Interleukin-1? Modulation of the Mechanobiology of Primary Human Pulmonary Fibroblasts: Potential Implications in Lung Repair.
ABSTRACT: Pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1? (IL-1?) are upregulated during early responses to tissue damage and are expected to transiently compromise the mechanical microenvironment. Fibroblasts are key regulators of tissue mechanics in the lungs and other organs. However, the effects of IL-1? on fibroblast mechanics and functions remain unclear. Here we treated human pulmonary fibroblasts from control donors with IL-1? and used Atomic Force Microscopy to unveil that IL-1? significantly reduces the stiffness of fibroblasts concomitantly with a downregulation of filamentous actin (F-actin) and alpha-smooth muscle (?-SMA). Likewise, COL1A1 mRNA was reduced, whereas that of collagenases MMP1 and MMP2 were upregulated, favoring a reduction of type-I collagen. These mechanobiology changes were functionally associated with reduced proliferation and enhanced migration upon IL-1? stimulation, which could facilitate lung repair by drawing fibroblasts to sites of tissue damage. Our observations reveal that IL-1? may reduce local tissue rigidity by acting both intracellularly and extracellularly through the downregulation of fibroblast contractility and type I collagen deposition, respectively. These IL-1?-dependent mechanical effects may enhance lung repair further by locally increasing pulmonary tissue compliance to preserve normal lung distension and function. Moreover, our results support that IL-1? provides innate anti-fibrotic protection that may be relevant during the early stages of lung repair.
Project description:Fibroblasts are believed to be the major cells responsible for the production and maintenance of extracellular matrix. Alterations in fibroblast functional capacity, therefore, could play a role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema, which is characterized by inadequate maintenance of tissue structure.To evaluate the hypothesis that deficient fibroblast repair characterizes cells obtained from individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared with control subjects.Fibroblasts were cultured from lung tissue obtained from individuals undergoing thoracotomy and were characterized in vitro.Fibroblasts from individuals with COPD, defined by reduced FEV(1), manifested reduced chemotaxis toward fibronectin and reduced contraction of three-dimensional collagen gels, two bioassays associated with fibroblast repair function. At least two mechanisms appear to account for these differences. Prostaglandin E (PGE), a known inhibitor of fibroblast repair functions, was produced in increased amount by fibroblasts from subjects with COPD, which also expressed increased amounts of the receptors EP2 and EP4, both of which signal through cyclic AMP. Incubation of fibroblasts with indomethacin or with the PKA inhibitor KT-5720 partially restored COPD subject fibroblast function. In addition, fibroblasts from subjects with COPD produced more transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, but manifested reduced response to TGF-beta1. The functional alterations in fibroblasts correlated with both lung function assessed by FEV(1) and, for the data available, with severity of emphysema assessed by Dl(CO).Fibroblasts from individuals with COPD have reduced capability to sustain tissue repair, which suggests that this may be one mechanism that contributes to the development of emphysema.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pirfenidone, an antifibrotic agent used for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), functions by inhibiting myofibroblast differentiation, which is involved in transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced IPF pathogenesis. However, unlike normal lung fibroblasts, the relationship between pirfenidone responses of TGF-β1-induced human fibrotic lung fibroblasts and lung fibrosis has not been elucidated. METHODS:The effects of pirfenidone were evaluated in lung fibroblasts isolated from fibrotic human lung tissues after TGF-β1 exposure. The ability of two new pharmacological targets of pirfenidone, collagen triple helix repeat containing protein 1(CTHRC1) and four-and-a-half LIM domain protein 2 (FHL2), to mediate contraction of collagen gels and migration toward fibronectin were assessed in vitro. RESULTS:Compared to control lung fibroblasts, pirfenidone significantly restored TGF-β1-stimulated fibroblast-mediated collagen gel contraction, migration, and CTHRC1 release in lung fibrotic fibroblasts. Furthermore, pirfenidone attenuated TGF-β1- and CTHRC1-induced fibroblast activity, upregulation of bone morphogenic protein-4(BMP-4)/Gremlin1, and downregulation of α-smooth muscle actin, fibronectin, and FHL2, similar to that observed post-CTHRC1 inhibition. In contrast, FHL2 inhibition suppressed migration and fibronectin expression, but did not downregulate CTHRC1. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, pirfenidone suppressed fibrotic fibroblast-mediated fibrotic processes via inverse regulation of CTHRC1-induced lung fibroblast activity. Thus, CTHRC1 can be used for predicting pirfenidone response and developing new therapeutic targets for lung fibrosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lung fibrosis is a serious life-threatening condition whose manifestation varies according to the localization and characteristics of fibroblasts, which are considered heterogeneous. Therefore, to better understand the pathology and improve diagnosis and treatment of this disease, it is necessary to elucidate the nature of this heterogeneity and identify markers for the accurate classification of human lung fibroblast subtypes. METHODS:We characterized distinct mouse lung fibroblast subpopulations isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and performed microarray analysis to identify molecular markers that could be useful for human lung fibroblast classification. Based on the expression of these markers, we evaluated the fibroblast-like cell subtype localization in normal human lung samples and lung samples from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). RESULTS:Mouse lung fibroblasts were classified into Sca-1high fibroblasts and Sca-1low fibroblasts by in vitro biological analyses. Through microarray analysis, we demonstrated CD248 and integrin alpha-8 (ITGA8) as cell surface markers for Sca-1high fibroblasts and Sca-1low fibroblasts, respectively. In mouse lungs, Sca-1high fibroblasts and Sca-1low fibroblasts were localized in the collagen fiber-rich connective tissue and elastic fiber-rich connective tissue, respectively. In normal human lungs and IPF lungs, two corresponding major fibroblast-like cell subtypes were identified: CD248highITGA8low fibroblast-like cells and CD248lowITGA8high fibroblast-like cells, localized in the collagen fiber-rich connective tissue and in the elastic fiber-rich connective tissue, respectively. CONCLUSION:CD248highITGA8low fibroblast-like cells and CD248lowITGA8high fibroblast-like cells were localized in an almost exclusive manner in human lung specimens. This human lung fibroblast classification using two cell surface markers may be helpful for further detailed investigations of the functions of lung fibroblast subtypes, which can provide new insights into lung development and the pathological processes underlying fibrotic lung diseases.
Project description:Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is the result of chronic injury where fibroblasts become activated and secrete large amounts of extracellular matrix (ECM), leading to impaired fibroblasts degradation followed by stiffness and loss of lung function. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), an intermediate of glycolytic pathway, decreases PF development, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. To address this issue, PF was induced in vivo using a mouse model, and pulmonary fibroblasts were isolated from healthy and fibrotic animals. In PF model mice, lung function was improved by FBP as revealed by reduced collagen deposition and downregulation of ECM gene expression such as collagens and fibronectin. Fibrotic lung fibroblasts (FLF) treated with FBP for 3 days in vitro showed decreased proliferation, contraction, and migration, which are characteristic of myofibroblast to fibroblast phenotype reversal. ECM-related genes and proteins such as collagens, fibronectin and ?-smooth muscle actin, were also downregulated in FBP-treated FLF. Moreover, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 1, responsible for ECM degradation, was produced only in fibroblasts obtained from healthy lungs (HLF) and FBP did not alter its expression. On the other hand, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, a MMP1 inhibitor, and MMP2, related to fibroblast tissue-invasion, were predominantly produced by FLF and FBP was able to downregulate its expression. These results demonstrate that FBP may prevent bleomycin-induced PF development through reduced expression of collagen and other ECM components mediated by a reduced TIMP-1 and MMP2 expression.
Project description:Tissue fibrosis is considered a dysregulated wound-healing response. Fibronectin containing extra type III domain A (EDA) is implicated in the regulation of wound healing. EDA-containing fibronectin is deposited during wound repair, and its presence precedes that of collagen.To investigate the role of EDA-containing fibronectin in lung fibrogenesis.Primary lung fibroblasts from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or from patients undergoing resection for lung cancer were assessed for EDA-containing fibronectin and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) expression. Mice lacking the EDA domain of fibronectin and their wild-type littermates were challenged with the bleomycin model of lung fibrosis. Primary lung fibroblasts from these mice were assayed in vitro to determine the contribution of EDA-containing fibronectin to fibroblast phenotypes.Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis lung fibroblasts produced markedly more EDA-containing fibronectin and alpha-SMA than control fibroblasts. EDA-null mice failed to develop significant fibrosis 21 days after bleomycin challenge, whereas wild-type controls developed the expected increase in total lung collagen. Histologic analysis of EDA-null lungs after bleomycin showed less collagen and fewer alpha-SMA-expressing myofibroblasts compared with that observed in wild-type mice. Failure to develop lung fibrosis in EDA-null mice correlated with diminished activation of latent transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and decreased lung fibroblast responsiveness to active TGF-beta in vitro.The data show that EDA-containing fibronectin is essential for the fibrotic resolution of lung injury through TGF-beta activation and responsiveness, and suggest that EDA-containing fibronectin plays a critical role in tissue fibrogenesis.
Project description:In asthma, the airway epithelium has an impaired capacity to differentiate and plays a key role in the development of airway inflammation and remodeling through mediator release. The study objective was to investigate the release of (IL)-1 family members from primary airway epithelial-cells during differentiation, and how they affect primary airway fibroblast (PAF)-induced inflammation, extracellular matrix (ECM) production, and collagen I remodeling. The release of IL-1?/? and IL-33 during airway epithelial differentiation was assessed over 20-days using air-liquid interface cultures. The effect of IL-1 family cytokines on airway fibroblasts grown on collagen-coated well-plates and 3-dimensional collagen gels was assessed by measurement of inflammatory mediators and ECM proteins by ELISA and western blot, as well as collagen fiber formation using non-linear optical microscopy after 24-hours. The production of IL-1? is elevated in undifferentiated asthmatic-PAECs compared to controls. IL-1?/? induced fibroblast pro-inflammatory responses (CXCL8/IL-8, IL-6, TSLP, GM-CSF) and suppressed ECM-production (collagen, fibronectin, periostin) and the cell's ability to repair and remodel fibrillar collagen I via LOX, LOXL1 and LOXL2 activity, as confirmed by inhibition with ?-aminopropionitrile. These data support a role for epithelial-derived-IL-1 in the dysregulated repair of the asthmatic-EMTU and provides new insights into the contribution of airway fibroblasts in inflammation and airway remodeling in asthma.
Project description:Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is involved in innate and adaptive immune responses to defend against pathogens. It also participates in the process of influenza infection by affecting viral clearance and immune cell responses. However, whether IL-6 impacts lung repair in influenza pathogenesis remains unclear. Here, we studied the role of IL-6 in acute influenza infection in mice. IL-6-deficient mice infected with influenza virus exhibited higher lethality, lost more body weight and had higher fibroblast accumulation and lower extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover in the lung than their wild-type counterparts. Deficiency in IL-6 enhanced proliferation, migration and survival of lung fibroblasts, as well as increased virus-induced apoptosis of lung epithelial cells. IL-6-deficient lung fibroblasts produced elevated levels of TGF-?, which may contribute to their survival. Furthermore, macrophage recruitment to the lung and phagocytic activities of macrophages during influenza infection were reduced in IL-6-deficient mice. Collectively, our results indicate that IL-6 is crucial for lung repair after influenza-induced lung injury through reducing fibroblast accumulation, promoting epithelial cell survival, increasing macrophage recruitment to the lung and enhancing phagocytosis of viruses by macrophages. This study suggests that IL-6 may be exploited for lung repair during influenza infection.
Project description:Cigarette smoking causes lung inflammation and tissue damage. Lung fibroblasts play a major role in tissue repair. Previous studies have reported smoking-associated changes in fibroblast responses and methylation patterns. Our aim was to identify the effect of current smoking on miRNA expression in primary lung fibroblasts. Small RNA sequencing was performed on lung fibroblasts from nine current and six ex-smokers with normal lung function. MiR-335-5p and miR-335-3p were significantly downregulated in lung fibroblasts from current compared to ex-smokers (false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05). Differential miR-335-5p expression was validated with RT-qPCR (p-value = 0.01). The results were validated in lung tissue from current and ex-smokers and in bronchial biopsies from non-diseased smokers and never-smokers (p-value <0.05). The methylation pattern of the miR-335 host gene, determined by methylation-specific qPCR, did not differ between current and ex-smokers. To obtain insights into the genes regulated by miR-335-5p in fibroblasts, we overlapped all proven miR-335-5p targets with our previously published miRNA targetome data in lung fibroblasts. This revealed Rb1, CARF, and SGK3 as likely targets of miR-335-5p in lung fibroblasts. Our study indicates that miR-335-5p downregulation due to current smoking may affect its function in lung fibroblasts by targeting Rb1, CARF and SGK3.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Fibroblast heterogeneity is recognized, and fibroblasts from diseased tissues, including those of asthmatic subjects, have functional phenotypes that differ from normal tissue. However, progenitor-progeny relationships and the factors that control fibroblast differentiation are poorly defined.<h4>Objective</h4>We sought to determine whether IL-4 could alter the functional phenotype of fibroblasts during their differentiation from stem/progenitor cells.<h4>Methods</h4>Using a 3-dimensional collagen gel system, we obtained embryoid bodies derived from human embryonic stem cells and recovered spindle-shaped cells consistent with fibroblasts that had differentiated in the presence or absence of IL-4.<h4>Results</h4>IL-4-induced fibroblast-like cells were more active in contraction of collagen gels, migration, and production of fibronectin than control (without IL-4) cells. IL-4-induced cells demonstrated less expression of miR-155, which modulated contraction, migration, and fibronectin production. These differences persisted in culture without further addition of IL-4, suggesting the differentiated phenotype might be a permanent alteration.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The current study demonstrates that IL-4 induces differentiation of stem/precursor cells into fibroblast-like cells that demonstrate a more fibrogenic phenotype, which is due to reduced expression of miR-155. These findings provide a novel mechanism for the persistent abnormalities in IL-4-related diseases and a novel target to regulate tissue remodeling by fibroblasts.
Project description:<h4>Rationale</h4>Prostaglandin (PG) E2, a cyclooxygenase-derived lipid mediator, is a potent down-regulator of fibroblast activation in normal lung fibroblasts. Although fibroblasts from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are known to exhibit a defect in PGE2 synthesis, there is little information about their responsiveness to this lipid mediator.<h4>Objectives</h4>To compare responses to PGE2 in normal, usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), and other diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD) fibroblasts.<h4>Methods</h4>Fibroblasts were grown in vitro from well characterized control (n = 7), UIP (n = 17), or other DPLD (n = 13) lung tissue. The effects of PGE2 on fibroblast proliferation and collagen expression were determined.<h4>Measurements and main results</h4>Only 3 of 12 UIP fibroblast lines exhibited PGE2-mediated inhibition of both collagen synthesis and cell proliferation, as opposed to 6 of 6 nonfibrotic control cell lines. The degree of PGE2 resistance in DPLD fibroblasts was quite variable, with UIP cells exhibiting the greatest degree of resistance to PGE2, whereas other DPLD fibroblasts manifested a degree of resistance intermediate to control and UIP. The resistance to suppression of collagen expression correlated with worse lung function. Molecular mechanisms for resistance included altered E prostanoid receptor profiles and diminished expression of the downstream kinase, protein kinase A.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The recognition that UIP fibroblasts manifest variable refractoriness to PGE2 suppression sheds new light on the activation phenotype of these cells and on the pathogenesis of fibrotic lung disease.