Detailed In Vitro Pharmacological Characterization of Clinically Tested Negative Allosteric Modulators of the Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5.
ABSTRACT: Negative allosteric modulation of the metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptor has emerged as a potential strategy for the treatment of neurologic disorders. Despite the success in preclinical studies, many mGlu5 negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) that have reached clinical trials failed due to lack of efficacy. In this study, we provide a detailed in vitro pharmacological characterization of nine clinically and preclinically tested NAMs. We evaluated inhibition of l-glutamate-induced signaling with Ca2+ mobilization, inositol monophosphate (IP1) accumulation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation, and real-time receptor internalization assays on rat mGlu5 expressed in HEK293A cells. Moreover, we determined association rates (kon) and dissociation rates (koff), as well as NAM affinities with [3H]methoxy-PEPy binding experiments. kon and koff values varied greatly between the nine NAMs (34- and 139-fold, respectively) resulting in long receptor residence times (>400 min) for basimglurant and mavoglurant, medium residence times (10-30 min) for AZD2066, remeglurant, and (RS)-remeglurant, and low residence times (<10 mins) for dipraglurant, F169521, F1699611, and STX107. We found that all NAMs inhibited l-glutamate-induced mGlu5 receptor internalization, generally with a similar potency to IP1 accumulation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, whereas Ca2+ mobilization was less potently inhibited. Operational model of allosterism analyses revealed that dipraglurant and (RS)-remeglurant were biased toward (affinity) receptor internalization and away (cooperativity) from the ERK1/2 phosphorylation pathway, respectively. Our study is the first to measure mGlu5 NAM binding kinetics and negative allosteric modulation of mGlu5 receptor internalization and adds significant new knowledge about the molecular pharmacology of a diverse range of clinically relevant NAMs. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptor is important in many brain functions and implicated in several neurological pathologies. Negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) have shown promising results in preclinical models but have so far failed in human clinical trials. Here we provide the most comprehensive and comparative molecular pharmacological study to date of nine preclinically/clinically tested NAMs at the mGlu5 receptor, which is also the first study to measure ligand binding kinetics and negative allosteric modulation of mGlu5 receptor internalization.
Project description:Non-selective antagonists of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes 2 (mGlu<sub>2</sub>) and 3 (mGlu<sub>3</sub>) exert rapid antidepressant-like effects by enhancing prefrontal cortex (PFC) glutamate transmission; however, the receptor subtype contributions and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we leveraged newly developed negative allosteric modulators (NAMs), transgenic mice, and viral-assisted optogenetics to test the hypothesis that selective inhibition of mGlu<sub>2</sub> or mGlu<sub>3</sub> potentiates PFC excitatory transmission and confers antidepressant efficacy in preclinical models. We found that systemic treatment with an mGlu<sub>2</sub> or mGlu<sub>3</sub> NAM rapidly activated biophysically unique PFC pyramidal cell ensembles. Mechanistic studies revealed that mGlu<sub>2</sub> and mGlu<sub>3</sub> NAMs enhance thalamocortical transmission and inhibit long-term depression by mechanistically distinct presynaptic and postsynaptic actions. Consistent with these actions, systemic treatment with either NAM decreased passive coping and reversed anhedonia in two independent chronic stress models, suggesting that both mGlu<sub>2</sub> and mGlu<sub>3</sub> NAMs induce antidepressant-like effects through related but divergent mechanisms of action.
Project description:Altered glutamatergic neurotransmission is linked to several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGlu?) plays an important role on the presynaptic control of glutamate release and negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) acting on mGlu?/? receptors are under assessment for their potential as antidepressants, neurogenics and cognitive enhancers. Two new potent mGlu?/? NAMs, RO4988546 and RO5488608, are described in this study and the allosteric binding site in the transmembrane (TM) domain of mGlu? is characterized.Site directed mutagenesis, functional measurements and ??-adrenoceptor-based modelling of mGlu? were employed to identify important molecular determinants of two new potent mGlu?/? NAMs.RO4988546 and RO5488608 affected both [³H]-LY354740 agonist binding at the orthosteric site and the binding of a tritiated positive allosteric modulator (³H-PAM), indicating that NAMs and PAMs could have overlapping binding sites in the mGlu? TM domain. We identified eight residues in the allosteric binding pocket that are crucial for non-competitive antagonism of agonist-dependent activation of mGlu? and directly interact with the NAMs: Arg³·²?, Arg³·²?, Phe³·³?, His(E2.52) , Leu?·?³, Trp?·??, Phe?·?? and Val?·?³. The mGlu? specific residue His(E2.52) is likely to be involved in selectivity and residues located in the outer part of the binding pocket are more important for [³H]-LY354740 agonist binding inhibition, which is independent of the highly conserved Trp?·?? residue.This is the first complete molecular investigation of the allosteric binding pocket of mGlu? and Group II mGluRs and provides new information on what determines mGlu? NAMs selective interactions and effects.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The mGlu(7) receptors are strategically located at the site of vesicle fusion where they modulate the release of the main excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Consequently, they are implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of CNS diseases such as epilepsy and stress-related psychiatric disorders. Here, we characterized a selective, potent and functional anti-mGlu(7) monoclonal antibody, MAB1/28, that triggers receptor internalization. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: MAB1/28's activity was investigated using Western blot and direct immunofluorescence on live cells, in vitro pharmacology by functional cAMP and [(35) S]-GTP? binding assays, the kinetics of IgG-induced internalization by image analysis, and the activation of the ERK1/2 by elisa. KEY RESULTS: mGlu(7) /mGlu(6) chimeric studies located the MAB1/28 binding site at the extracellular amino-terminus of mGlu(7) . MAB1/28 potently antagonized both orthosteric and allosteric agonist-induced inhibition of cAMP accumulation. The potency of the antagonistic actions was similar to the potency in triggering receptor internalization. The internalization mechanism occurred via a pertussis toxin-insensitive pathway and did not require G?(i) protein activation. MAB1/28 activated ERK1/2 with potency similar to that for receptor internalization. The requirement of a bivalent receptor binding mode for receptor internalizations suggests that MAB1/28 modulates mGlu(7) dimers. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: We obtained evidence for an allosteric-biased agonist activity triggered by MAB1/28, which activates a novel IgG-mediated GPCR internalization pathway that is not utilized by small molecule, orthosteric or allosteric agonists. Thus, MAB1/28 provides an invaluable biological tool for probing mGlu(7) function and selective activation of its intracellular trafficking.
Project description:Drug discovery programs increasingly are focusing on allosteric modulators as a means to modify the activity of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) targets. Allosteric binding sites are topographically distinct from the endogenous ligand (orthosteric) binding site, which allows for co-occupation of a single receptor with the endogenous ligand and an allosteric modulator that can alter receptor pharmacological characteristics. Negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) inhibit and positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) enhance the affinity and/or efficacy of orthosteric agonists. Established approaches for estimation of affinity and efficacy values for orthosteric ligands are not appropriate for allosteric modulators, and this presents challenges for fully understanding the actions of novel modulators of GPCRs. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu(5)) is a family C GPCR for which a large array of allosteric modulators have been identified. We took advantage of the many tools for probing allosteric sites on mGlu(5) to validate an operational model of allosterism that allows quantitative estimation of modulator affinity and cooperativity values. Affinity estimates derived from functional assays fit well with affinities measured in radioligand binding experiments for both PAMs and NAMs with diverse chemical scaffolds and varying degrees of cooperativity. We observed modulation bias for PAMs when we compared mGlu(5)-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation data. Furthermore, we used this model to quantify the effects of mutations that reduce binding or potentiation by PAMs. This model can be applied to PAM and NAM potency curves in combination with maximal fold-shift data to derive reliable estimates of modulator affinities.
Project description:Herein, we detail the optimization of the mGlu<sub>2</sub> negative allosteric modulator (NAM), VU6001192, by a reductionist approach to afford a novel, simplified mGlu<sub>2</sub> NAM scaffold. This new chemotype not only affords potent and selective mGlu<sub>2</sub> inhibition, as exemplified by VU6001966 (mGlu<sub>2</sub> IC<sub>50</sub> = 78 nM, mGlu<sub>3</sub> IC<sub>50</sub> > 30 ?M), but also excellent central nervous system (CNS) penetration (<i>K</i><sub>p</sub> = 1.9, <i>K</i><sub>p,uu</sub> = 0.78), a feature devoid in all previously disclosed mGlu<sub>2</sub> NAMs (<i>K</i><sub>p</sub>s ? 0.3, <i>K</i><sub>p,uu</sub>s ? 0.1). Moreover, this series, based on overall properties, represents an exciting lead series for potential mGlu<sub>2</sub> PET tracer development.
Project description:Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu4) is emerging as a potential therapeutic target for numerous central nervous system indications, including Parkinson's disease (PD). As the glutamate binding sites among the eight mGlu receptors are highly conserved, modulation of receptor activity via allosteric sites within the receptor transmembrane domains using positive and negative allosteric modulators (PAMs and NAMs, respectively) has become a common strategy. We and others have used PAMs targeting mGlu4 to show that potentiation of receptor signaling induces antiparkinsonian activity in a variety of PD animal models, including haloperidol-induced catalepsy and 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion. Recently, mGlu4 has been reported to form heteromeric complexes with other mGlu receptor subtypes, such as mGlu2, and the resulting heteromer exhibits a distinct pharmacological profile in response to allosteric modulators. For example, some mGlu4 PAMs do not appear to potentiate glutamate activity when mGlu2 and mGlu4 are coexpressed, whereas other compounds potentiate mGlu4 responses regardless of mGlu2 coexpression. We report here the discovery and characterization of VU0418506, a novel mGlu4 PAM with activity in rodent PD models. Using pharmacological approaches and Complemented Donor-Acceptor resonance energy transfer (CODA-RET) technology, we find that VU0418506 does not potentiate agonist-induced activity when mGlu2 and mGlu4 are heterodimerized, suggesting that the antiparkinsonian action of mGlu4 PAMs can be induced by compounds without activity at mGlu2/4 heteromers.
Project description:Positive allosteric modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu?) is a promising novel approach for the treatment of schizophrenia and cognitive disorders. Allosteric binding sites are topographically distinct from the endogenous ligand (orthosteric) binding site, allowing for co-occupation of a single receptor with the endogenous ligand and an allosteric modulator. Negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) inhibit and positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) enhance the affinity and/or efficacy of the orthosteric agonist. The molecular determinants that govern mGlu? modulator affinity versus cooperativity are not well understood. Focusing on the modulators based on the acetylene scaffold, we sought to determine the molecular interactions that contribute to PAM versus NAM pharmacology. Generation of a comparative model of the transmembrane-spanning region of mGlu? served as a tool to predict and interpret the impact of mutations in this region. Application of an operational model of allosterism allowed for determination of PAM and NAM affinity estimates at receptor constructs that possessed no detectable radioligand binding as well as delineation of effects on affinity versus cooperativity. Novel mutations within the transmembrane domain (TM) regions were identified that had differential effects on acetylene PAMs versus 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine, a prototypical NAM. Three conserved amino acids (Y658, T780, and S808) and two nonconserved residues (P654 and A809) were identified as key determinants of PAM activity. Interestingly, we identified two point mutations in TMs 6 and 7 that, when mutated, engender a mode switch in the pharmacology of certain PAMs.
Project description:Negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu(5)) have remained attractive to researchers as potential therapies for a number of central nervous system related diseases, including anxiety, pain, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), addiction, Parkinson's disease (PD), and fragile X syndrome (FXS). In addition to the many publications with supportive preclinical data with key tool molecules, recent positive reports from the clinic have bolstered the confidence in this approach. During the two year time span from 2009 through 2010, a number of new mGlu(5) NAM chemotypes have been disclosed and discussed in the primary and patent literature. A summary of several efforts representing many diverse chemotypes are presented here, along with a discussion of representative structure activity relationships (SAR) and synthetic approaches to the templates where possible.
Project description:Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the mammalian CNS, exerting its effects through both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlus) belong to family C of the G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The eight mGlus identified to date are classified into three groups based on their structure, preferred signal transduction mechanisms, and pharmacology (Group I: mGlu(1) and mGlu(5); Group II: mGlu(2) and mGlu(3); Group III: mGlu(4), mGlu(6), mGlu(7), and mGlu(8)). Non-competitive antagonists, also known as negative allosteric modulators (NAMs), of mGlu(5) offer potential therapeutic applications in diseases such as pain, anxiety, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Parkinson's disease (PD), fragile X syndrome, and addiction. The development of SAR in a (3-cyano-5-fluorophenyl)biaryl series using our functional cell-based assay is described in this communication. Further characterization of a selected compound, 3-fluoro-5-(2-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-5-yl)benzonitrile, in additional cell based assays as well as in vitro assays designed to measure its metabolic stability and protein binding indicated its potential utility as an in vivo tool. Subsequent evaluation of the same compound in a pharmacokinetic study using intraperitoneal dosing in mice showed good exposure in both plasma and brain samples. The compound was efficacious in a mouse marble burying model of anxiety, an assay known to be sensitive to mGlu(5) antagonists. A new operant model of addiction termed operant sensation seeking (OSS) was chosen as a second behavioral assay. The compound also proved efficacious in the OSS model and constitutes the first reported example of efficacy with a small molecule mGlu(5) NAM in this novel assay.
Project description:Chronic alcohol exposure is associated with increased reliance on behavioral strategies involving the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), including habitual or stimulus-response behaviors. Presynaptic G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on cortical and thalamic inputs to the DLS inhibit glutamate release, and alcohol-induced disruption of presynaptic GPCR function represents a mechanism by which alcohol could disinhibit DLS neurons and thus bias toward use of DLS-dependent behaviors. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGlu<sub>2</sub>) is a G<sub>i/o</sub>-coupled GPCR that robustly modulates glutamate transmission in the DLS, inducing long-term depression (LTD) at both cortical and thalamic synapses. Loss of mGlu<sub>2</sub> function has recently been associated with increased ethanol seeking and consumption, but the ability of alcohol to produce adaptations in mGlu<sub>2</sub> function in the DLS has not been investigated. We exposed male C57Bl/6J mice to a 2-week chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) paradigm followed by a brief withdrawal period, then used whole-cell patch clamp recordings of glutamatergic transmission in the striatum to assess CIE effects on mGlu<sub>2</sub>-mediated synaptic plasticity. We report that CIE differentially disrupts mGlu<sub>2</sub>-mediated long-term depression in the DLS vs. dorsomedial striatum (DMS). Interestingly, CIE-induced impairment of mGlu<sub>2</sub>-LTD in the dorsolateral striatum is only observed when alcohol exposure occurs during adolescence. Incubation of striatal slices from CIE-exposed adolescent mice with a positive allosteric modulator of mGlu<sub>2</sub> fully rescues mGlu<sub>2</sub>-LTD. In contrast to the 2-week CIE paradigm, acute exposure of striatal slices to ethanol concentrations that mimic ethanol levels during CIE exposure fails to disrupt mGlu<sub>2</sub>-LTD. We did not observe a reduction of mGlu<sub>2</sub> mRNA or protein levels following CIE exposure, suggesting that alcohol effects on mGlu<sub>2</sub> occur at the functional level. Our findings contribute to growing evidence that adolescents are uniquely vulnerable to certain alcohol-induced neuroadaptations, and identify enhancement of mGlu<sub>2</sub> activity as a strategy to reverse the effects of adolescent alcohol exposure on DLS physiology.