Associations between Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Gastro-Intestinal Microbiota, Diet, and Cognitive Functioning in Dutch Healthy Older Adults: The NU-AGE Study.
ABSTRACT: Dietary modulation of the gastro-intestinal microbiota is a potential target in improving healthy ageing and age-related functional outcomes, including cognitive decline. We explored the association between diet, gastro-intestinal microbiota and cognition in Dutch healthy older adults of the 'New dietary strategies addressing the specific needs of the elderly population for healthy aging in Europe' (NU-AGE) study. The microbiota profile of 452 fecal samples from 226 subjects was determined using a 16S ribosomal RNA gene-targeted microarray. Dietary intake was assessed by 7-day food records. Cognitive functioning was measured with an extensive cognitive test battery. We observed a dietary and microbial pro- to anti-inflammatory gradient associated with diets richer in animal- or plant-based foods. Fresh fruits, nuts, seeds and peanuts, red and processed meat and grain products were most strongly associated to microbiota composition. Plant-rich diets containing fresh fruits, nuts, seeds and peanuts were positively correlated with alpha-diversity, various taxa from the Bacteroidetes phylum and anti-inflammatory species, including those related to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Eubacterium rectale and E. biforme. Animal product-rich diets associated with pro-inflammatory species, including those related to Ruminococcus gnavus and Collinsella spp.. Cognition was neither associated with microbiota composition nor alpha-diversity. In conclusion, diets richer in animal- and plant-based foods were related to a pro- and anti-inflammatory microbial profile, while cognition was associated with neither.
Project description:Chronic neuroinflammation associated with neurodegenerative disorders has been reported to be prevented by dietary components. Particularly, dietary (poly)phenols have been identified as having anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions, and their ingestion is considered a major preventive factor for such disorders. To assess the relation between (poly)phenol classes and their bioactivity, we used five different raspberry genotypes, which were markedly different in their (poly)phenol profiles within a similar matrix. In addition, gastro-intestinal bio-accessible fractions were produced, which simulate the (poly)phenol metabolites that may be absorbed after digestion, and evaluated for anti-inflammatory potential using LPS-stimulated microglia. Interestingly, the fraction from genotype 2J19 enriched in ellagitannins, their degradation products and ellagic acid, attenuated pro-inflammatory markers and mediators CD40, NO, TNF-?, and intracellular superoxide via NF-?B, MAPK and NFAT pathways. Importantly, it also increased the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. These effects contrasted with fractions richer in anthocyanins, suggesting that ellagitannins and its derivatives are major anti-inflammatory (poly)phenols and promising compounds to alleviate neuroinflammation.
Project description:Previous research indicates that the Nanchoc Valley in northern Peru was an important locus of early and middle Holocene human settlement, and that between 9200 and 5500 (14)C yr B.P. the valley inhabitants adopted major crop plants such as squash (Cucurbita moschata), peanuts (Arachis sp.), and cotton (Gossypium barbadense). We report here an examination of starch grains preserved in the calculus of human teeth from these sites that provides direct evidence for the early consumption of cultivated squash and peanuts along with two other major food plants not previously detected. Starch from the seeds of Phaseolus and Inga feuillei, the flesh of Cucurbita moschata fruits, and the nuts of Arachis was routinely present on numerous teeth that date to between 8210 and 6970 (14)C yr B.P. Early plant diets appear to have been diverse and stable through time and were rich in cultivated foods typical of later Andean agriculture. Our data provide early archaeological evidence for Phaseolus beans and I. feuillei, an important tree crop, and indicate that effective food production systems that contributed significant dietary inputs were present in the Nanchoc region by 8000 (14)C yr B.P. Starch grain studies of dental remains document plants and edible parts of them not normally preserved in archaeological records and can assume primary roles as direct indicators of ancient human diets and agriculture.
Project description:The ultimate health benefits of peanuts and tree nuts partially depend on the effective gastrointestinal delivery of their phytochemicals. The chemical composition and in vitro bioaccessibility of tocopherols, tocotrienols and phenolic compounds from peanuts and seven tree nuts were evaluated by analytical and chemometric methods. Total fat and dietary fiber (g 100 g-1) ranged from 34.2 (Emory oak acorn) to 72.5 (pink pine nut; PPN) and from 1.2 (PPN) to 22.5 (pistachio). Samples were rich in oleic and linoleic acids (56-87 g 100 g-1 oil). Tocopherols and tocotrienols (mg·kg-1) ranged from 48.1 (peanut) to 156.3 (almond) and 0 (almond, pecan) to 22.1 (PPN) and hydrophilic phenolics from 533 (PPN) to 12,896 (Emory oak acorn); flavonoids and condensed tannins (mg CE.100 g-1) ranged from 142 (white pine nut) to 1833 (Emory oak acorn) and 14 (PPN) to 460 (Emory oak acorn). Three principal components explained 90% of the variance associated with the diversity of antioxidant phytochemicals in samples. In vitro bioaccessibility of tocopherols, tocotrienols, hydrophilic phenolics, flavonoids, and condensed tannins ranged from 11-51%, 16-79%, 25-55%, 0-100%, and 0-94%, respectively. Multiple regression analyses revealed a potential influence of dietary fiber, fats and/or unsaturated fatty acids on phytochemical bioaccessibility, in a structure-specific manner.
Project description:Zinc is an essential trace metal for bacteria of the intestinal flora. Approximately 20% of dietary zinc - intake is used by intestinal bacteria. The microbiome has recently been described as an important factor for healthy brain function via so-called gut-brain interactions. Similarly, zinc deficiency has been associated with neurological problems such as depression, mental lethargy and cognitive impairments in humans and animal models. However, the underlying pathomechanisms are currently not well understood and a link between zinc deficiency and altered microbiota composition has not been studied. Especially during pregnancy, women may be prone to low zinc status. Thus, here, we investigate whether zinc deficiency alters gut-brain interaction in pregnant mice by triggering changes in the microbiome. To that end, pregnant mice were fed different diets being zinc-adequate, deficient in zinc, or adequate in zinc but high in zinc uptake antagonists for 8 weeks. Our results show that acute zinc-deficient pregnant mice and pregnant mice on a diet high in zinc uptake antagonists have an altered composition of gastro-intestinal (GI) microbiota. These changes were accompanied by alterations in markers for GI permeability. Within the brain, we found signs of neuroinflammation. Interestingly, microbiota composition, gut pathology, and inflammatory cytokine levels were partially rescued upon supplementation of mice with zinc amino-acid conjugates (ZnAA). We conclude that zinc deficiency may contribute to abnormal gut-brain signaling by altering gut physiology, microbiota composition and triggering an increase of inflammatory markers.
Project description:Alteration of the gut microbial population (dysbiosis) may increase the risk for allergies and other conditions. This study sought to clarify the relationship of dysbiosis with allergies in adults.Publicly available American Gut Project questionnaire and fecal 16S rRNA sequence data were analyzed. Fecal microbiota richness (number of observed species) and composition (UniFrac) were used to compare adults with versus without allergy to foods (peanuts, tree nuts, shellfish, other) and non-foods (drug, bee sting, dander, asthma, seasonal, eczema). Logistic and Poisson regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for lowest vs highest richness tertile. Taxonomy associations considered 122 non-redundant taxa (of 2379 total taxa) with ? 0.1% mean abundance.Self-reported allergy prevalence among the 1879 participants (mean age, 45.5 years; 46.9% male) was 81.5%, ranging from 2.5% for peanuts to 40.5% for seasonal. Fecal microbiota richness was markedly lower with total allergies (P = 10(-9)) and five particular allergies (P ? 10(-4)). Richness odds ratios were 1.7 (CI 1.3-2.2) with seasonal, 1.8 (CI 1.3-2.5) with drug, and 7.8 (CI 2.3-26.5) with peanut allergy. These allergic participants also had markedly altered microbial community composition (unweighted UniFrac, P = 10(-4) to 10(-7)). Total food and non-food allergies were significantly associated with 7 and 9 altered taxa, respectively. The dysbiosis was most marked with nut and seasonal allergies, driven by higher Bacteroidales and reduced Clostridiales taxa.American adults with allergies, especially to nuts and seasonal pollen, have low diversity, reduced Clostridiales, and increased Bacteroidales in their gut microbiota. This dysbiosis might be targeted to improve treatment or prevention of allergy.
Project description:Background and aimsChronic inflammation is thought to have a major role in the pathophysiology of depression. Diet has been shown to modulate the inflammatory state, thus emphasizing its potential as a therapeutic role in depression. But, little is known about the relationship between dietary intake and depression. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between major dietary patterns, a dietary inflammatory index (DII) score, and depression among women.Methods and MaterialsThis cross-sectional study included 4630 women aged 35–65 years using baseline data from the Ravansar Non-Communicable Diseases (RaNCD) cohort study in Western Iran. Diet was evaluated using a validated 125-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to determine DII scores and dietary patterns. Traditional, healthy, and unhealthy dietary patterns were extracted using factor analyses.ResultsA significant upward trend in the odds of depression was observed across the tertiles s of DII scores (P-trend: 0.019). After the adjustment for possible risk factors, a high adherence to an unhealthy dietary pattern was associated with a higher risk of depression than a low adherence (OR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.1–2.4). A high adherence to a healthy dietary pattern was associated with the lower odds (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.04–0.92). Among the main food groups, a high intake of eggs and refined grains was associated with a higher risk of depression.ConclusionIn women, a refined grain dietary pattern is a risk factor for depression, whereas a healthy dietary pattern is protective. We have also shown that adherence to a pro-inflammatory diet was significantly associated with depression. Adherence to a dietary pattern with high intakes of dairy products, seafood, red meats, nuts, vegetables, fruits, flavor, and vegetable oils and diets with low inflammatory properties were associated with a lower risk of depression in women.
Project description:The intestinal microbiota may regulate bone metabolism by reducing levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and T cells in bone tissues of oestrogen-deficient mice have been reported. Resistant starch (RS) is a type of dietary fibre and results in changes in the composition of the gut microbiota. We evaluated the effects of RS supplemented in diets on intestinal microbial composition, bone mineral density, and inflammatory-gene expression in the colon and bone marrow of ovariectomised (OVX) mice. OVX mice were divided randomly into three groups: OVX control, OVX fed a 20% high amylose corn starch (HAS) diet, and OVX fed a 20% acid-hydrolysed HAS (AH-HAS) diet. HAS and AH-HAS diets contained 6.8% and 12% of RS, respectively. After 6 weeks, treatment with HAS or AH-HAS increased the abundance of Bifidobacterium spp. in faeces. The AH-HAS diet tended to upregulate mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-10 in the colon, and downregulate expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand and IL-7 receptor genes in the bone marrow of OVX mice. AH-HAS treatment attenuated ovariectomy-induced bone loss. These findings suggest that AH-HAS might change the microbiota and immune status of the bone marrow, resulting in attenuated bone resorption in OVX mice.
Project description:Links between microbial alterations and systemic inflammation have been demonstrated in chronic disease, but little is known about these interactions during acute inflammation. This study investigates the effect of dietary supplementation with cellulose, a nonfermentable fiber, on the gut microbiota, inflammatory markers, and survival in two murine models of sepsis.Prospective experimental study.University laboratory.Six-week-old male C57BL/6 wild-type mice.Mice were assigned to low-fiber, normal-fiber, or high-fiber diets with or without antibiotics for 2 weeks and then subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture or endotoxin injection. Fecal samples were collected for microbiota analyses before and after dietary interventions.Mice that received a high-fiber diet demonstrated increased survival after cecal ligation and puncture relative to mice receiving low-fiber or normal-fiber diets. The survival benefit was associated with decreased serum concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines, reduced neutrophil infiltration in the lungs, and diminished hepatic inflammation. The high-fiber diet also increased survival after endotoxin injection. Bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences from each sample were amplified, sequenced, and analyzed. Fiber supplementation yielded an increase in relative abundance of the genera Akkermansia and Lachnospiraceae, taxa commonly associated with metabolic health. Administration of antibiotics to mice on the high-fiber diet negated the enrichment of Akkermansia species and the survival benefit after cecal ligation and puncture.Dietary supplementation with cellulose offers a microbe-mediated survival advantage in murine models of sepsis. Improved understanding of the link between diet, the microbiota, and systemic illness may yield new therapeutic strategies for patients with sepsis.
Project description:Background:This study aimed to investigate the impacts of guar gum and cellulose as the source of dietary fiber during gestation on the reproductive performance of sows. Methods:A total of 210 sows (parities 3-6) were randomly allocated into six diets (n?=?35) throughout gestation to feed graded levels of dietary fiber (DF), including a corn-soybean meal-based control diet with no wheat bran inclusion (CON, 12.5% DF), a wheat bran-rich diet (DF1, 17.4% DF), and another 4 diets (DF2, 17.7% DF; DF3, 18.1% DF; DF4, 18.4% DF; DF5, 18.8% DF) in which wheat bran were equally substituted by 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% purified FIBER MIX (guar gum and cellulose, 1:4). All sows received similar DE and other nutrients throughout gestation. Results:DF treatment during gestation resulted in normal fecal score (1 to 5 with 1?=?dry and 5?=?watery) in sows compared with those received the CON diet (P?<? 0.05). The number of total born piglets had a tendency to be affected by dietary treatment (P?=?0.07), and correlation analysis revealed a linear response of total born to dietary fiber levels during gestation (P?< 0.01). Sows received the DF2, DF3, and DF5 diets during gestation had a greater ADFI during lactation compared with those in the CON group (P?< 0.05) without affecting the daily body weight gain of suckling piglets. Gut microbiota compositions were dramatically changed by the gestation stage and some of those were changed by DF inclusion. Fecal acetate, propionate, and butyrate of sows were markedly increased in late gestation, and butyrate contents in feces of gestating sows were significantly affected by DF levels (P?< 0.01). Serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory TNF-? were decreased and anti-inflammatory IL-10 was increased on day 30 of gestation by DF levels (P?< 0.05). Conclusions:In summary, increasing dietary fiber levels by guar gum and cellulose during gestation improved the reproductive performance of sows, which might be related to changes in immunity and gut microbiota of sows.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To keep global warming <1.5°C as recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), eating patterns must change. However, future diets should be modeled at a national level and respect cultural acceptability. OBJECTIVES:We aimed to identify diets among Dutch adults satisfying nutritional and selected environmental requirements while deviating minimally from the baseline diet among Dutch adults. METHODS:We calculated per capita food system greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) targets derived from the IPCC 1.5-degree assessment study. Using individual adult dietary intake from the National Food Consumption Survey in the Netherlands (2007-2010) to form a baseline, we used quadratic optimization to generate diets that followed the baseline Dutch diet as closely as possible, while satisfying nutritional goals and remaining below GHGE targets. We considered 12 scenarios in which we varied GHGE targets [2050: 1.11 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent (kg CO2-eq) per person per day (pppd); 2030: 2.04 kg CO2-eq pppd; less strict 2030: 2.5 kg CO2-eq pppd; no target], modeled eating patterns (food-based dietary guidelines; flexitarian; pescatarian; lacto-ovo-vegetarian; vegan), and conducted exploratory analyses (food diversity; acceptability; food chain interdependency). RESULTS:Optimized solutions for 2030 required major decreases (<33% of baseline values) in consumption of beef, pork, cheese, snacks, and butter and increased consumption (>150% of baseline values) of legumes, fish and shellfish, peanuts, tree nuts, vegetables, soy foods, and soy drink. Eight food groups were within 33%-150% of the baseline diet among Dutch adults. The optimized solution complying to the lowest GHGE target (2050) lacked food diversity, and the (lacto-ovo) vegetarian and vegan optimized diets were prone to nutritional inadequacies. CONCLUSIONS:Within Dutch eating habits, satisfying optimization constraints required a shift away from beef, cheese, butter, and snacks toward plant-based foods and fish and shellfish, questioning acceptability. Satisfying 2050 food system GHGE targets will require research in consumer preferences and breakthrough innovations in food production and processing.