Alcohol-free hand sanitizer and other quaternary ammonium disinfectants quickly and effectively inactivate SARS-CoV-2.
ABSTRACT: SARS-CoV-2 is the virus responsible for the current global pandemic, COVID-19. Because this virus is novel, little is known about its sensitivity to disinfection. In this study, we performed suspension tests against SARS-CoV-2 using three commercially available quaternary ammonium compound (Quat) disinfectants and one laboratory-made 0.2% benzalkonium chloride solution. Three of the four formulations completely inactivated the virus within 15 seconds of contact, even in the presence of a soil load or when diluted in hard water. We conclude that Quats rapidly inactivate SARS-CoV-2, making them potentially useful for controlling SARS-CoV-2 spread in hospitals and the community.
Project description:While the misuse of antibiotics has clearly contributed to the emergence and proliferation of resistant bacterial pathogens, with major health consequences, it remains less clear if the widespread use of disinfectants, such as benzalkonium chlorides (BAC), a different class of biocides than antibiotics, has contributed to this problem. Here, we provide evidence that exposure to BAC coselects for antibiotic-resistant bacteria and describe the underlying genetic mechanisms. After inoculation with river sediment, BAC-fed bioreactors selected for several bacterial taxa, including the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, that were more resistant to several antibiotics than their counterparts in a control (no BAC) bioreactor. A metagenomic analysis of the bioreactor microbial communities, confirmed by gene cloning experiments with the derived isolates, suggested that integrative and conjugative elements encoding a BAC efflux pump together with antibiotic resistance genes were responsible for these results. Furthermore, the exposure of the P. aeruginosa isolates to increasing concentrations of BAC selected for mutations in pmrB (polymyxin resistance) and physiological adaptations that contributed to a higher tolerance to polymyxin B and other antibiotics. The physiological adaptations included the overexpression of mexCD-oprJ multidrug efflux pump genes when BAC was added in the growth medium at subinhibitory concentrations. Collectively, our results demonstrated that disinfectants promote antibiotic resistance via several mechanisms and highlight the need to remediate (degrade) disinfectants in nontarget environments to further restrain the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.IMPORTANCE Benzalkonium chlorides (BAC) are biocides broadly used in disinfectant solutions. Disinfectants are widely used in food processing lines, domestic households, and pharmaceutical products and are typically designed to have a different mode of action than antibiotics to avoid interfering with the use of the latter. Whether exposure to BAC makes bacteria more resistant to antibiotics remains an unresolved issue of obvious practical consequences for public health. Using an integrated approach that combines metagenomics of natural microbial communities with gene cloning experiments with isolates and experimental evolution assays, we show that the widely used benzalkonium chloride disinfectants promote clinically relevant antibiotic resistance. Therefore, more attention should be given to the usage of these disinfectants, and their fate in nontarget environments should be monitored more tightly.
Project description:Pseudomonas sp. strain BIOMIG1BAC is an antibiotic-resistant gammaproteobacterium that can completely mineralize different homologs of benzalkonium chloride disinfectants. Here, we report the annotated complete genome sequence of this microorganism, which includes one circular chromosome with a length of 7,675,262 bp.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Chemical disinfection is state of the art in preventing spread of infectious agents in the healthcare setting. Additionally, the antimicrobial properties of solid copper alloy surfaces against various microorganisms have recently been substantiated. Thus, antimicrobially active copper surfaces may serve as an additional barrier against distribution of pathogenic microorganisms and be combined with chemical disinfection measures in the hospital. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate on a quantitative basis whether the combination of chemical disinfectants with copper alloy surfaces results in an overall compromised, combined or even synergistic antimicrobial efficacy. METHODS:Experiments were carried out using the quantitative carrier test devised by the German Society for Hygiene and Microbiology (DGHM) to study antimicrobial efficacy of chemical disinfectants. Requirements for microbicidal efficacy as defined by prEN 14885 were applied. The chemical disinfectants tested in our study contained alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol), quaternary ammonium compounds (benzalkonium chloride) and glutaraldehyde as actives. Quantitative carrier tests were carried out on different carriers (tiles, copper alloy discs, stainless steel discs) using Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Kocuria rhizophila and Candida albicans as test organisms. RESULTS:For the alcohol-based disinfectant no difference in antimicrobial efficacy was observed when applied to antimicrobial active copper alloy carriers, tiles or stainless steel discs. For all test organisms microbial contamination was reduced to the detection limit of < 1 log (CFU/ml) within a contact time of 2 min indicating a ? 5 log reduction for the tested bacteria and a ? 4 log reduction for the yeast, as being requested for chemical disinfectants by prEN 14885. In order to elucidate a potential synergism the chemical disinfectant based on quaternary ammonium compounds (benzalkonium chloride) and glutaraldehyde was used at a sub-effective concentration. Hence, no complete reduction of microbial contamination was achieved on stainless steel or tile carriers for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Interestingly, when using copper alloy carriers complete reduction indicating a ? 5 log reduction for P. aeruginosa and a ? 4 log reduction for C. albicans was detected. Thus, data of this study indicates that solid copper alloy surfaces and disinfectants synergize. CONCLUSIONS:According to this data, commercially available disinfectants based on alcohol, quaternary ammonium compounds and aldehyde can effectively be combined in a dual strategy with solid copper alloy surfaces to reduce microbial contamination.
Project description:Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out with a view to investigating the stability of the SARS-CoV-2 exterior membrane with respect to two common disinfectants, namely, aqueous solutions of ethanol and n-propanol. We used dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) as a model membrane material and did simulations on both gel and liquid crystalline phases of membrane surrounded by aqueous solutions of varying alcohol concentrations (up to 17.5 mol %). While a moderate effect of alcohol on the gel phase of membrane is observed, its liquid crystalline phase is shown to be influenced dramatically by either alcohol. Our results show that aqueous solutions of only 5 and 10 mol % alcohol already have significant weakening effects on the membrane. The effects of n-propanol are always stronger than those of ethanol. The membrane changes its structure, when exposed to disinfectant solutions; uptake of alcohol causes it to swell laterally but to shrink vertically. At the same time, the orientational order of lipid tails decreases significantly. Metadynamics and grand-canonical ensemble simulations were done to calculate the free-energy profiles for permeation of alcohol and alcohol/water solubility in the DPPC. We found that the free-energy barrier to permeation of the DPPC liquid crystalline phase by all permeants is significantly lowered by alcohol uptake. At a disinfectant concentration of 10 mol %, it becomes insignificant enough to allow almost free passage of the disinfectant to the inside of the virus to cause damage there. It should be noted that the disinfectant also causes the barrier for water permeation to drop. Furthermore, the shrinking of the membrane thickness shortens the gap needed to be crossed by penetrants from outside the virus into its core. The lateral swelling also increases the average distance between head groups, which is a secondary barrier to membrane penetration, and hence further increases the penetration by disinfectants. At alcohol concentrations in the disinfectant solution above 15 mol %, we reliably observe disintegration of the DPPC membrane in its liquid crystalline phase.
Project description:Antimicrobial chemicals are widely applied to clean and disinfect food-contacting surfaces. However, the cellular response of bacteria, such as Bacillus cereus, to various disinfectants is unclear. In this study, the physiological and genome-wide transcriptional responses of B. cereus ATCC 14579 exposed to four different disinfectants (i.e., benzalkonium chloride, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and peracetic acid) were analyzed. The physiological response of B. cereus to different concentrations of the disinfectants used was investigated. For each disinfectant, concentrations leading to the attenuation of growth, growth arrest, and cell death were studied in more detail. The simultaneous analysis of the transcriptional responses of B. cereus upon exposure to the different concentrations of disinfectants revealed common responses induced by the four disinfectants. Notably, genes involved in the general and oxidative stress responses were commonly up-regulated. Furthermore, the obtained results indicate that all the disinfectants also induce specific responses. Exposure to benzalkonium chloride, a disinfectant known to induce membrane damage, specifically induced genes involved in the fatty acid metabolism. Benzalkonium chloride induced-membrane damage was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and fatty acid analysis confirmed that fatty acid composition of cell membrane was affected upon exposure to benzalkonium chloride. Sodium hypochlorite induced genes involved in sulfur and sulfur-containing amino acids metabolism, which correlated with the observed sodium hypochlorite-specific induction of oxidation of sulphydryl groups. Hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid exposures induced genes involved in DNA damage and the SOS response. Notably, hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid-treated cells exhibited higher mutation rates corroborating with the induced SOS response. Understanding the mechanisms displayed by microorganisms coping with disinfectants-induced stress may allow for design of more efficient sequential and/or disinfectant combination treatments in food processing environments. Overall design: Each sample was treated for 10 and 30 min with different disinfectants (i.e., benzalkonium chloride, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and peracetic acid) and compared with non-exposed cells (i.e., t0). For each disinfectant different concentrations were used: mild concentration, growth arresting concentrations (only for benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite), and lethal concentrations. The experiments were performed in duplicate and the duplicate samples were hybridized with a dye-swap.
Project description:Novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), influenza A virus (IAV), and norovirus (NV) are highly contagious pathogens that threaten human health. Here we focused on the antiviral potential of the medicinal herb, Saxifraga spinulosa (SS). Water-soluble extracts of SS were prepared, and their virus-inactivating activity was evaluated against the human virus pathogens SARS-CoV-2 and IAV; we also examined virucidal activity against feline calicivirus and murine norovirus, which are surrogates for human NV. Among our findings, we found that SS-derived gallocatechin gallate compounds were capable of inactivating all viruses tested. Interestingly, a pyrogallol-enriched fraction (Fr 1C) inactivated all viruses more rapidly and effectively than did any of the component compounds used alone. We found that 25 µg/mL of Fr 1C inactivated >99.6% of SARS-CoV-2 within 10 s (reduction of ?2.33 log10 TCID50/mL). Fr 1C resulted in the disruption of viral genomes and proteins as determined by gel electrophoresis, electron microscopy, and reverse transcription-PCR. Taken together, our results reveal the potential of Fr 1C for development as a novel antiviral disinfectant.
Project description:A recombinant SARS-CoV lacking the envelope (E) protein is attenuated in vivo. Here we report that E protein PDZ-binding motif (PBM), a domain involved in protein-protein interactions, is a major virulence determinant in vivo. Elimination of SARS-CoV E protein PBM by using reverse genetics led to attenuated viruses (SARS-CoV-mutPBM) and to a reduction in the deleterious exacerbate immune response triggered during infection with the parental virus (SARS-CoV-wt). Cellular protein syntenin bound E protein PBM during SARS-CoV infection. Syntenin activates p38 MAPK leading to overexpression of inflammatory cytokines, and we have shown that active p38 MAPK was reduced in lungs of mice infected with SARS-CoVs lacking E protein PBM (SARS-CoV-mutPBM) as compared with the parental virus (SARS-CoV-wt), leading to a decreased expression of inflammatory cytokines and to viral attenuation. Therefore, E protein PBM is a virulence factor that activates pathogenic immune response most likely by using syntenin as a mediator of p38 MAPK induced inflammation. Three biological replicates were independently hybridized (one channel per slide) for each sample type (SARS-CoV-wt, SARS-CoV-mutPBM, Mock). Slides were Sure Print G3 Agilent 8x60K Mouse (G4852A-028005)
Project description:Bacteria in nature often encounter non-antibiotic antibacterials (NAAs), such as disinfectants and heavy metals, and they can evolve resistance via mechanisms that are also involved in antibiotic resistance. Understanding whether susceptibility to different types of antibacterials is non-randomly associated across natural and clinical bacteria is therefore important for predicting the spread of resistance, yet there is no consensus about the extent of such associations or underlying mechanisms. We tested for associations between susceptibility phenotypes of 93 natural and clinical Escherichia coli isolates to various NAAs and antibiotics. Across all compound combinations, we detected a small number of non-random associations, including a trio of positive associations among chloramphenicol, triclosan and benzalkonium chloride. We investigated genetic mechanisms that can explain such associations using genomic information, genetic knockouts and experimental evolution. This revealed some mutations that are selected for by experimental exposure to one compound and confer cross-resistance to other compounds. Surprisingly, these interactions were asymmetric: selection for chloramphenicol resistance conferred cross-resistance to triclosan and benzalkonium chloride, but selection for triclosan resistance did not confer cross-resistance to other compounds. These results identify genetic changes involved in variable cross-resistance across antibiotics and NAAs, potentially contributing to associations in natural and clinical bacteria.
Project description:SARS-CoV-2, SARS and MERS are all enveloped viruses that can cause acute respiratory syndrome. Arachidonic acid (AA) and other unsaturated fatty acids (especially eicosapentaenoic acd, EPA and docosahexaenoic acid DHA) are known to inactivate enveloped viruses and inhibit proliferation of various microbial organisms. The pro-inflammatory metabolites of AA and EPA such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes induce inflammation whereas lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins derived from AA, EPA and DHA not only suppress inflammation but also enhance would healing and augment phagocytosis of macrophages and other immunocytes and decrease microbial load. In view of these actions, it is suggested that AA and other unsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites may serve as endogenous anti-viral compounds and their deficiency may render humans susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, SARS and MERS and other similar viruses' infections. Hence, oral or intravenous administration of AA and other unsaturated fatty acids may aid in enhancing resistance and recovery from SARS-CoV-2, SARS and MERS infections.
Project description:The COVID-19 infection, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is inequitably distributed and more lethal among populations with lower socioeconomic status. Direct contact with contaminated surfaces has been among the virus sources, as it remains infective up to days. Several disinfectants have been shown to inactivate SARS-CoV-2, but they rapidly evaporate, are flammable or toxic and may be scarce or inexistent for vulnerable populations. Therefore, we are proposing simple, easy to prepare, low-cost and efficient antiviral films, made with a widely available dishwashing detergent, which can be spread on hands and inanimate surfaces and is expected to maintain virucidal activity for longer periods than the current sanitizers. Avian coronavirus (ACoV) was used as model of the challenge to test the antivirus efficacy of the proposed films. Polystyrene petri dishes were covered with a thin layer of detergent formula. After drying, the films were exposed to different virus doses for 10 min and virus infectivity was determined using embryonated chicken eggs, and RNA virus quantification in allantoic fluids by RT-qPCR. The films inactivated the ACoV (ranging from 103.7 to 106.7 EID50), which is chemically and morphologically similar to SARS-CoV-2, and may constitute an excellent alternative to minimize the spread of COVID-19.