ABSTRACT: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), is an acquired autoimmune disorder characterised by thrombosis, pregnancy morbidity, and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Although venous thromboembolism is the most common manifestation, thrombotic events in APS may also occur in virtually any vascular bed, with cerebral circulation being the arterial territory most commonly affected. As APS is a heterogeneous condition, its management should be tailored with a patient-centred approach based on individual risk assessment, which includes the aPL profile, concomitant auto-immune diseases, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Although literature data are conflicting regarding primary prophylaxis, there is some evidence indicating that antiplatelet agents may reduce the risk of a first thrombotic event in individuals with a high-risk profile. In patients with thrombotic APS, current evidence-based guidelines recommend lifelong vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), preferably warfarin. The optimal intensity of anticoagulation following arterial thrombosis remains controversial. Arterial thrombosis should be treated either with high-intensity warfarin at a target INR > 3.0, or low-dose aspirin (LDA) combined with moderate-intensity warfarin (INR 2.0-3.0). It is recommended to avoid direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in patients with high-risk APS, mainly those with triple-positive PL and previous arterial events. They would only be used exceptionally in selected patients with low-risk venous thromboembolism (VTE). In low-risk VTE patients currently treated with a DOAC due to warfarin intolerance or a previous unstable International Normalized Ratio on warfarin, the decision of continuing DOACs would be taken in carefully selected patients. In women with obstetric APS, the combination therapy with LDA plus heparin remains the conventional strategy.
Project description:Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an adquired autoimmune pro-thrombotic disease characterized by arterial and/or venous thrombosis and/or fetal losses associated with the persistent presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) detectable by solid phase assays (anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-?2 glycoprotein I, ?2GPI) and/or functional coagulation test (lupus anticoagulant (LA)). Most patients with typical APS manifestations have the presence of one or more of conventional aPL, but, some patients might exhibit clinical features related with APS but with persistent negative determinations of "classic" aPL (seronegative APS). Expanding the network of autoantibodies in patients highly suspected of having APS but who have normal results from a conventional test using new antibodies (i.e., phosphatidylserine/prothrombin and ?2GPI domain 1) would increase the diagnosis. Thrombosis is one of the leading causes of death among patients with cancer, representing up to 15% of all deaths. Cancer increases the risk of thrombosis and chemotherapy is further associated with a higher risk of thrombosis. In addition, aPL may contribute to an increased risk of thrombosis in patients with malignancies, although the levels do not seem to reflect their pathogenicity. Several malignancies, particularly hematological and lymphoproliferative malignancies, may indeed be associated with the generation of aPL but do not necessarily enhance the thrombophilic risk in these patients.
Project description:Introduction: Recurrent thrombotic events are a hallmark of Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS). However, biomarkers to identify if a patient with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) is at higher risk to develop an arterial or a venous event are lacking. Recently, the pathogenic role of anti-high-density lipoproteins antibodies (anti-HDL) in the occurrence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in autoimmunity has emerged. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of IgG anti-HDL antibodies in a cohort of thrombotic APS patients and to investigate their association with clinical outcomes. Methods: Serum levels of IgG anti-HDL antibodies, total IgG, and complete aPL profile were assessed in 60 APS patients and 80 healthy donors (HDs) by immunoassays. Results: Higher levels of IgG anti-HDL were found in APS patients compared to HDs (p < 0.001), even after correcting for total IgG levels (p < 0.001). No associations with treatments or traditional cardiovascular risk factors, except for smoking habit (p < 0.0001), were found. Patients who experienced at least one arterial event (n = 30) had significantly higher levels of anti-HDL antibodies when compared to patients with venous thrombosis (n = 30, p = 0.046), this difference being stronger when adjusting for total IgG (p = 0.007). Additionally, patients tested positive for antiphosphatidylserine/prothrombin (IgG/IgM) antibodies had significantly higher levels of anti-HDL antibodies (p = 0.045). Conclusions: Increased levels of IgG anti-HDL antibodies can be found in APS, mainly in patients with arterial thrombosis, independently of aPL antibodies and traditional risk factors. These findings point to a role of anti-HDL antibodies in APS and support their use as a potential biomarker for arterial thrombotic events.
Project description:The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is defined by simultaneous presence of vascular clinical events and antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). The aPL considered as diagnostics are lupus anticoagulant and antibodies anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-ß2 glycoprotein-I (aB2GP1). During recent years, IgA aB2GP1 antibodies have been associated with thrombotic events both in patients positive, and mainly negative for other aPL, however its value as a pro-thrombotic risk-factor in asymptomatic patients has not been well defined.To test the role of IgA anti B2GP1 as a risk factor for the development of APS-events (thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity) in asymptomatic population with a 5-year follow-up.244 patients isolated positive for anti-beta2-glycoprotein I IgA (Group-1 study) and 221 negative patients (Group-2 control) were studied. All the patients were negative for IgG and IgM aCL.During the follow-up, 45 patients (9.7%) had APS-events, 38 positive for IgA-aB2GP1 and 7 negative (15.6% vs 3.2%, p<0.001). The incidence rate of APS-events was 3.1% per year in IgA-aB2GP1 positive patients and 0.6% per year in the control group. Arterial thrombosis were the most frequent APS-events (N = 25, 55%) and were mainly observed in Group-1 patients (21 vs 4, p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis were shown as independent risk-factors for the development of APS-events, age, sex (men) and presence of IgA-aB2GP1 (odds ratio 5.25, 95% CI 2.24 to 12.32).The presence of IgA-aB2GP1 in people with no history of APS-events is the main independent risk factor for the development of these types of events, mainly arterial thrombosis.
Project description:Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by thrombosis (arterial, venous, small vessel) and/or pregnancy morbidity occurring in patients with persistently positive antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Catastrophic APS is the most severe form of the disease, characterized by multiple organ thromboses occurring in a short period and commonly associated with thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Similar to patients with complement regulatory gene mutations developing TMA, increased complement activation on endothelial cells plays a role in hypercoagulability in aPL-positive patients. In mouse models of APS, activation of the complement is required and interaction of complement (C) 5a with its receptor C5aR leads to aPL-induced inflammation, placental insufficiency, and thrombosis. Anti-C5 antibody and C5aR antagonist peptides prevent aPL-mediated pregnancy loss and thrombosis in these experimental models. Clinical studies of anti-C5 monoclonal antibody in aPL-positive patients are limited to a small number of case reports. Ongoing and future clinical studies of complement inhibitors will help determine the role of complement inhibition in the management of aPL-positive patients.
Project description:Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is defined by clinical manifestations that include thrombosis and/or fetal loss or pregnancy morbidity in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Antiphospholipid antibodies are among the most common causes of acquired thrombophilia, but unlike most of the genetic thrombophilias are associated with both venous and arterial thrombosis. Despite an abundance of clinical and basic research on aPL, a unified mechanism that explains their prothrombotic activity has not been defined; this may reflect the heterogeneity of aPL and/or the fact that they may influence multiple pro- and/or antithrombotic pathways. Antiphospholipid antibodies are directed primarily toward phospholipid binding proteins rather than phospholipid per se, with the most common antigenic target being ?2-glycoprotein 1 (?2GPI) although antibodies against other targets such as prothrombin are well described. Laboratory diagnosis of aPL depends upon the detection of a lupus anticoagulant (LA), which prolongs phospholipid-dependent anticoagulation tests, and/or anticardiolipin and anti-?2-glycoprotein 1 antibodies. Indefinite anticoagulation remains the mainstay of therapy for thrombotic APS, although new strategies that may improve outcomes are emerging. Preliminary reports suggest caution in the use of direct oral anticoagulants in patients with APS-associated thrombosis. Based on somewhat limited evidence, aspirin and low molecular weight heparin are recommended for obstetrical APS. There remains a pressing need for better understanding of the pathogenesis of APS in humans, for identification of clinical and laboratory parameters that define patients at greatest risk for APS-related events, and for targeted treatment of this common yet enigmatic disorder.
Project description:Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a thromboinflammatory disease with a variety of clinical phenotypes. Primary thrombosis prophylaxis should take an individualized risk stratification approach. Moderate-intensity vitamin K antagonist such as warfarin remains the primary strategy for secondary thrombosis prophylaxis among APS patients, especially for patients with predominantly venous disease. For now, direct oral anti-coagulants should be avoided in most APS patients, especially those with history of arterial manifestations. Obstetric APS management should be tailored based on an individual patient's antiphospholipid antibody profile, and obstetric and thrombotic history. Pharmacological agents beyond anticoagulants may be considered for the management of microthrombotic and nonthrombotic manifestations of APS, although more data are needed. A relatively recent discovery in the area of APS pathogenesis is the implication of neutrophil extracellular traps in thrombin generation and initiation of inflammatory cascades. APS is a complex thromboinflammatory disease with a broad clinical spectrum. Personalized therapy according to an individual's unique thrombosis and obstetric risk should be advocated.
Project description:Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune condition characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) in subjects presenting with thrombosis and/or pregnancy loss. The currently used classification criteria were updated in the international consensus held in Sidney in 2005. Vascular events seem to result of local procoagulative alterations upon triggers influence (the so called "second-hit theory"), while placental thrombosis and complement activation seem to lead to pregnancy morbidity. The laboratory tests suggested by the current classification criteria include lupus anticoagulant, a functional coagulation assay, and anticardiolipin and anti-?2-glycoprotein-I antibodies, generally detected by solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The real challenge for treating physicians is understanding what is the actual weight of aPL in provoking clinical manifestations in each case. As thrombosis has a multi-factorial cause, each patient needs a risk-stratified approach. In this review we discuss the role of thrombotic risk assessment in primary and secondary prevention of venous and arterial thromboembolic disease in patients with APS, focusing on new antibody specificities, available risk scoring models and new coagulation assays.
Project description:Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by recurrent venous or arterial thrombosis with or without pregnancy morbidity in the presence of persistent antiphospholipid (aPL) autoantibodies. Anticoagulation has, until now, formed the cornerstone of treatment but a significant proportion of patients continue to experience thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity despite this treatment. Thrombosis is the most common cause of mortality and accounts for two fifths of deaths. Direct oral anticoagulant drugs represent an attractive alternative to conventional vitamin K antagonist drugs but emerging evidence suggests these may not be suitable for high-risk patients with thrombotic APS. Laboratory studies and case reports of the successful use of different classes of drugs in APS is increasing our understanding of the other pathophysiological mechanisms which may contribute to the high morbidity of APS. This review summarizes current accepted anticoagulant treatment for APS and examines other potential drugs such as immunomodulating agents, statins and novel agents such as sirolimus and defibrotide.
Project description:Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an acquired autoimmune condition characterized by thrombotic events, pregnancy morbidity, and laboratory evidence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Management of these patients includes the prevention of a first thrombotic episode in at-risk patients (primary prevention) and preventing recurrent thrombotic complications in patients with a history of thrombosis (secondary prevention). Assessment of thrombotic risk in these patients, balanced against estimated bleeding risks associated with antithrombotic therapy could assist clinicians in determining whether antithrombotic therapy is warranted. Thrombotic risk can be assessed by evaluating a patient's aPL profile and additional thrombotic risk factors. Although antithrombotic options for secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been evaluated in clinical trials, studies in primary prevention of asymptomatic aPL-positive patients are needed. Primary prevention with aspirin may be considered in asymptomatic patients who have a high-risk aPL profile, particularly if additional risk factors are present. Secondary prevention with long-term anticoagulation is recommended based on estimated risks of VTE recurrence, although routine evaluation of thrombotic risk can assist in determining whether ongoing anticoagulation is warranted. Studies that stratify thrombotic risk in aPL-positive patients, and patients with APS evaluating antithrombotic and non-antithrombotic therapies will be useful in optimizing the management of these patients.
Project description:Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disease, characterized by thrombosis, obstetric complications and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), which drive endothelial injury and thrombophilia. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been implicated in endothelial and thrombotic pathologies. Here, we characterized the quantity, cellular origin and the surface expression of biologically active molecules in small EVs (sEVs) isolated from the plasma of thrombotic APS patients (n = 14), aPL-negative patients with idiopathic thrombosis (aPL-neg IT, n = 5) and healthy blood donors (HBD, n = 7). Nanoparticle tracking analysis showed similar sEV sizes (110-170 nm) between the groups, with an increased quantity of sEVs in patients with APS and aPL-neg IT compared to HBD. MACSPlex analysis of 37 different sEV surface markers showed endothelial (CD31), platelet (CD41b and CD42a), leukocyte (CD45), CD8 lymphocyte and APC (HLA-ABC) cell-derived sEVs. Except for CD8, these molecules were comparably expressed in all study groups. sEVs from APS patients were specifically enriched in surface expression of CD62P, suggesting endothelial and platelet activation in APS. Additionally, APS patients exhibited increased CD133/1 expression compared to aPL-neg IT, suggesting endothelial damage in APS patients. These findings demonstrate enhanced shedding, and distinct biological properties of sEVs in thrombotic APS.