (Main protease), two from Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) (Withanoside V [10.32?kcal/mol] and Somniferine [9.62?kcal/mol]), one from Tinospora cordifolia (Giloy) (Tinocordiside [8.10?kcal/mol]) and three from Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) (Vicenin [8.97?kcal/mol], Isorientin 4'-O-glucoside 2?-O-p-hydroxybenzoagte [8.55?kcal/mol] and Ursolic acid [8.52?kcal/mol]). ADMET profile prediction showed that the best docked phytochemicals from present work were safe and possesses drug-like properties. Further MD simulation study was performed to assess the constancy of docked complexes and found stable. Hence from present study it could be suggested that active phytochemicals from medicinal plants could potentially inhibit Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 and further equip the management strategy against COVID-19-a global contagion. Highlights Holistic approach of Ayurvedic medicinal plants to avenge against COVID-19 pandemic. Active phytoconstituents of Ayurvedic medicinal plants Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), Tinospora cordifolia (Giloy) and Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) predicted to significantly hinder main protease (Mpro or 3Clpro) of SARS-CoV-2. Through molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation study, Withanoside V, Somniferine, Tinocordiside, Vicenin, Ursolic acid and Isorientin 4'-O-glucoside 2?-O-p-hydroxybenzoagte were anticipated to impede the activity of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Drug-likeness and ADMET profile prediction of best docked compounds from present study were predicted to be safe, drug-like compounds with no toxicity. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
Project description:A novel series of some hydrazones bearing thiazole moiety were generated via solvent-drop grinding of thiazole carbohydrazide 2 with various carbonyl compounds. Also, dehydrative-cyclocondensation of 2 with active methylene compounds or anhydrides gave the respective pyarzole or pyrazine derivatives. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were established based on spectroscopic evidences and their alternative syntheses. Additionally, the anti-viral activity of all the products was tested against SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) using molecular docking combined with molecular dynamics simulation (MDS). The average binding affinities of the compounds 3a, 3b, and 3c (-8.1 ± 0.33 kcal/mol, -8.0 ± 0.35 kcal/mol, and -8.2 ± 0.21 kcal/mol, respectively) are better than that of the positive control Nelfinavir (-6.9 ± 0.51 kcal/mol). This shows the possibility of these three compounds to effectively bind to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and hence, contradict the virus lifecycle.
Project description:The current COVID-19 pandemic is caused by SARS CoV-2. To date, ?463,000 people died worldwide due to this disease. Several attempts have been taken in search of effective drugs to control the spread of SARS CoV-2 infection. The main protease (Mpro) from SARS CoV-2 plays a vital role in viral replication and thus serves as an important drug target. This Mpro shares a high degree of sequence similarity (>96%) with the same protease from SARS CoV-1 and MERS. It was already reported that Broussonetia papyrifera polyphenols efficiently inhibit the catalytic activity of SARS CoV-1 and MERS Mpro. But whether these polyphenols exhibit any inhibitory effect on SARS CoV-2 Mpro is far from clear. To understand this fact, here we have adopted computational approaches. Polyphenols having proper drug-likeness properties and two repurposed drugs (lopinavir and darunavir; having binding affinity -7.3 to -7.4?kcal/mol) were docked against SARS CoV-2 Mpro to study their binding properties. Only six polyphenols (broussochalcone A, papyriflavonol A, 3'-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-3',4',7-trihydroxyflavane, broussoflavan A, kazinol F and kazinol J) had interaction with both the catalytic residues (His41 and Cys145) of Mpro and exhibited good binding affinity (-7.6 to -8.2?kcal/mol). Molecular dynamic simulations (100?ns) revealed that all Mpro-polyphenol complexes are more stable, conformationally less fluctuated; slightly less compact and marginally expanded than Mpro-darunavir/lopinavir complex. Even the number of intermolecular H-bond and MM-GBSA analysis suggested that these six polyphenols are more potent Mpro inhibitors than the two repurposed drugs (lopinavir and darunavir) and may serve as promising anti-COVID-19 drugs. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
Project description:The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes an illness known as COVID-19, which has been declared a global pandemic with over 2 million confirmed cases and 137,000 deaths in 185 countries and regions at the time of writing (16 April 2020), over a quarter of these cases being in the United States. In the absence of a vaccine, or an approved effective therapeutic, there is an intense interest in repositioning available drugs or designing small molecule antivirals. In this context, in silico modelling has proven to be an invaluable tool. An important target is the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro), involved in processing translated viral proteins. Peptidomimetic ?-ketoamides represent prototypical inhibitors of Mpro. A recent attempt at designing a compound with enhanced pharmacokinetic properties has resulted in the synthesis and evaluation of the ?-ketoamide 13b analogue. Here, we performed molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations to further characterize the interaction of ?-ketoamide 13b with the active site of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. We included the widely used antibiotic, amoxicillin, for comparison. Our findings indicate that ?-ketoamide 13b binds more tightly (predicted GlideScore = -8.7 and -9.2?kcal/mol for protomers A and B, respectively), to the protease active site compared to amoxicillin (-5.0 and -4.8?kcal/mol). Further, molecular dynamics simulations highlight the stability of the interaction of the ?-ketoamide 13b ligand with the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro (?G = -25.2 and -22.3?kcal/mol for protomers A and B). In contrast, amoxicillin interacts unfavourably with the protease (?G = +32.8?kcal/mol for protomer A), with unbinding events observed in several independent simulations. Overall, our findings are consistent with those previously observed, and highlight the need to further explore the ?-ketoamides as potential antivirals for this ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.