Isoflavone Supplementation Does Not Potentiate the Effect of Combined Exercise Training on Resting and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Non-Obese Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial-A Pilot Study.
ABSTRACT: Physical exercise and isoflavone supplementation are potential strategies to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are additive effects of isoflavone supplementation when associated with combined aerobic and resistance exercise on resting and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and in blood pressure variability (BPV). Thirty-one non-obese postmenopausal women were randomly allocated into two groups: placebo and exercise (Placebo n = 19); and isoflavone supplementation (100 mg/day) and exercise (isoflavone n = 19). ABPM and BPV were evaluated before and after 10 weeks of moderate combined (aerobic and resistance) exercise training. Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) with Bonferroni correction and intention-to-treat analysis was used to compare the effects of interventions on resting BP, ABPM and BPV. Combined exercise training decreased resting systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and reduced 24 h and awake ambulatory SBP, DBP and mean blood pressure over time, with no additional effects of isoflavone supplementation. No changes were observed in sleep period, or in BPV indexes (Standard Deviation of 24 h (SD), daytime and nighttime interval (SDdn) and average real variability (ARV) in both groups. We conclude that isoflavone supplementation does not potentiate the effects of combined training on resting and ambulatorial systolic and diastolic blood pressure in non-obese postmenopausal women.
Project description:This study tested the effect of isoflavone supplementation in addition to combined exercise training on plasma lipid levels, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women. Thirty-two healthy and non-obese postmenopausal women without hormone therapy were randomly assigned to exercise + placebo (PLA; n = 15) or exercise + isoflavone supplementation (ISO; n = 17) groups. They performed 30 sessions of combined exercises (aerobic plus resistance) over ten weeks and consumed 100 mg of isoflavone supplementation or placebo. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast to analyze the lipid profile, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (FRAP), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), before and after ten weeks of the intervention. There were no differences in the changes (pre vs. post) between groups for any of the inflammatory markers, oxidative stress markers or lipid profile variables. However, interleukin-8 was different between pre- and post-tests (p < 0.001) in both groups (Δ = 7.61 and 5.61 pg/mL) as were cholesterol levels (p < 0.05), with no interaction between groups. The combination of isoflavone supplementation and exercise training did not alter oxidative stress markers in postmenopausal women, but exercise training alone may increase IL-8 and decrease total cholesterol levels.
Project description:This study tested the effect of isoflavone supplementation in addition to combined exercise training in salivary oxidative stress markers in non-obese postmenopausal women. Thirty-two postmenopausal women without hormone therapy were randomly assigned to exercise + placebo (n = 15) or exercise + isoflavone supplementation (n = 17) groups. They performed 30 sessions of combined exercises (aerobic plus resistance) over ten weeks and consumed 100 mg of isoflavone supplementation or placebo. Saliva samples were collected after an overnight fast. Superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, catalase, total protein and nitrite were determined before and after ten weeks of the intervention. The ANOVA two-way analysis of variance was applied with ? of 5%. Both groups increase (p<0.05) superoxide dismutase activity and decrease catalase levels. There was interaction (time × group) in both nitrite and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances results, with increase (p<0.05) in placebo group and decrease (p<0.05) in isoflavone group. No difference was found for total antioxidant capacity or total protein. The combination of isoflavone supplementation and exercise training can promote an antioxidant effect through reduction of lipid peroxidation and concentrations of salivary nitrite.
Project description:The prognostic value of the short-term blood pressure variability (BPV) from the 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) remains controversial. The present study aimed to investigate the long-term prognostic value of a high BPV in normotensive and hypertensive subjects from a community-based population.A cohort of 624 normotensive and 633 untreated hypertensive Taiwanese participants (overall 669 men, aged 30-79 years) with baseline ABPM and 20-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality data was drawn from a community-based survey. BPV was assessed by the read-to-read average real variability of the 24-hour diastolic and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (ARVd and ARVs, respectively).In Cox proportional hazards analysis, ARVd predicted cardiovascular mortality independently of office SBP (hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) per 1 SD: 1.31 (1.10-1.55), respectively, bivariate analysis), 24-hour SBP (HR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.00-1.43), and conventional risk factors (age, sex, smoking, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose, HR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.18-1.67). In subjects with hypertension, a high vs. low ARVd (median: 8.8mm Hg) significantly predicted cardiovascular mortality (HR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.23-3.62 and HR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.19-3.51, respectively), when the conventional risk factors plus office SBP or 24-hour SBP were accounted for, respectively. Similar but less significant results were obtained with ARVs. A high ARVd or ARVs did not significantly predict cardiovascular mortality in the normotensive subjects.A high short-term BPV is significantly predictive of long-term cardiovascular mortality in untreated hypertensive but not normotensive community-based subjects, independently of office or 24-hour SBP.
Project description:Blood pressure variability (BPV) was proved as a cardiovascular risk factor. One of its mechanisms is related to arterial stiffness and ventriculo-arterial coupling; however its impact on subclinical cardiovascular dysfunction has not been evaluated yet.To assess the relationship between BPV on 24 hours, and subclinical left ventricle (LV), renal, and vascular dysfunction in diabetic and hypertensive patients.We studied 56 patients (57±9 years, 29 men) with mild-to-moderate hypertension and type 2 diabetes, no cardiovascular disease, normal ejection fraction and normal renal function. 24 hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was used to assess BPV, daytime (d) and night time (n), by: 1. mean (M); 2. standard deviation of mean (SD); 3. variance (Vr); 4. coefficient of variation (CV); 5. day/night variation: reverse dippers, non-dippers, dippers and extreme dippers; conventional and 2D speckle tracking echo to assess LV function; myocardial deformation was measured as global longitudinal strain (GLS). Endothelial (flow mediated dilation, FMD) and arterial function (intima media-thickness, IMT; pulse wave velocity, PWV), microalbuminuria were tested.Daytime BPV correlates inversely with subclinical myocardial function evaluated through GLS. Daytime systolic BPV correlates positively with IMT (all rho > 0.30, all p < 0.05). Also, there is a significantly inverse correlation between mean BP and GLS. We found a direct correlation between mean BP, but not BPV, and microalbuminuria (all rho > - 0.30 and all p < 0.05). We found no correlation between BPV and FMD, PWV. There were no differences for GLS, microalbuminuria and FMD between dipper groups.In diabetic patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension, increased daytime blood pressure variability correlates with subclinical left ventricular dysfunction and arterial function (IMT), while microalbuminuria correlates with elevated blood pressure, but not with blood pressure variability.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Exercise intolerance was prevalent in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and had a detrimental effect on the quality of life. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nitrate supplementation in exercise tolerance of people with COPD.<h4>Methods</h4>We searched medical databases including Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and PubMed from inception to October 2020 for randomized control trials in treating COPD with nitrate supplementation.<h4>Results</h4>Nine trials were identified. Compared with placebo, nitrate supplementation has no significant effect on the following variables: exercise endurance time (standard mean difference [SMD]: 0.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.39 to 0.52; P = .79), exercise capacity (SMD: 0.30; 95% CI: -0.21 to 0.80; P = .25), oxygen consumption (SMD: -0.04; 95% CI: -0.33 to 0.25; P = .80), resting systolic blood pressure (MD: -2.84; 95% CI: -8.46 to 2.78; P = .32), systolic blood pressure after exercise (MD: -4.66; 95% CI -15.66 to 6.34; P = .41), resting diastolic blood pressure (MD: 0.89; 95% CI: -4.41 to 6.19; P = .74), diastolic blood pressure after exercise (MD: -0.21; 95% CI: -5.51 to 5.10; P = .94), heart rate (MD: -2.52; 95% CI: -7.76 to 2.73; P = .35), and arterial oxygen saturation (MD: -0.44; 95% CI: -2.38 to 1.49; P = .65). No severe adverse effects from nitrate supplementation were reported in the included trails.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Current evidence suggests that nitrate supplementation may be safe but ineffective for improving exercise tolerance in people with COPD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>A high 24-hour ambulatory diastolic (DBP) but not systolic (SBP) blood pressure variability (BPV) is significantly predictive of long-term cardiovascular mortality in untreated hypertensive subjects, independent of office or 24-hour SBP. The present study was aimed to investigate hemodynamic factors that are independently associated with systolic and diastolic BPV from the 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM).<h4>Methods</h4>A cohort of 624 normotensive and 633 untreated hypertensive participants with baseline ABPM was drawn from a community-based survey. BPV was assessed by the read-to-read average real variability of the 24-hour SBP and DBP (ARVs and ARVd, respectively). Hemodynamic variables including total peripheral resistance (TPR), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), and amplitudes of the decomposed forward (Pf) and backward (Pb) carotid pressure waves were analyzed.<h4>Results</h4>In multivariable analyses, hemodynamic variables independently associated with 24-hour SBP were 24-hour heart rate (HR), TPR, cf-PWV, Pf, and Pb (model r2 = 0.535). Hemodynamic factors independently associated with ARV were 24-hour HR, Pf, and Pb for ARVs, and 24-hour HR, cf-PWV, Pf, and Pb for ARVd (model R2 = 0.345 and 0.220, respectively). Addition of 24-hour SBP to the ARV models only slightly improved variance explained by the models (R2 = 0.383 and 0.224, respectively). Pb accounted for >50% of total variance of ARVs and ARVd, whereas cf-PWV was a minor determinant of ARVd (<5% of total variance).<h4>Conclusions</h4>ARVd was associated with fewer hemodynamic variables than to 24-hour SBP. Among those hemodynamic variables wave reflection but not arterial stiffness had the dominant independent association with ARV.
Project description:Exercise has widely documented cardioprotective effects, but the mechanisms underlying these effects are not entirely known. Previously, we demonstrated that aerobic but not strength training lowered resting heart rate and increased cardiac vagal regulation, changes that were reversed by sedentary deconditioning. Here, we focus on the sympathetic nervous system and test whether aerobic training lowers levels of cardiovascular sympathetic activity in rest and that deconditioning would reverse this effect.We conducted a randomized controlled trial contrasting the effects of aerobic (A) versus strength (S) training on indices of cardiac (preejection period, or PEP) and vascular (low-frequency blood pressure variability, or LF BPV) sympathetic regulation in 149 young, healthy, and sedentary adults. Participants were studied before and after conditioning, as well as after 4 weeks of sedentary deconditioning.As previously reported, aerobic capacity increased in response to conditioning and decreased after deconditioning in the aerobic, but not the strength, training group. Contrary to prediction, there was no differential effect of training on either PEP (A: mean [SD] -0.83 [7.8] milliseconds versus S: 1.47 [6.69] milliseconds) or LF BPV (A: mean [SD] -0.09 [0.93] ln mm Hg(2) versus S: 0.06 [0.79] ln mm Hg(2)) (both p values > .05).These findings, from a large randomized controlled trial using an intent-to-treat design, show that moderate aerobic exercise training has no effect on resting state cardiovascular indices of PEP and LF BPV. These results indicate that in healthy, young adults, the cardioprotective effects of exercise training are unlikely to be mediated by changes in resting sympathetic activity.Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00358137.
Project description:Abnormally elevated exercise blood pressure is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Aerobic exercise training has been shown to reduce exercise blood pressure. However, it is unknown whether these improvements occur in a dose-dependent manner. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different doses of aerobic exercise training on exercise blood pressure in obese postmenopausal women.Participants (N = 404) were randomized to one of four groups--groups with 4, 8, or 12 kcal/kg of energy expenditure per week or a nonexercise control group--for 6 months. Exercise blood pressure was obtained during the 50-watt stage of a cycle ergometer maximal exercise test.There was a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure at 50 watts in the 4 kcal/kg per week (-10.9 mm Hg, P < 0.001), 8 kcal/kg per week (-9.9 mm Hg, P = 0.022), and 12 kcal/kg per week (-13.7 mm Hg, P < 0.001) compared with control (-4.2 mm Hg). Only the highest exercise training dose significantly reduced diastolic blood pressure (-4.3 mm Hg, P = 0.033) compared with control. In addition, resting blood pressure was not altered after exercise training (P > 0.05) compared with control and was not associated with changes in exercise systolic (r = 0.09, P = 0.09) or diastolic (r = 0.10, P = 0.08) blood pressure.Aerobic exercise training reduces exercise blood pressure and may be more modifiable than changes in resting blood pressure. A high dose of aerobic exercise is recommended to successfully reduce both exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure and therefore may attenuate the cardiovascular disease risk associated with abnormally elevated exercise blood pressure.
Project description:PURPOSE:Consumption of nitrate-rich beetroot juice can lower blood pressure in peripheral as well as central arteries and may exert additional hemodynamic benefits (e.g. reduced aortic wave reflections). The specific influence of nitrate supplementation on arterial pressures and aortic wave properties in postmenopausal women, a group that experiences accelerated increases in these variables with age, is unknown. Accordingly, the primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of consuming nitrate-rich beetroot juice on resting brachial and aortic blood pressures (BP) and pulse wave characteristics in a group of healthy postmenopausal women, in comparison to a true (nitrate-free beetroot juice) placebo. METHODS:Brachial (oscillometric cuff) and radial (SphygmoCor) pressures and derived-aortic waveforms were measured during supine rest in thirteen healthy postmenopausal women (63?±?1?yr) before and 100?min after consumption of 140?ml of either nitrate-rich (9.7?mmol, 0.6?gm NO3-) or nitrate-depleted beetroot juice on randomized visits approximately 10 days apart (cross-over design). Ten young premenopausal women (22?±?1?yr) served as a reference (non-supplemented) cohort. RESULTS:Brachial and derived-aortic variables showed the expected age-associated differences in these women (all p?<?0.05). In post-menopausal women, nitrate supplementation reduced (p?<?0.05 vs. placebo visit) brachial systolic BP (BRnitrate -4.9?±?2.1?mmHg vs BRplacebo +1.1 ± 1.8 mmHg), brachial mean BP (BRnitrate -4.1?±?1.7?mmHg vs BRplacebo +0.9 ± 1.3 mmHg), aortic systolic BP (BRnitrate -6.3?±?2.0?mmHg vs BRplacebo +0.5 ± 1.7 mmHg) and aortic mean BP (BRnitrate -4.1?±?1.7?mmHg vs BRplacebo +0.9 ± 1.3 mmHg), and increased pulse pressure amplification (BRnitrate +4.6 ± 2.0% vs BRplacebo +0.7 ± 2.5%, p = 0.04), but did not alter aortic pulse wave velocity or any other derived-aortic variables (e.g., augmentation pressure or index). CONCLUSIONS:Dietary nitrate supplementation favorably modifies aortic systolic and mean blood pressure under resting conditions in healthy postmenopausal women. Acute supplementation of nitrate does not, however, appear to restore indices of aortic stiffness in this group. Future work should evaluate chronic, long-term effects of this non-pharmacological supplement.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Sodium bicarbonate supplementation is a mainstay in the treatment of metabolic acidosis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent studies showed reduction of progression of CKD and reduced all-cause mortality. However, additional sodium loading could worsen arterial hypertension, a well-known contributor to progression of CKD. This patient-relevant and economically negative side effect is under-studied in prospective studies up until now. <b>Objective:</b> The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of sodium bicarbonate treatment on arterial blood pressure at baseline and after 8 weeks. <b>Methods:</b> The SoBic study is an ongoing randomized controlled trial, in which patients with CKD receive either a high dose of oral sodium bicarbonate or a rescue treatment, if necessary. We used standardized office blood pressure and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (24h-ABPM). Regression models were adjusted for estimated glomerular filtration rate and change of antihypertensives. <b>Results:</b> 47 subjects were enrolled and the mean age was 57 (±14.6) years and 18 (38%) were female. In 43 randomized subjects with sufficiently performed 24h-ABPM neither systolic 24h-ABPM (2.522; 95%CI: -2.364, 7.408; mmHg) nor diastolic 24h-ABPM (0.868; 95%CI: -2.411, 4.147; mmHg) was affected by study group allocation. When looking at the effect of individual sodium bicarbonate dose on 24h-ABPM, the fully adjusted model suggested an increase of 0.047 (95%CI: -0.026, 0.119) mmHg by each mg/kg <i>per</i> day increase of sodium bicarbonate dose. <b>Conclusion:</b> Sodium bicarbonate supplementation over 8 weeks did not significantly increase blood pressure measured by 24h-ABPM in CKD patients. <b>Trial Registration:</b> EUDRACT Number: 2012-001824-36; 12/07/2012 (https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu).