Durable ibrutinib responses in relapsed/refractory marginal zone lymphoma: long-term follow-up and biomarker analysis.
ABSTRACT: Advanced marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is an incurable B-cell malignancy dependent on B-cell receptor signaling. The phase 2 PCYC-1121 study demonstrated the safety and efficacy of single-agent ibrutinib 560 mg/d in 63 patients with relapsed/refractory MZL treated with prior rituximab (RTX) or rituximab-based chemoimmunotherapy (RTX-CIT). We report the final analysis of PCYC-1121 with median follow-up of 33.1 months (range: 1.4-44.6). Overall response rate (ORR) was 58%; median duration of response (DOR) was 27.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.1 to not estimable [NE]); median progression-free survival (PFS) was 15.7 months (95% CI: 12.2-30.4); and median overall survival (OS) was not reached (95% CI: NE to NE). Patients with prior RTX treatment had better outcomes (ORR: 81%; median DOR: not reached [95% CI: 12.2 to NE]; median PFS: 30.4 months [95% CI: 22.1 to NE]; median OS: not reached [95% CI: 30.3 to NE]) vs those with prior RTX-CIT treatment (ORR: 51%; DOR: 12.4 months [95% CI: 2.8 to NE]; PFS: 13.8 months [95% CI: 8.3-22.5]; OS: not reached [95% CI: NE to NE]). ORRs were 63%, 47%, and 62% for extranodal, nodal, and splenic subtypes, respectively. With up to 45 months of ibrutinib treatment, the safety profile remained consistent with prior reports. The most common grade ?3 event was anemia (16%). Exploratory biomarker analysis showed NF-?B pathway gene mutations correlated with outcomes. Final analysis of PCYC-1121 demonstrated long-term safety and efficacy of ibrutinib in patients with relapsed/refractory MZL, regardless of prior treatment or MZL subtype. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01980628.
Project description:Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is a heterogeneous B-cell malignancy for which no standard treatment exists. MZL is frequently linked to chronic infection, which may induce B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling, resulting in aberrant B-cell survival and proliferation. We conducted a multicenter, open-label, phase 2 study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ibrutinib in previously treated MZL. Patients with histologically confirmed MZL of all subtypes who received ≥1 prior therapy with an anti-CD20 antibody-containing regimen were treated with 560 mg ibrutinib orally once daily until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary end point was independent review committee-assessed overall response rate (ORR) by 2007 International Working Group criteria. Among 63 enrolled patients, median age was 66 years (range, 30-92). Median number of prior systemic therapies was 2 (range, 1-9), and 63% received ≥1 prior chemoimmunotherapy. In 60 evaluable patients, ORR was 48% (95% confidence interval [CI], 35-62). With median follow-up of 19.4 months, median duration of response was not reached (95% CI, 16.7 to not estimable), and median progression-free survival was 14.2 months (95% CI, 8.3 to not estimable). Grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs; >5%) included anemia, pneumonia, and fatigue. Serious AEs of any grade occurred in 44%, with grade 3-4 pneumonia being the most common (8%). Rates of discontinuation and dose reductions due to AEs were 17% and 10%, respectively. Single-agent ibrutinib induced durable responses with a favorable benefit-risk profile in patients with previously treated MZL, confirming the role of BCR signaling in this malignancy. As the only approved therapy, ibrutinib provides a treatment option without chemotherapy for MZL. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01980628.
Project description:Importance:Ibrutinib, a first-in-class Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor taken once daily, is approved in the United States for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma and allows for treatment without chemotherapy. Extended treatment with ibrutinib has demonstrated increased complete response (CR) rates over time. Objective:To analyze baseline factors that predict CR in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma treated with ibrutinib. Design, Setting, and Participants:Univariate and multivariate analyses of pooled data from 2 clinical trials were used to assess the prognostic value of baseline factors associated with CR in 327 patients from the PCYC-1102 and PCYC-1112 studies treated with single-agent ibrutinib. Participants were followed up in academic and community medical centers in the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, France, Italy, Ireland, Poland, Spain, and Austria. Main Outcomes and Measures:Odds ratio (OR) of CR rate. Results:The 327 patients included in this analysis had a median age of 67 years (range, 30-86 years) and 227 (69.4%) were male. At baseline, 185 patients (56.6%) had bulky disease (lymph node ?5 cm), 184 (56.3%) had advanced-stage disease, and 182 (55.7%) had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 1 or higher. Thirty-one patients (9.5%) were in the first-line setting; 38 (11.6%) had undergone 1 previous therapy, 81 (24.8%) had undergone 2, and 177 (54.1%) had undergone 3 or more; patients with relapsed/refractory disease had undergone a median of 3 (range, 0-12) previous therapies. Median time on study was 26.4 months (range, 0.3-55.6 months). Thirty-two of the 327 patients (9.8%) treated with ibrutinib had a CR (PCYC-1102: relapsed/refractory, 12 of 101 [11.9%]; treatment-naive, 8 of 31 [25.8%]; and PCYC-1112: 12 of 195 [6.2%]). The median time to CR for these patients was 14.7 months (range, 4.6-47.1 months). Univariate analysis of baseline factors showed that bulky disease, clinical stage, number of previous therapies, and ?2-microglobulin concentration had a significant effect on the odds of CR. The final multivariate model showed that patients with no previous therapy vs patients with at least 1 previous therapy (OR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.01-6.95; P?=?.047) and patients without bulky disease (lymph node <5 cm) vs those with bulky disease (lymph node ?5 cm [OR, 4.97; 95% CI, 1.91-12.91; P?=?.001]) had an increased likelihood of CR. Conclusions and Relevance:Patients receiving ibrutinib as a first-line therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia and those without bulky disease had a better likelihood of CR to treatment. The CR rate with continued longer-term ibrutinib treatment was higher than in previous reports. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifiers: NCT01105247 and NCT01578707.
Project description:TP53 aberrations [del(17p) or TP53 mutation] predict poor survival with chemoimmunotherapy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). We evaluated long-term efficacy and safety of first-line ibrutinib-based therapy in patients with CLL bearing TP53 aberrations in a pooled analysis across four studies: PCYC-1122e, RESONATE-2 (PCYC-1115/16), iLLUMINATE (PCYC-1130) and ECOG-ACRIN E1912. The pooled analysis included 89 patients with TP53 aberrations receiving first-line treatment with single-agent ibrutinib (n = 45) or ibrutinib in combination with an anti-CD20 antibody (n = 44). All 89 patients had del(17p) (53% of 89 patients) and/or TP53 mutation (91% of 58 patients with TP53 sequencing results available). With a median follow-up of 49·8 months (range, 0·1-95·9), median progression-free survival was not reached. Progression-free survival rate and overall survival rate estimates at four years were 79% and 88%, respectively. Overall response rate was 93%, including complete response in 39% of patients. No new safety signals were identified in this analysis. Forty-six percent of patients remained on ibrutinib treatment at last follow-up. With median follow-up of four years (up to eight years), results from this large, pooled, multi-study data set suggest promising long-term outcomes of first-line ibrutinib-based therapy in patients with TP53 aberrations. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01500733, NCT01722487, NCT02264574 and NCT02048813).
Project description:The efficacy of ibrutinib has been demonstrated in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), including as first-line therapy. However, outcomes after ibrutinib discontinuation have previously been limited to higher-risk populations with relapsed/refractory (R/R) disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes of ibrutinib-treated patients based on prior lines of therapy, including after ibrutinib discontinuation. Data were analyzed from two multicenter phase 3 studies of single-agent ibrutinib: RESONATE (PCYC-1112) in patients with R/R CLL and RESONATE-2 (PCYC-1115) in patients with treatment-naive (TN) CLL without del(17p). This integrated analysis included 271 ibrutinib-treated non-del(17p) patients with CLL (136 TN and 135 R/R). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was not reached for subgroups with 0 and 1/2 prior therapies but was 40.6 months for patients with ?3 therapies (median follow-up: TN, 36?months; R/R, 44?months). Median overall survival (OS) was not reached in any subgroup. Overall response rate (ORR) was 92% in TN and 92% in R/R, with depth of response increasing over time. Adverse events (AEs) and ibrutinib discontinuation due to AEs were similar between patient groups. Most patients (64%) remain on treatment. OS following discontinuation was 9.3 months in R/R patients (median follow-up 18?months, n?= 51) and was not reached in TN patients (median follow-up 10 months, n?= 30). In this integrated analysis, ibrutinib was associated with favorable PFS and OS, and high ORR regardless of prior therapies in patients with CLL. The best outcomes following ibrutinib discontinuation were for patients receiving ibrutinib in earlier lines of therapy.
Project description:Marginal zone lymphomas (MZLs) consist of a diverse family of malignancies, which are derived from B-cells. The disease subtypes are recognized extranodal, nodal, and splenic MZLs. The disease characteristics, clinical course, and treatment vary considerably based on the site of involvement. In 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration approved ibrutinib, a first in class Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor that revolutionized the care of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients; for, the treatment of relapsed/refractory MZL based on pivotal open-label Phase II trial demonstrated an overall response rate of 48%, with a complete response rate of 3%, median progression-free survival of 14.2 months, and median overall survival not yet reached at a median follow-up of 19.4 months. In this review, we aim to summarize the current conundrums in the management of MZL and the evolving role of ibrutinib in the treatment of MZL.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>The safety and efficacy of ibrutinib, a once-daily Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor, in chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) was demonstrated in this phase Ib/II study. Extended follow-up up to 8 years is described, representing the longest follow-up for single-agent ibrutinib, or any BTK inhibitor, to date.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>Phase Ib/II PCYC-1102 (NCT01105247) and extension study PCYC-1103 (NCT01109069) included patients receiving single-agent ibrutinib in first-line or relapsed/refractory CLL/SLL.<h4>Results</h4>Overall response rate was 89%, with similar rates in first-line (87%; complete response, 35%) and relapsed/refractory settings (89%; 10%). Estimated 7-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 83% in first-line and 34% in relapsed/refractory settings. Forty-one patients had CLL progression (<i>n</i> = 11 with Richter's transformation). Median PFS was not reached with first-line ibrutinib. In relapsed/refractory CLL/SLL, median PFS was 52 months overall, 26 months in patients with chromosome 17p deletion, 51 months with 11q deletion, not reached with trisomy 12 or 13q deletion, and 88 months in patients without these cytogenetic abnormalities. Estimated 7-year overall survival rates were 84% in first-line and 55% in relapsed/refractory settings. Grade ≥3 adverse events (AE) in >15% of patients were hypertension (28%), pneumonia (24%), and neutropenia (18%). These grade ≥3 AEs generally declined over time, except hypertension. AEs leading to discontinuation in ≥2 patients were observed only in the relapsed/refractory setting (sepsis, diarrhea, subdural hematoma, and Richter's transformation).<h4>Conclusions</h4>With up to 8 years of follow-up, sustained responses and long-term tolerability of single-agent ibrutinib were observed with treatment of first-line or relapsed/refractory CLL/SLL, including high-risk CLL/SLL.
Project description:Ibrutinib, a first-in-class once-daily oral Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor indicated for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), is continued until progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity. We conducted an integrated safety analysis of single-agent ibrutinib from randomized phase 3 studies PCYC-1112 (RESONATE, n = 195) and PCYC-1115/1116 (RESONATE-2, n = 135), and examined longer-term safety separately in the phase 1b/2 PCYC-1102/1103 study (n = 94, 420 mg/d). In the integrated analysis (ibrutinib treatment up to 43 months), the most common adverse events (AEs) were primarily grade 1/2; diarrhea (n = 173, 52% any-grade; n = 15, 5% grade 3) and fatigue (n = 119, 36% any-grade; n = 10, 3% grade 3). The most common grade 3/4 AEs were neutropenia (n = 60, 18%) and pneumonia (n = 38, 12%). Over time, prevalence of AEs of interest (diarrhea, fatigue, grade ?3 infection, bleeding, and neutropenia) trended down; prevalence of hypertension increased, but incidence decreased after year 1. AEs led to dose reductions in 42 (13%) patients and permanent discontinuations in 37 (11%); dose modifications due to AEs were most common during year 1 and decreased in frequency thereafter. The most common AEs (preferred term) contributing to discontinuation included pneumonia (n = 4), anemia (n = 3), and atrial fibrillation (n = 3). With long-term follow-up on PCYC-1102/1103 (ibrutinib treatment up to 67 months), grade 3/4 AEs were generally similar to those in the integrated analysis. Overall, AEs were primarily grade 1/2 and manageable during prolonged ibrutinib treatment in patients with CLL. These trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01578707, #NCT01722487, #NCT01724346, #NCT01105247, and #NCT01109069.
Project description:Results of RESONATE-2 (PCYC-1115/1116) supported approval of ibrutinib for first-line treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Extended analysis of RESONATE-2 was conducted to determine long-term efficacy and safety of ibrutinib in older patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A total of 269 patients aged ?65 years with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia without del(17p) were randomized 1:1 to ibrutinib (n=136) or chlorambucil (n=133) on days 1 and 15 of a 28-day cycle for 12 cycles. Median ibrutinib treatment duration was 28.5 months. Ibrutinib significantly prolonged progression-free survival <i>versus</i> chlorambucil (median, not reached <i>vs</i> 15 months; hazard ratio, 0.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.20; <i>P</i><0.0001). The 24-month progression-free survival was 89% with ibrutinib (97% and 89% in patients with del[11q] and unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene, respectively). Progression-free survival rates at 24 months were also similar regardless of age (<75 years [88%], ?75 years [89%]). Overall response rate was 92% (125/136). Rate of complete response increased substantially from 7% at 12 months to 18% with extended follow up. Greater quality of life improvements occurred with ibrutinib <i>versus</i> chlorambucil in Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (<i>P</i>=0.0013). The most frequent grade ?3 adverse events were neutropenia (12%), anemia (7%), and hypertension (5%). Rate of discontinuations due to adverse events was 12%. Results demonstrated that first-line ibrutinib for elderly patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia provides sustained response and progression-free survival benefits over chemotherapy, with depth of response improving over time without new toxicity concerns. This trial was registered at <i>clinicaltrials.gov identifier 01722487</i> and <i>01724346</i>.
Project description:Chemoimmunotherapy (CIT) and targeted therapy with single-agent ibrutinib are both recommended first-line treatments for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), although their outcomes have not been directly compared. Using ibrutinib data from the RESONATE-2 (PCYC-1115/1116) study conducted in patients ?65?years without del(17p), we performed a cross-trial comparison with CIT data from published phase 3 studies in first-line treatment of CLL. Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety data for ibrutinib (median follow-up 35.7?months) were evaluated alongside available CIT data. CIT regimens included: fludarabine + cyclophosphamide + rituximab (CLL8, CLL10), bendamustine + rituximab (CLL10), obinutuzumab + chlorambucil and rituximab + chlorambucil (CLL11), and ofatumumab + chlorambucil (COMPLEMENT-1). Median age across studies was 61-74?years, with older populations receiving ibrutinib, obinutuzumab + chlorambucil, or rituximab + chlorambucil. Median follow-up varied across studies/regimens (range 14.5-37.4 months). Among all patients, PFS appeared longer with ibrutinib relative to CIT and OS appeared comparable. Relative to CIT studies that similarly excluded patients with del(17p) (CLL10) or enrolled older/less-fit patients (CLL11), PFS appeared favorable for ibrutinib in high-risk subgroups, including advanced disease, bulky lymph nodes, unmutated IGHV status, and presence of del(11q). Grade???3 infections ranged from 9% (ofatumumab + chlorambucil) to 40% (fludarabine + cyclophosphamide + rituximab), and was 25% with ibrutinib. Grade???3 neutropenia was 12% for ibrutinib and 26%-84% for CIT. Although definitive conclusions cannot be made due to inherent limitations of cross-trial comparisons, this report suggests that ibrutinib has a favorable benefit/risk profile and may potentially eliminate the need for chemotherapy in some patients. Randomized, comparative studies are needed to support these findings.