Soluble Whey Protein Hydrolysate Ameliorates Muscle Atrophy Induced by Immobilization via Regulating the PI3K/Akt Pathway in C57BL/6 Mice.
ABSTRACT: Sarcopenia, a loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, is prevalent in older people and associated with functional decline and mortality. Protein supplementation is necessary to maintain skeletal muscle mass and whey protein hydrolysates have the best nutrient quality among food proteins. In the first study, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to immobilization for 1 week to induce muscle atrophy. Then, mice were administered with four different whey protein hydrolysates for 2 weeks with continuous immobilization. Among them, soluble whey protein hydrolysate (WP-S) had the greatest increase in grip strength, muscle weight, and cross-sectional area of muscle fiber than other whey protein hydrolysates. To investigate the molecular mechanism, we conducted another experiment with the same experimental design. WP-S significantly promoted the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and inhibited the PI3K/Akt/forkhead box O (FoxO) pathway. In addition, it increased myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression in both the soleus and quadriceps and changed MyHC isoform expressions. In conclusion, WP-S attenuated muscle atrophy induced by immobilization by enhancing the net protein content regulating muscle protein synthesis and degradation. Thus, it is a necessary and probable candidate for developing functional food to prevent sarcopenia.
Project description:Sarcopenia, also known as skeletal muscle atrophy, is characterized by significant loss of muscle mass and strength. Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) hydrolysates have anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammation properties. However, the anti-sarcopenic effect of oyster hydrolysates remains uninvestigated. Therefore, we prepared two different oyster hydrolysates, namely TGPN and PNY. This study aimed to determine the anti-muscle atrophy efficacy and molecular mechanisms of TGPN and PNY on both C2C12 cell lines and mice. In vitro, the TGPN and PNY recovered the dexamethasone-induced reduction in the myotube diameters. In vivo, TGPN and PNY administration not only improved grip strength and exercise endurance, but also attenuated the loss of muscle mass and muscle fiber cross-sectional area. Mechanistically, TGPN and PNY increased the expression of protein synthesis-related protein levels via phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of the rapamycin pathway, and reduced the expression of protein degradation-related protein levels via the PI3K/Akt/forkhead box O pathway. Also, TGPN and PNY stimulated NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1(SIRT1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1,2, mitochondrial transcription factor A, along with mitochondrial DNA content via SIRT1/PGC-1α signaling. These findings suggest oyster hydrolysates could be used as a valuable natural material that inhibits skeletal muscle atrophy via regulating protein turnover and mitochondrial biogenesis.
Project description:Aging is associated with sarcopenia and dynapenia, with both processes contributing to functional dependence and mortality in older adults. Resistance training (RT) and increased protein intake are strategies that may contribute to health improvements in older adults. Therefore, the aim was to investigate the effects of whey protein (WP) supplementation consumed either immediately pre- or post-RT on skeletal muscle mass (SMM), muscular strength, and functional capacity in pre-conditioned older women. Seventy older women participated in this investigation and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: whey protein pre-RT and placebo post-RT (WP-PLA, n = 24), placebo pre-RT and whey protein post-RT (PLA-WP, n = 23), and placebo pre- and post-RT (PLA-PLA, n = 23). Each group ingested 35 g of WP or PLA. The RT program was carried out over 12 weeks (three times per week; 3 × 8?12 repetition maximum). Body composition, muscular strength, functional capacity, and dietary intake were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for repeated measures, with baseline scores as covariates were used for data analysis. A time vs. group interaction (p < 0.05) was observed with WP-PLA and PLA-WP presenting greater increases compared with PLA-PLA for SMM (WP-PLA = 3.4%; PLA-WP = 4.2%; PLA-PLA = 2.0%), strength (WP-PLA = 8.1%; PLA-WP = 8.3%; PLA-PLA = 7.0%), and the 10-m walk test (WP-PLA = −10.8%; PLA-WP = −11.8%; PLA-PLA = −4.3%). Whey protein supplementation was effective in promoting increases in SMM, muscular strength, and functional capacity in pre-conditioned older women, regardless of supplementation timing. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03247192.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Muscle atrophy, i.e., the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, is an unresolved problem associated with aging (sarcopenia) and several pathological conditions. The imbalance between myofibrillary protein breakdown (especially the adult isoforms of myosin heavy chain, MyHC) and synthesis, and the reduction of muscle regenerative potential are main causes of muscle atrophy. <b>Methods:</b> Starting from one-hundred dried hydroalcoholic extracts of medical plants, we identified those able to contrast the reduction of C2C12 myotube diameter in well-characterized in vitro models mimicking muscle atrophy associated to inflammatory states, glucocorticoid treatment or nutrient deprivation. Based on their ability to rescue type II MyHC (MyHC-II) expression in atrophying conditions, six extracts with different phytochemical profiles were selected, mixed in groups of three, and tested on atrophic myotubes. The molecular mechanism underpinning the effects of the most efficacious formulation, and its efficacy on myotubes obtained from muscle biopsies of young and sarcopenic subjects were also investigated. <b>Results:</b> We identified WST (<i>Withania somnifera, Silybum marianum, Trigonella foenum-graecum)</i> formulation as extremely efficacious in protecting C2C12 myotubes against MyHC-II degradation by stimulating Akt (protein kinase B)-dependent protein synthesis and p38 MAPK (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase)/myogenin-dependent myoblast differentiation. WST sustains trophism in C2C12 and young myotubes, and rescues the size, developmental MyHC expression and myoblast fusion in sarcopenic myotubes. <b>Conclusion:</b> WST strongly counteracts muscle atrophy associated to different conditions in vitro. The future validation in vivo of our results might lead to the use of WST as a food supplement to sustain muscle mass in diffuse atrophying conditions, and to reverse the age-related functional decline of human muscles, thus improving people quality of life and reducing social and health-care costs.
Project description:Evidence suggests that immobilization is a promoting factor of sarcopenia; mechanism how immobilization accelerates the development of sarcopenia is not known. We have recently established a model of immobilization-induced skeletal muscle mass loss in mice. We used microarrays to detail the global programme of gene expression underlying skeletal muscle atrophy in immobilized mice and identified up-regulated or down-regulated genes during this process.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Impaired anabolic responses to nutrition and exercise contribute to loss of skeletal muscle mass with ageing (sarcopenia). Here, we tested responses of muscle protein synthesis (MPS), in the under represented group of older women, to leucine-enriched essential amino acids (EAA) in comparison to a large bolus of whey protein (WP). METHODS:Twenty-four older women (65 ± 1 y) received (N = 8/group) 1.5 g leucine-enriched EAA supplements (LEAA_1.5), 6 g LEAA (LEAA_6) in comparison to 40 g WP. A primed constant I.V infusion of 13C6-phenylalanine was used to determine MPS at baseline and in response to feeding (FED) and feeding-plus-exercise (FED-EX; 6 × 8 unilateral leg extensions; 75%1-RM). We quantified plasma insulin/AA concentrations, leg femoral blood flow (LBF)/muscle microvascular blood flow (MBF), and anabolic signalling via immunoblotting. RESULTS:Plasma insulineamia and EAAemia were greater and more prolonged with WP than LEAA, although LEAA_6 peaked at similar levels to WP. Neither LEAA or WP modified LBF or MBF. FED increased MPS similarly in the LEAA_1.5, LEAA_6 and WP (P < 0.05) groups over 0-2 h, with MPS significantly higher than basal in the LEAA_6 and WP groups only over 0-4 h. However, FED-EX increased MPS similarly across all the groups from 0 to 4 h (P < 0.05). Only p-p70S6K1 increased with WP at 2 h in FED (P < 0.05), and at 2/4 h in FED-EX (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:In conclusion, LEAA_1.5, despite only providing 0.6 g of leucine, robustly (perhaps maximally) stimulated MPS, with negligible trophic advantage of greater doses of LEAA or even to 40 g WP. Highlighting that composition of EAA, in particular the presence of leucine rather than amount is most crucial for anabolism.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Skeletal muscle wasting in acute lung injury (ALI) patients increases the morbidity and mortality associated with this critical illness. The contribution of laryngeal muscle wasting to these outcomes is unknown, though voice impairments and aspiration are common in intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. We evaluated the intrinsic laryngeal abductor (PCA, posterior cricoarytenoid), adductor (CT, cricothyroid) and limb (EDL, extensor digitorum longus) muscles in a mouse model of ALI.<h4>Methods</h4>Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides were instilled into the lungs of adult male C57Bl6J mice (ALI mice). Limb and intrinsic laryngeal muscles were analyzed for fiber size, type, protein expression and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition by SDS-PAGE and mass spectroscopy.<h4>Results</h4>Marked muscle atrophy occurred in the CT and EDL muscles, while the PCA was spared. The E3 ubiquitin ligase muscle ring finger-1 protein (MuRF1), a known mediator of limb muscle atrophy in this model, was upregulated in the CT and EDL, but not in the PCA. Genetic inhibition of MuRF1 protected the CT and EDL from ALI-induced muscle atrophy. MyHC-Extraocular (MyHC-EO) comprised 27% of the total MyHC in the PCA, distributed as hybrid fibers throughout 72% of PCA muscle fibers.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The vocal cord abductor (PCA) contains a large proportion of fibers expressing MyHC-EO and is spared from muscle atrophy in ALI mice. The lack of MuRF1 expression in the PCA suggests a previously unrecognized mechanism whereby this muscle is spared from atrophy. Atrophy of the vocal cord adductor (CT) may contribute to the impaired voice and increased aspiration observed in ICU survivors. Further evaluation of the sparing of muscles involved in systemic wasting diseases may lead to potential therapeutic targets for these illnesses.
Project description:High-quality proteins such as soy, whey, and casein are all capable of promoting muscle protein synthesis postexercise by activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORC1) signaling pathway. We hypothesized that a protein blend of soy and dairy proteins would capitalize on the unique properties of each individual protein and allow for optimal delivery of amino acids to prolong the fractional synthetic rate (FSR) following resistance exercise (RE). In this double-blind, randomized, clinical trial, 19 young adults were studied before and after ingestion of ?19 g of protein blend (PB) or ?18 g whey protein (WP) consumed 1 h after high-intensity leg RE. We examined mixed-muscle protein FSR by stable isotopic methods and mTORC1 signaling with western blotting. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis were collected at rest (before RE) and at 3 postexercise time points during an early (0-2 h) and late (2-4 h) postingestion period. WP ingestion resulted in higher and earlier amplitude of blood branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations. PB ingestion created a lower initial rise in blood BCAA but sustained elevated levels of blood amino acids later into recovery (P < 0.05). Postexercise FSR increased equivalently in both groups during the early period (WP, 0.078 ± 0.009%; PB, 0.088 ± 0.007%); however, FSR remained elevated only in the PB group during the late period (WP, 0.074 ± 0.010%; PB, 0.087 ± 0.003%) (P < 0.05). mTORC1 signaling similarly increased between groups, except for no increase in S6K1 phosphorylation in the WP group at 5 h postexercise (P < 0.05). We conclude that a soy-dairy PB ingested following exercise is capable of prolonging blood aminoacidemia, mTORC1 signaling, and protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle and is an effective postexercise nutritional supplement.
Project description:Muscle atrophy is associated with aging (sarcopenia) and chronic unloading (such as bed confinement and immobilization with casts), as well as various pathological conditions such as type 1 diabetes and nerve injury (denervation). The hindlimb skeletal muscles of C57BL/6 mice (9 weeks old, male) were immobilized (unloaded) by a plaster cast. After 11 days, skeletal muscle was collected and RNA extracted. Expression of Dnmt3a was reduced while expression of Gdf5 was increased by plaster cast immobilization compared to age-matched control mice.
Project description:Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1) is an autosomal recessive disease that causes distal limb muscle atrophy, due to motor neuron degeneration. Similar to other motor neuron diseases, SMARD1 shows differential vulnerability to denervation in various muscle groups, which is recapitulated in the nmd mouse, a model of SMARD1. In multiple neurodegenerative disease models, transcriptomic analysis has identified differentially expressed genes between vulnerable motor neuron populations, but the mechanism leading to susceptibility is largely unknown. To investigate if denervation vulnerability is linked to intrinsic muscle properties, we analyzed muscle fiber-type composition in muscles from motor units that show different degrees of denervation in nmd mice: gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior (TA), and extensor digitorum longus (EDL). Our results revealed that denervation vulnerability correlated with atrophy and loss of MyHC-IIb and MyHC-IIx muscle fiber types. Interestingly, increased vulnerability also correlated with an increased abundance of MyHC-I and MyHC-IIa muscle fibers. These results indicated that MyHC-IIx muscle fibers are the most vulnerable to denervation, followed by MyHC-IIb muscle fibers. Moreover, our data indicate that type MyHC-IIa and MyHC-IIb muscle fibers show resistance to denervation and compensate for the loss of MyHC-IIx and MyHC-IIb muscle fibers in the most vulnerable muscles. Taken together these results provide a basis for the selective vulnerability to denervation of specific muscles in nmd mice and identifies new targets for potential therapeutic intervention.
Project description:A number of microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) have been shown to play a role in skeletal muscle atrophy, but their role is not completely understood. Here we show that miR-29b promotes skeletal muscle atrophy in response to different atrophic stimuli in cells and in mouse models. miR-29b promotes atrophy of myotubes differentiated from C2C12 or primary myoblasts, and conversely, its inhibition attenuates atrophy induced by dexamethasone (Dex), TNF-? and H2O2 treatment. Targeting of IGF-1 and PI3K(p85?) by miR-29b is required for induction of muscle atrophy. In vivo, miR-29b overexpression is sufficient to promote muscle atrophy while inhibition of miR-29b attenuates atrophy induced by denervation and immobilization. These data suggest that miR-29b contributes to multiple types of muscle atrophy via targeting of IGF-1 and PI3K(p85?), and that suppression of miR-29b may represent a therapeutic approach for muscle atrophy induced by different stimuli.