The frequency of follicular T helper cells differs in acute and chronic neuroinflammation.
ABSTRACT: Beyond the major role of T cells in the pathogenesis of the autoimmune neuroinflammatory disorder multiple sclerosis (MS), recent studies have highlighted the impact of B cells on pathogenic inflammatory processes. Follicular T helper cells (Tfh) are essential for the promotion of B cell-driven immune responses. However, their role in MS and its murine model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), is poorly investigated. A first step to achieving a better understanding of the contribution of Tfh cells to the disease is the consideration of Tfh cell localization in relation to genetic background and EAE induction method. Here, we investigated the Tfh cell distribution during disease progression in disease relevant organs in three different EAE models. An increase of Tfh frequency in the central nervous system (CNS) was observed during peak of C57BL/6 J EAE, paralleling chronic disease activity, whereas in relapsing-remitting SJL EAE mice Tfh cell frequencies were increased during remission. Furthermore, transferred Tfh-skewed cells polarized in vitro induced mild clinical symptoms in B6.Rag1-/- mice. We identified significantly higher levels of Tfh cells in the dura mater than in the CNS both in C57BL/6 and in SJL/J mice. Overall, our study emphasizes diverse, non-static roles of Tfh cells during autoimmune neuroinflammation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive autoimmune disease characterized by the accumulation of pathogenic inflammatory immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS) that subsequently causes focal inflammation, demyelination, axonal injury, and neuronal damage. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-established murine model that mimics the key features of MS. Presently, the dietary consumption of foods rich in phenols has been reported to offer numerous health benefits, including anti-inflammatory activity. One such compound, 4-ethylguaiacol (4-EG), found in various foods, is known to attenuate inflammatory immune responses. However, whether 4-EG exerts anti-inflammatory effects on modulating the CNS inflammatory immune responses remains unknown. Thus, in this study, we assessed the therapeutic effect of 4-EG in EAE using both chronic and relapsing-remitting animal models and investigated the immunomodulatory effects of 4-EG on neuroinflammation and Th1/Th17 differentiation in EAE.<h4>Methods</h4>Chronic C57BL/6 EAE and relapsing-remitting SJL/J EAE were induced followed by 4-EG treatment. The effects of 4-EG on disease progression, peripheral Th1/Th17 differentiation, CNS Th1/Th17 infiltration, microglia (MG) activation, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in EAE were evaluated. In addition, the expression of MMP9, MMP3, HO-1, and Nrf2 was assessed in the CNS of C57BL/6 EAE mice.<h4>Results</h4>Our results showed that 4-EG not only ameliorated disease severity in C57BL/6 chronic EAE but also mitigated disease progression in SJL/J relapsing-remitting EAE. Further investigations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms revealed that 4-EG suppressed MG activation, mitigated BBB disruption, repressed MMP3/MMP9 production, and inhibited Th1 and Th17 infiltration in the CNS of EAE. Furthermore, 4-EG suppressed Th1 and Th17 differentiation in the periphery of EAE and in vitro Th1 and Th17 cultures. Finally, we found 4-EG induced HO-1 expression in the CNS of EAE in vivo as well as in MG, BV2 cells, and macrophages in vitro.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our work demonstrates that 4-EG confers protection against autoimmune disease EAE through modulating neuroinflammation and inhibiting Th1 and Th17 differentiation, suggesting 4-EG, a natural compound, could be potentially developed as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of MS/EAE.
Project description:Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, encoded by HMOX1) dampens inflammatory reactions via the catabolism of heme into CO, Fe, and biliverdin. We report that expression of HO-1 dictates the pathologic outcome of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Induction of EAE in Hmox1(-/- )C57BL/6 mice led to enhanced CNS demyelination, paralysis, and mortality, as compared with Hmox1(+/+) mice. Induction of HO-1 by cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPPIX) administration after EAE onset reversed paralysis in C57BL/6 and SJL/J mice and disease relapse in SJL/J mice. These effects were not observed using zinc protoporphyrin IX, which does not induce HO-1. CoPPIX protection was abrogated in Hmox1(-/-) C57BL/6 mice, indicating that CoPPIX acts via HO-1 to suppress EAE progression. The protective effect of HO-1 was associated with inhibition of MHC class II expression by APCs and inhibition of Th and CD8 T cell accumulation, proliferation, and effector function within the CNS. Exogenous CO mimicked these effects, suggesting that CO contributes to the protective action of HO-1. In conclusion, HO-1 or exposure to its end product CO counters autoimmune neuroinflammation and thus might be used therapeutically to treat MS.
Project description:Recent findings indicate that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is involved in the pathogenesis of cancer as well as autoimmune and several neurodegenerative diseases, and is thus a target for novel therapeutics. One disease that is related to aberrant protein degradation is multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune disorder involving the processing and presentation of myelin autoantigens that leads to the destruction of axons. Here, we show that brain-derived proteasomes from SJL mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in an ubiquitin-independent manner generate significantly increased amounts of myelin basic protein peptides that induces cytotoxic lymphocytes to target mature oligodendrocytes ex vivo. Ten times enhanced release of immunogenic peptides by cerebral proteasomes from EAE-SJL mice is caused by a dramatic shift in the balance between constitutive and ?1i(high) immunoproteasomes in the CNS of SJL mice with EAE. We found that during EAE, ?1i is increased in resident CNS cells, whereas ?5i is imported by infiltrating lymphocytes through the blood-brain barrier. Peptidyl epoxyketone specifically inhibits brain-derived ?1i(high) immunoproteasomes in vitro (kobs/[I] = 240 M(-1)s(-1)), and at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, it ameliorates ongoing EAE in vivo. Therefore, our findings provide novel insights into myelin metabolism in pathophysiologic conditions and reveal that the ?1i subunit of the immunoproteasome is a potential target to treat autoimmune neurologic diseases.
Project description:Gastric disturbances such as dyspepsia are routinely encountered by multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and these conditions are often treated with gastric acid suppressors such as proton pump inhibitors, histamine H2 receptor antagonists, or antacids. The proton pump inhibitor omeprazole can alter the gut flora and immune responses, both of which can influence the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of omeprazole treatment on the development of EAE. Bacterial microbiome analysis of mouse fecal pellets was determined in C57BL/6J EAE mice chronically treated with omeprazole, and spleen immune cell content, clinical scores, weight, rotarod latency, and histopathology were used as outcome measures in C57BL/6J and SJL/J mice with EAE.Omeprazole treatment resulted in decreases in Akkermansia muciniphila and Coprococcus sp. and an increase in unidentified bacteria in the family S24-7 (order Bacteroidales) in C57BL/6J mice with EAE. Omeprazole did not alter spleen immune cell content compared to vehicle in EAE mice, but differences independent of treatment were observed in subsets of T cells between early and advanced disease in C57BL/6J mice as well as between the two strains of mice at an advanced disease stage. Omeprazole caused no difference in clinical scores in either strain, but significantly lowered weight gain compared to vehicle in the C57BL/6J mice with EAE. Omeprazole also did not alter rotarod behavior or hindbrain inflammatory cell infiltration compared to vehicle in both strains of mice with EAE. Rotarod latency did reveal a negative correlation with clinical scores during active disease in both mouse strains, but not during clinical remission in SJL/J mice, suggesting that rotarod can detect disability not reflected in the clinical scores.Despite alterations in the gut microbiota and weight gain in the C57BL/6J EAE model, omeprazole had no effect on multiple measures of disease activity in C57BL/6J and SJL/J mice with EAE, supporting the notion that omeprazole does not substantially influence disease activity in MS patients.
Project description:Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a rodent model of multiple sclerosis that is executed in animals by immunization with myelin Ag in adjuvant. The SJL/J autoimmune-prone strain of mouse has been used to model relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. However, significant variations in peak scores, timing of onset, and incidence are observed among laboratories, with the postacute (relapse) phase of the disease exhibiting significant inconsistency. We characterized two substrains of SJL/J mice that exhibit profoundly different EAE disease parameters. Induction of EAE in the first SJL/J substrain resulted in many cases of chronic EAE that was dominated by an aggressive B cell response to the immunizing Ag and to endogenous CNS Ags. In contrast, the other SJL/J substrain exhibited a relapsing-remitting form of EAE concomitant with an elevated number of cytokine-producing CD4(+) T cells in the CNS. Exploiting these interstrain differences, we performed a genome-wide copy number analysis on the two disparate SJL/J substrains and discovered numerous gene-dosage differences. In particular, one inflammation-associated gene, Naip1, was present at a higher copy number in the SJL/J substrain that exhibited relapsing-remitting EAE. These results demonstrate that substrain differences, perhaps at the level of genomic copy number, can account for variability in the postacute phase of EAE and may drive chronic versus relapsing disease.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis is a sexually dimorphic, demyelinating disease of the CNS, and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is its principal autoimmune model. Young male SJL/J mice are relatively resistant to EAE whereas older males and SJL/J females of any age are susceptible. By comparing a wide age range of proteolipid protein peptide 139-151 immunized mice, we found that female disease severity remains constant with age. In contrast, EAE disease severity increases with age in SJL/J males, with young males having significantly less severe disease and older males having significantly more disease than equivalently aged females. To determine whether the Y chromosome contributes to this sexual dimorphism, EAE was induced in consomic SJL/J mice carrying a B10.S Y chromosome (SJL.Y(B10.S)). EAE was significantly more severe in young male SJL.Y(B10.S) mice compared with young male SJL/J mice. These studies show that a Y chromosome-linked polymorphism controls the age-dependent EAE sexual dimorphism observed in SJL/J mice.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The persistent inflammation is being mainly attributed to local oxidative stress and inflammasome activation implicated in the ensuing demyelination and axonal damage. Since new control measures remain necessary, we evaluated the preventive and therapeutic potential of a beta-selenium-lactic acid derivative (LAD-?Se), which is a source of organic selenium under development, to control experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) that is an animal model for MS. Two EAE murine models: C57BL/6 and SJL/J immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein and proteolipid protein, respectively, and a model of neurodegeneration induced by LPS in male C57BL/6 mice were used. The preventive potential of LAD-?Se was initially tested in C57BL/6 mice, the chronic MS model, by three different protocols that were started 14 days before or 1 or 7 days after EAE induction and were extended until the acute disease phase. These three procedures were denominated preventive therapy -14 days, 1 day, and 7 days, respectively. LAD-?Se administration significantly controlled clinical EAE development without triggering overt hepatic and renal dysfunction. In addition of a tolerogenic profile in dendritic cells from the mesenteric lymph nodes, LAD-?Se also downregulated cell amount, activation status of macrophages and microglia, NLRP3 (NOD-like receptors) inflammasome activation and other pro-inflammatory parameters in the CNS. The high Se levels found in the CNS suggested that the product crossed the blood-brain barrier having a possible local effect. The hypothesis that LAD-?Se was acting locally was then confirmed by using the LPS-induced neurodegeneration model that also displayed Se accumulation and downmodulation of pro-inflammatory parameters in the CNS. Remarkably, therapy with LAD-?Se soon after the first remitting episode in SJL/J mice, also significantly downmodulated local inflammation and clinical disease severity. This study indicates that LAD-?Se, and possibly other derivatives containing Se, are able to reach the CNS and have the potential to be used as preventive and therapeutic measures in distinct clinical forms of MS.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>The initiating events in autoimmune disease remain to be completely understood, but it is thought that genetic predisposition synergizes with "environmental" factors, including viral infection, leading to disease. One elegant animal model used to study the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis that perfectly blends genetics and environmental components in the context of virus-induced autoimmunity is Theiler's murine encephalitis virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD). TMEV-infected disease-susceptible SJL/J mice develop a persistent central nervous system (CNS) infection and later develop autoimmune demyelination, while disease-resistant C57BL/6 (B6) mice rapidly clear the infection and develop no autoimmune pathology. Mice of the (B6 × SJL/J)F1 cross between these two mouse strains are classified as intermediately susceptible. We employed this model to investigate if rapid virus clearance in B6 versus SJL/J mice was perhaps related to differences in the innate immune response in the CNS of the two strains in the first few days following intracerebral virus inoculation. Here we show that SJL/J mice lack, in addition to NK cells, a novel innate immune subset known as natural killer dendritic cells (NKDCs), which express phenotypic markers (CD11c(int) NK1.1(+)) and functional activity of both NK cells and DCs. These NKDCs are activated in the periphery and migrate into the infected CNS in a very late antigen 4 (VLA-4)-dependent fashion. Most significantly, NKDCs are critical for CNS clearance of TMEV, as transfer of NKDCs purified from B6 mice into TMEV-IDD-susceptible (B6 × SJL/J)F1 mice promotes viral clearance. Together the findings of this work show for the first time a link between NKDCs, viral infection, and CNS autoimmunity.<h4>Importance</h4>Viral infection is an important cofactor, along with genetic susceptibility, in the initiation of a variety of organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Thus, in-depth understanding of how virus infections trigger autoimmunity may lead to novel ways to prevent or treat these diseases. Theiler's murine encephalitis virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) serves as an important model for the human T cell-mediated autoimmune demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. Induction of TMEV-IDD is genetically controlled as SJL/J mice develop persistent central nervous system (CNS) infection leading to chronic autoimmune demyelination, while C57BL/6 mice rapidly clear virus and are disease resistant. We determined that, as opposed to resistant B6 mice, disease-susceptible SJL/J mice lacked a unique innate immune population, the natural killer dendritic cell (NKDC), which was shown to play a critical role in early CNS virus clearance via its ability to both present virus antigen to T cells and to lyse target cells.
Project description:Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an established animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Inflammatory CD4+ T cell responses directed against CNS antigens, including myelin proteolipid protein (PLP), are key mediators of EAE. Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical for the induction of T cell responses against infectious agents. However, the importance of DCs in priming self-reactive CD4+ T cells in autoimmune disease such as MS has been unclear. To determine the requirement of DCs in PLP-specific CD4+ T cell responses and EAE, we genetically deleted CD11c+ DCs in PLP T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic SJL mice constitutively. DC deficiency did not impair the development, selection or the pathogenic function of PLP-specific CD4+ T cells in these mice, and resulted in accelerated spontaneous EAE compared to DC sufficient controls. In addition, using a genetic approach to ablate DCs conditionally in SJL mice, we show that CD11c+ DCs were dispensable for presenting exogenous or endogenous myelin antigen to PLP-specific T cells and for promoting pro-inflammatory T cell responses and severe EAE. Our findings demonstrate that constitutive or conditional ablation of CD11c+ DCs diminished self-tolerance to PLP autoantigen. They further show that in the absence of DCs, non-DCs can efficiently present CNS myelin antigens such as PLP to self-reactive T cells, resulting in accelerated onset of spontaneous or induced EAE.
Project description:The mechanism of dendritic cells (DCs) recruitment across the blood brain barrier (BBB) during neuroinflammation has been the least explored amongst all leukocytes. For cells of myeloid origin, while integrins function at the level of adhesion, the importance of lectins remains unknown. Here, we identified functions of one C-type lectin receptor, CLEC12A, in facilitating DC binding and transmigration across the BBB in response to CCL2 chemotaxis. To test function of CLEC12A in an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), we administered blocking antibody to CLEC12A that significantly ameliorated disease scores in MOG35-55-induced progressive, as well as PLP138-151-induced relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice. The decline in both progression and relapse of EAE occurred as a result of reduced demyelination and myeloid cell infiltration into the CNS tissue. DC numbers were restored in the spleen of C57BL/6 and peripheral blood of SJL/J mice along with a decreased TH17 phenotype within CD4+ T-cells. The effects of CLEC12A blocking were further validated using CLEC12A knockout (KO) animals wherein EAE disease induction was delayed and reduced disease severity was observed. These studies reveal the utility of a DC-specific mechanism in designing new therapeutics for MS.