Characterization of the complete chloroplast genome of Michelia maudiae (Magnoliaceae).
ABSTRACT: Michelia maudiae is an evergreen ornamental shrub with strong aromatic flowers with great important for horticulture. In this study, the complete chloroplast genome of M. maudiae was assembled based on the Illumina sequences. The genome was 160,154?bp in length presenting a typical quadripartite structure and contains an inverted repeat region (IR, 26,575?bp), a large single copy region (LSC, 88,200?bp) and a small single copy region (SSC, 18,804?bp). The overall GC content was 39.24%. A total of 130 genes were identified, including 83 protein-coding genes, 38 transfer RNA genes, and eight rRNA genes. Twelve gene species contained one or two introns. The maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis revealed that M. maudiae was closely related with Manglietia insignis.
Project description:<i>Manglietia yuyuanensis</i> is an important afforestation and excellent broad-leaved tree species in southern China. In this study, we assembled the complete chloroplast genome of <i>M. yuyuanensis</i> based on the Illumina sequences, sequence analysis showed the genome was 160,078?bp in length presenting a typical quadripartite structure and contains an inverted repeat region (IR, 26,467 b), a small single-copy (SSC) region, and a large single-copy (LSC) region (18,785 and 88,359?bp, respectively). The overall GC content was 39.27%. The sequence contained 128 unique genes, including 81 protein-coding genes, 38 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. The maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogenetic analysis revealed that <i>M. maudiae</i> was closely related to <i>Manglietia insignis</i>. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that <i>M. yuyuanensis</i> is closely related to <i>Manglietia glaucifolia</i>, with the genus <i>Manglietia</i>.
Project description:In accordance with the previous reduction of the remaining genera of subfamily Magnolioideae (Magnoliaceae) into the genus Magnolia, twenty-six new nomenclatural combinations are formally made by transferring to Magnolia some additional Chinese and Vietnamese taxa from the segregate genera of Manglietia, Michelia and Yulania. The following nine new combinations are created from Manglietia, namely Magnolia admirabilis, M. albistaminea, M. guangnanica, M. jinggangshanensis, M. maguanica, M. pubipedunculata, M. pubipetala, M. rufisyncarpa and M. sinoconifera. Also, twelve new combinations are created from Michelia, namely Magnolia caloptila, M. caudata, M. fallax, M. gelida, M. hunanensis, M. maudiae var. rubicunda, M. multitepala, M. platypetala, M. rubriflora, M. septipetala, M. sonlaensis, M. xinningia. Finally, five new combinations are created from Yulania, namely Magnolia baotaina, M. pendula, M. pilocarpa var. ellipticifolia, M. puberula and M. urceolata.
Project description:Magnoliaceae are both economically and ornamentally important trees. Despite extensive studies in this family, the taxonomy of <i>Michelia</i> L. remains unclear, as well as the taxonomical status of <i>Michelia alba</i>. Herein, we report the complete chloroplast genome of <i>M. alba</i> DC. The chloroplast genome was 159,789?bp in length, with a large single-copy (LSC) region of 87,951?bp and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 18,798?bp, separated by two inverted repeat (IRs) regions of 26,570?bp. It contained 156 genes, including 83 coding genes, 68 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. The overall GC content was 39.3%, and 43.2%, 38.0%, 34.3%, in the IRs, LSC, and SSC regions, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis showed that <i>M. alba</i> is closely related to <i>M. odora</i>, with the genus <i>Michelia</i> nested inside <i>Magnolia</i>.
Project description:The first complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequence of <i>Michelia floribunda</i> was determined from Illumina HiSeq pair-end sequencing data in this study. The cpDNA is 160,049?bp in length, contains a large single-copy region (LSC) of 88,140?bp and a small single-copy region (SSC) of 18,773?bp, which were separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IR) regions of 26,568?bp. The genome contains 132 genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, 8 ribosomal RNA genes, and 37 transfer RNA genes. Further phylogenomic analysis showed that <i>M. floribunda</i> was closely related to <i>Michelia yunnanensis</i> in Michelieae tribe.
Project description:In the landscape planning and design, the ecological concept should occupy a dominant position, and the construction of an 'environmentally friendly, resource-saving' ecological new city is inseparable from the cultivation of forest tree species. <i>Michelia figo</i>, is an important landscape design tree species. <i>Michelia figo</i>, is also an important ecological role in boreal and temperate forests, serving as wildlife habitats and watersheds and is an important landscape ornamental tree species. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of <i>M. figo</i> was characterized from Illumina pair-end sequencing. The chloroplast genome of <i>M. figo</i> was 160,118?bp in length, containing a large single-copy region (LSC) of 88,116?bp, a small single-copy region (SSC) of 18,797?bp, and two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 26,603?bp. The overall GC content is 39.30%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC, and IR regions are 34.5%, 30.6%, and 42.0%, respectively. The genome contains 129 complete genes, including 85 protein-coding genes (62 protein-coding gene species), 36 tRNA genes (29 tRNA species), and 8 rRNA genes (4 rRNA species). The neighbour-joining phylogenetic analysis showed that <i>M. figo</i> and <i>Magnolia odora</i> clustered together as sisters to other <i>Michelia</i> species.
Project description:Michelia maudiae Dunn is one of the important ornamental plants in the Magnoliaceae family, and the color of its flowers usually appears naturally pure white. The discovery of a rubellis flower named M. maudiae Dunn var. rubicunda provides an opportunity to reveal the metabolism of the flavonoids and anthocyanins of this "early angiosperm" plant. Combined metabolome and transcriptome analyses were applied using white and rubellis mutant tepals. Seven stages have been divided for flower development, and forty-eight differentially altered metabolites were identified between white and rubellis tepals at a later stage. The major anthocyanins including peonidin O-hexoside, cyanidin O-syringic acid, cyanidin 3,5-O-diglucoside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside were upregulated over 157-fold in the mutant. Conversely, the highly significant accumulation of the colorless procyanidin or the slightly yellow epicatechin and catechin was found in white flowers. Putative homologues of color-related genes involved in the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathway were identified in the transcriptome. The increasing expression of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) might play an important role in the occurrence of rubellis pigments, while the overexpression of anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) in white flowers may promote the biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins. Additionally, several coloration-related repressor R2R3-MYB transcription factors showed different expression levels in the tepals of the rubellis mutant. This study provides a comprehensive analysis relating color compounds to gene expression profiles of the Magnoliids plant M. maudiae. The newly generated information will provide a profound effect on horticultural applications of Magnoliaceae.
Project description:Plants in Michelia, presented by <i>Magnolia figo</i> DC, are wonderful resources in Magnoliaceae, covering a series of aromatic plants. Despite extensive studies in this family, the <i>M. figo</i> complete chloroplast genome and the taxonomical status based on the whole chloroplast sequences remain unclear. Herein, we report the complete chloroplast genome of <i>M. figo</i>. The chloroplast genome was 160,113?bp in length, with a large single-copy (LSC) region of 88,113?bp and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 18,797?bp, separated by two inverted repeat (protein-coding) regions of 26,602?bp. A total of 135 CDSs were found, including 129 genes, 85 protein-coding mRNAs, 36 tRNA genes, and eight rRNA genes. The overall GC content was 39.3%, and GC percentages range from 34.3% to 43.2% throughout LSC, IRs, and SSC regions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that <i>M. figo</i> is most closely to <i>Michelia odora</i> and displayed a relationship that three <i>Michelia</i> were nested inside <i>Magnolia</i>. This announcement of the complete <i>M. figo</i> cp genome sequence could provide valuable information for further breeding, cp genetic modification, and phylogenetic study in Magnoliaceae.
Project description:The early diverged Magnoliaceae shows a historical temperate-tropical distribution among lineages indicating divergent evolution, yet which ecophysiological traits are phylogenetically conserved, and whether these traits are involved in correlated evolution remain unclear. Integrating phylogeny and 20 ecophysiological traits of 27 species, from the four largest sections of Magnoliaceae, we tested the phylogenetic signals of these traits and the correlated evolution between trait pairs. Phylogenetic niche conservatism (PNC) in water-conducting and nutrient-use related traits was identified, and correlated evolution of several key functional traits was demonstrated. Among the three evergreen sections of tropical origin, Gwillimia had the lowest hydraulic-photosynthetic capacity and the highest drought tolerance compared with Manglietia and Michelia. Contrastingly, the temperate centred deciduous section, Yulania, showed high rates of hydraulic conductivity and photosynthesis at the cost of drought tolerance. This study elucidated the regulation of hydraulic and photosynthetic processes in the temperate-tropical adaptations for Magnoliaceae species, which led to strong phylogenetic signals and PNC in ecophysiological traits across divergent lineages of Magnoliaceae.
Project description:As an endangered species, <i>Magnolia kobus</i> is distributed in Jeju island in Korea with only about 500-1000 individuals. In this study, we presented a complete chloroplast genome of <i>M. kobus</i> which is 159,443?bp and has four sub-regions: 87,484?bp of large single copy and 18,783?bp of small single copy regions are separated by 26,588?bp of inverted repeat regions including 113 genes (79 unique genes, four rRNAs and 30 tRNAs). Phylogenetic analysis using chloroplast genomes showed that <i>M. kobus</i> is a sister of <i>M. insignis</i> and <i>M. laevifolia</i> clade.
Project description:Michelia yunnanensis Franch., is a traditional ornamental, aromatic, and medicinal shrub that endemic to Yunnan Province in southwest China. Although the species has a large distribution pattern and is abundant in Yunnan Province, the populations are dramatically declining because of overexploitation and habitat destruction. Studies on the genetic variation and demography of endemic species are necessary to develop effective conservation and management strategies. To generate such knowledge, we used 3 pairs of universal cpDNA markers and 10 pairs of microsatellite markers to assess the genetic diversity, genetic structure, and demographic history of 7 M. yunnanensis populations. We calculated a total of 88 alleles for 10 polymorphic loci and 10 haplotypes for a combined 2,089 bp of cpDNA. M. yunnanensis populations showed high genetic diversity (Ho = 0.551 for nuclear markers and Hd = 0.471 for cpDNA markers) and low genetic differentiation (FST = 0.058). Geographical structure was not found among M. yunnanensis populations. Genetic distance and geographic distance were not correlated (P > 0.05), which indicated that geographic isolation is not the primary cause of the low genetic differentiation of M. yunnanensis. Additionally, M. yunnanensis populations contracted ~20,000-30,000 years ago, and no recent expansion occurred in current populations. Results indicated that the high genetic diversity of the species and within its populations holds promise for effective genetic resource management and sustainable utilization. Thus, we suggest that the conservation and management of M. yunnanensis should address exotic overexploitation and habitat destruction.