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Management of Antiphospholipid Syndrome.


ABSTRACT: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), is an acquired autoimmune disorder characterised by thrombosis, pregnancy morbidity, and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Although venous thromboembolism is the most common manifestation, thrombotic events in APS may also occur in virtually any vascular bed, with cerebral circulation being the arterial territory most commonly affected. As APS is a heterogeneous condition, its management should be tailored with a patient-centred approach based on individual risk assessment, which includes the aPL profile, concomitant auto-immune diseases, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Although literature data are conflicting regarding primary prophylaxis, there is some evidence indicating that antiplatelet agents may reduce the risk of a first thrombotic event in individuals with a high-risk profile. In patients with thrombotic APS, current evidence-based guidelines recommend lifelong vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), preferably warfarin. The optimal intensity of anticoagulation following arterial thrombosis remains controversial. Arterial thrombosis should be treated either with high-intensity warfarin at a target INR > 3.0, or low-dose aspirin (LDA) combined with moderate-intensity warfarin (INR 2.0-3.0). It is recommended to avoid direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in patients with high-risk APS, mainly those with triple-positive PL and previous arterial events. They would only be used exceptionally in selected patients with low-risk venous thromboembolism (VTE). In low-risk VTE patients currently treated with a DOAC due to warfarin intolerance or a previous unstable International Normalized Ratio on warfarin, the decision of continuing DOACs would be taken in carefully selected patients. In women with obstetric APS, the combination therapy with LDA plus heparin remains the conventional strategy.

SUBMITTER: Ghembaza A 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC7696303 | BioStudies | 2020-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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