Acid- and Volume-Sensitive Chloride Currents in Human Chondrocytes.
ABSTRACT: Chondrocytes face extreme alterations of extracellular osmolarity and pH, which force them to appropriately regulate their cell volume (CV) and cellular pH. Perturbations of these mechanisms lead to chondrocyte death and ultimately to osteoarthritis (OA), the most common chronic joint diseases worldwide. OA hallmarks are altered cartilage hydration and severe fluid acidification. Impaired CV regulation and acidotoxicity contribute to disease progression and volume-sensitive anion channels are upregulated in OA. This study assessed the effect of hypotonicity and extracellular acidification on chondrocyte Cl- conductances and CV regulation. Cl- currents and membrane potentials were measured in human C28/I2 cells and primary human chondrocytes using the patch clamp technique. Intracellular pH was assessed by BCECF fluorescence, CV measurements were performed using the Coulter method, and cell viability/cell death by a resazurin assay. Hypotonic cell swelling caused activation of a volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) Cl- current followed by a regulatory volume decrease (RVD), which was attenuated by the Cl- channel blocker DCPIB. Extracellular, but not intracellular acidification to pH ? 5.0 elicited an acid-sensitive outwardly rectifying (ASOR) Cl- conductance. Activation of either current depolarized the cell membrane potential. Under simultaneous hypotonic and acidic stimulation, VSOR and ASOR currents transiently coactivated, giving rise to a mixed current phenotype. Over time the VSOR current gradually vanished and the residual conductance showed a pure ASOR current phenotype. Extracellular acidification caused an isotonic CV gain and a complete suppression of RVD under hypotonic conditions. The results suggest that deactivation of the VSOR current under acidic conditions impairs CV regulation in chondrocytes, which is likely to compromise chondrocyte viability.
Project description:The anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) rabbit osteoarthritis (OA) model confers permanent knee instability and induces joint degeneration. The degeneration process is complex, but includes chondrocyte apoptosis and OA-like loss of cartilage integrity. Previously, we reported that activation of a volume-sensitive Cl(-) current (ICl,vol) can mediate cell shrinkage and apoptosis in rabbit articular chondrocytes. Our objective was therefore to investigate whether ICl,vol was activated in the early stages of the rabbit ACLT OA model.Adult Rabbits underwent unilateral ACLT and contralateral arthrotomy (sham) surgery. Rabbits were euthanized at 2 or 4 weeks. Samples were analyzed histologically and with assays of cell volume, apoptosis and electrophysiological characterization of ICl,vol.At 2 and 4 weeks post ACLT cartilage appeared histologically normal, nevertheless cell swelling and caspase 3/7 activity were both significantly increased compared to sham controls. In cell-volume experiments, exposure of chondrocytes to hypotonic solution led to a greater increase in cell size in ACLT compared to controls. Caspase-3/7 activity, an indicator of apoptosis, was elevated in both ACLT 2wk and 4wk. Whole-cell currents were recorded with patch clamp of chondrocytes in iso-osmotic and hypo-osmotic external solutions under conditions where Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) currents were minimized. ACLT treatment resulted in a large increase in hypotonic-activated chloride conductance.Changes in chondrocyte ion channels take place prior to the onset of apparent cartilage loss in the ACLT rabbit model of OA. Further studies are needed to investigate if pharmacological inhibition of ICl,vol decreases progression of OA in animal models.
Project description:During vesicular acidification, chloride (Cl<sup>-</sup>), as the counterion, provides the electrical shunt for proton pumping by the vacuolar H<sup>+</sup> ATPase. Intracellular CLC transporters mediate Cl<sup>-</sup> influx to the endolysosomes through their 2Cl<sup>-</sup>/H<sup>+</sup> exchange activity. However, whole-endolysosomal patch-clamp recording also revealed a mysterious conductance releasing Cl<sup>-</sup> from the lumen. It remains unknown whether CLCs or other Cl<sup>-</sup> channels are responsible for this activity. Here, we show that the newly identified proton-activated Cl<sup>-</sup> (PAC) channel traffics from the plasma membrane to endosomes via the classical YxxL motif. PAC deletion abolishes the endosomal Cl<sup>-</sup> conductance, raises luminal Cl<sup>-</sup> level, lowers luminal pH, and increases transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis. PAC overexpression generates a large endosomal Cl<sup>-</sup> current with properties similar to those of endogenous conductance, hypo-acidifies endosomal pH, and reduces transferrin uptake. We propose that the endosomal Cl<sup>-</sup> PAC channel functions as a low pH sensor and prevents hyper-acidification by releasing Cl<sup>-</sup> from the lumen.
Project description:Hypophosphatasia is a rare heritable disorder caused by inactivating mutations in the gene (<i>Alpl</i>) that encodes tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). Hypophosphatasia with onset in infants and children can manifest as rickets. How TNAP deficiency leads to bone hypomineralization is well explained by TNAP's primary function of pyrophosphate hydrolysis when expressed in differentiated bone forming cells. How TNAP deficiency leads to abnormalities within endochondral growth plates is not yet known. Previous studies in hypophosphatemic mice showed that phosphate promotes chondrocyte maturation and apoptosis via MAPK signaling. <i>Alpl</i><sup>-/-</sup> mice are not hypophosphatemic but TNAP activity does increase local levels of inorganic phosphate. Therefore, we hypothesize that TNAP influences endochondral bone development via MAPK. In support of this premise, here we demonstrate cranial base bone growth deficiency in <i>Alpl</i><sup>-/-</sup> mice, utilize primary rib chondrocytes to show that TNAP influences chondrocyte maturation, apoptosis, and MAPK signaling in a cell autonomous manner; and demonstrate that similar chondrocyte signaling and apoptosis abnormalities are present in the cranial base synchondroses of <i>Alpl</i><sup>-/-</sup> mice. Micro CT studies revealed diminished anterior cranial base bone and total cranial base lengths in <i>Alpl</i><sup>-/-</sup> mice, that were prevented upon injection with mineral-targeted recombinant TNAP (strensiq). Histomorphometry of the inter-sphenoidal synchondrosis (cranial base growth plate) demonstrated significant expansion of the hypertrophic chondrocyte zone in <i>Alpl</i><sup>-/-</sup> mice that was minimized upon treatment with recombinant TNAP. <i>Alpl</i><sup>-/-</sup> primary rib chondrocytes exhibited diminished chondrocyte proliferation, aberrant mRNA expression, diminished hypertrophic chondrocyte apoptosis and diminished MAPK signaling. Diminished apoptosis and VEGF expression were also seen in 15 day-old cranial base synchondroses of <i>Alpl</i><sup>-/-</sup> mice. MAPK signaling was significantly diminished in 5 day-old cranial base synchondroses of <i>Alpl</i><sup>-/-</sup> mice. Together, our data suggests that TNAP is essential for the later stages of endochondral bone development including hypertrophic chondrocyte apoptosis and VEGF mediated recruitment of blood vessels for replacement of cartilage with bone. These changes may be mediated by diminished MAPK signaling in TNAP deficient chondrocytes due to diminished local inorganic phosphate production.
Project description:CHUK/IKK? contributes to collagenase-driven extracellular matrix remodeling and chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation in vitro, in a kinase-independent manner. These processes contribute to osteoarthritis (OA), where chondrocytes experience a phenotypic shift towards hypertrophy concomitant with abnormal matrix remodeling. Here we investigated the contribution of IKK? to OA in vivo. To this end, we induced specific IKK? knockout in adult chondrocytes in AcanCreER<sup>T2/+</sup>; IKK?<sup>f/f</sup> mice treated with tamoxifen (cKO). Vehicle-treated littermates were used as wild type controls (WT). At 12 weeks of age, WT and cKO mice were subjected to the destabilization of medial meniscus (DMM) model of post-traumatic OA. The cKO mice showed reduced cartilage degradation and collagenase activity and fewer hypertrophy-like features at 12 weeks after DMM. Interestingly, in spite of the protection from structural articular cartilage damage, the postnatal growth plates of IKK? cKO mice after DMM displayed abnormal architecture and composition associated with increased chondrocyte apoptosis, which were not as evident in the articular chondrocytes of the same animals. Together, our results provide evidence of a novel in vivo functional role for IKK? in cartilage degradation in post-traumatic OA, and also suggest intrinsic, cell-autonomous effects of IKK? in chondrocytes that control chondrocyte phenotype and impact on cell survival, matrix homeostasis, and remodeling.
Project description:Hyperglycemia is a well-characterized contributing factor for cardiac dysfunction and heart failure among diabetic patients. Apoptosis of cardiomyocytes plays a major role during the onset and pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Nonetheless, the molecular machinery underlying hyperglycemia-induced cardiac damage and cell death remains elusive. In the present study, we found that chloride channel blockers, 4,4'-diisothiocya-natostilbene-2,2'- disulfonic acid (DIDS) and 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichlor-2-cyclopentyl-indan-1-on-5-yl) oxybutyric acid (DCPIB), inhibited high glucose-activated volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) Cl- channel and improved the viability of cardiomyocytes. High glucose induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by suppressing the autophagic stress, which can be reversed via blockade of VSOR Cl- channel. VSOR activation in high glucose-treated cardiomyocytes was attributed to increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Taken together, our study unraveled a role of VSOR chloride currents in impaired autophagy and increased apoptosis of high glucose-exposed cardiomyocyte, and has implications for a therapeutic potential of VSOR chloride channel blockers in DCM.
Project description:This study investigated the potential use of static osmotic loading as a cartilage tissue engineering strategy for growing clinically relevant grafts from either synovium-derived stem cells (SDSCs) or chondrocytes. Bovine SDSCs and chondrocytes were individually encapsulated in 2% w/v agarose and divided into chondrogenic media of osmolarities 300 (hypotonic), 330 (isotonic), and 400 (hypertonic, physiologic) mOsM for up to 7 weeks. The application of hypertonic media to constructs comprised of SDSCs or chondrocytes led to increased mechanical properties as compared to hypotonic (300mOsM) or isotonic (330mOsM) media (p<0.05). Constant exposure of SDSC-seeded constructs to 400mOsM media from day 0 to day 49 yielded a Young's modulus of 513±89kPa and GAG content of 7.39±0.52%ww on day 49, well within the range of values of native, immature bovine cartilage. Primary chondrocyte-seeded constructs achieved almost as high a Young's modulus, reaching 487±187kPa and 6.77±0.54%ww (GAG) for the 400mOsM condition (day 42). These findings suggest hypertonic loading as a straightforward strategy for 3D cultivation with significant benefits for cartilage tissue engineering strategies. In an effort to understand potential mechanisms responsible for the observed response, cell volume measurements in response to varying osmotic conditions were evaluated in relation to the Boyle-van't Hoff (BVH) law. Results confirmed that chondrocytes behave as perfect osmometers; however SDSCs deviated from the BVH relation.
Project description:The NAD<sup>+</sup>-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) has emerged as an important regulator of chondrogenesis and cartilage homeostasis, processes that are important for physiological skeletal growth and that are dysregulated in osteoarthritis. However, the functional role and underlying mechanism by which SIRT1 regulates chondrogenesis remain unclear. Using cultured rat metatarsal bones and chondrocytes isolated from rat metatarsal rudiments, here we studied the effects of the SIRT1 inhibitor EX527 or of SIRT1 siRNA on chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, and apoptosis. We show that EX527 or SIRT1 siRNA inhibits chondrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy and induces apoptosis. We also observed that SIRT1 inhibition mainly induces the PERK-eIF-2?-CHOP axis of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in growth-plate chondrocytes. Of note, EX527- or SIRT1 siRNA-mediated inhibition of metatarsal growth and growth-plate chondrogenesis were partly neutralized by phenylbutyric acid, a chemical chaperone that attenuates ER stress. Moreover, EX527-mediated impairment of chondrocyte function (<i>i.e.</i> of chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, and apoptosis) was partly reversed in CHOP<sup>-/-</sup> cells. We also present evidence that SIRT1 physically interacts with and deacetylates PERK. Collectively, our findings indicate that SIRT1 deacetylates PERK and attenuates the PERK-eIF-2?-CHOP axis of the unfolded protein response pathway and thereby promotes growth-plate chondrogenesis and longitudinal bone growth.
Project description:Computational analyses have been used to study the biomechanical microenvironment of the chondrocyte that cannot be assessed by in vitro experimental studies; yet all computational studies thus far have focused on the effect of zonal location (superficial, middle, and deep) on the mechanical microenvironment of chondrocytes. The aim of this paper was to study the effect of both zonal and radial locations on the biomechanical microenvironment of chondrocytes in inhomogeneous cartilage under unconfined stress relaxation. A biphasic multiscale approach was employed and nine chondrocytes in different locations were studied. Hyperelastic biphasic theory and depth-dependent aggregate modulus and permeability of articular cartilage were included in the models. It was found that both zonal and radial locations affected the biomechanical stresses and strains of the chondrocytes. Chondrocytes in the mid-radial location had increased volume during the early stage of the loading process. Maximum principal shear stress at the interface between the chondrocyte and the extracellular matrix (ECM) increased with depth, yet that at the ECM-pericellular matrix (PCM) interface had an inverse trend. Fluid pressure decreased with depth, while the fluid pressure difference between the top and bottom boundaries of the microscale model increased with depth. Regardless of location, fluid was exchanged between the chondrocyte, PCM, and ECM. These findings suggested that even under simple compressive loading conditions, the biomechanical microenvironment of the chondrocytes, PCM and ECM was spatially dependent. The current study provides new insight on chondrocyte biomechanics.
Project description:Phenolic diterpenes present in Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis have anti-inflammatory and chemoprotective effects. We investigated the in vitro effects of carnosol (CL), carnosic acid (CA), carnosic acid-12-methylether (CAME), 20-deoxocarnosol and abieta-8,11,13-triene-11,12,20-triol (ABTT) in murine macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) and human chondrocytes. The substances concentration-dependently reduced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E? (PGE?) production in LPS-stimulated macrophages (i.e., acute inflammation). They significantly blunted gene expression levels of iNOS, cytokines/interleukins (IL-1?, IL-6) and chemokines including CCL5/RANTES, CXCL10/IP-10. The substances modulated the expression of catabolic and anabolic genes in chondrosarcoma cell line SW1353 and in primary human chondrocytes that were stimulated by IL-1? (i.e., chronic inflammation In SW1353, catabolic genes like MMP-13 and ADAMTS-4 that contribute to cartilage erosion were down-regulated, while expression of anabolic genes including Col2A1 and aggrecan were shifted towards pre-pathophysiological homeostasis. CL had the strongest overall effect on inflammatory mediators, as well as on macrophage and chondrocyte gene expression. Conversely, CAME mainly affected catabolic gene expression, whereas ABTT had a more selectively altered interleukin and chemokine gene exprssion. CL inhibited the IL-1? induced nuclear translocation of NF-?Bp65, suggesting that it primarily regulated via the NF-?B signalling pathway. Collectively, CL had the strongest effects on inflammatory mediators and chondrocyte gene expression. The data show that the phenolic diterpenes altered activity pattern of genes that regulate acute and chronic inflammatory processes. Since the substances affected catabolic and anabolic gene expression in cartilage cells in vitro, they may beneficially act on the aetiology of osteoarthritis.