Proteome-wide Analysis Reveals Substrates of E3 Ligase RNF146 Targeted for Degradation.
ABSTRACT: Specific E3 ligases target tumor suppressors for degradation. Inhibition of such E3 ligases may be an important approach to cancer treatment. RNF146 is a RING domain and PARylation-dependent E3 ligase that functions as an activator of the β-catenin/Wnt and YAP/Hippo pathways by targeting the degradation of several tumor suppressors. Tankyrases 1 and 2 (TNKS1/2) are the only known poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases that require RNF146 to degrade their substrates. However, systematic identification of RNF146 substrates have not yet been performed. To uncover substrates of RNF146 that are targeted for degradation, we generated RNF146 knockout cells and TNKS1/2-double knockout cells and performed proteome profiling with label-free quantification as well as transcriptome analysis. We identified 160 potential substrates of RNF146, which included many known substrates of RNF146 and TNKS1/2 and 122 potential TNKS-independent substrates of RNF146. In addition, we validated OTU domain-containing protein 5 and Protein mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase PARP10 as TNKS1/2-independent substrates of RNF146 and SARDH as a novel substrate of TNKS1/2 and RNF146. Our study is the first proteome-wide analysis of potential RNF146 substrates. Together, these findings not only demonstrate that proteome profiling can be a useful general approach for the systemic identification of substrates of E3 ligases but also reveal new substrates of RNF146, which provides a resource for further functional studies.
Project description:Canonical Wnt signaling is controlled intracellularly by the level of ?-catenin protein, which is dependent on Axin scaffolding of a complex that phosphorylates ?-catenin to target it for ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. This function of Axin is counteracted through relocalization of Axin protein to the Wnt receptor complex to allow for ligand-activated Wnt signaling. AXIN1 and AXIN2 protein levels are regulated by tankyrase-mediated poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARsylation), which destabilizes Axin and promotes signaling. Mechanistically, how tankyrase limits Axin protein accumulation, and how tankyrase levels and activity are regulated for this function, are currently under investigation. By RNAi screening, we identified the RNF146 RING-type ubiquitin E3 ligase as a positive regulator of Wnt signaling that operates with tankyrase to maintain low steady-state levels of Axin proteins. RNF146 also destabilizes tankyrases TNKS1 and TNKS2 proteins and, in a reciprocal relationship, tankyrase activity reduces RNF146 protein levels. We show that RNF146, tankyrase, and Axin form a protein complex, and that RNF146 mediates ubiquitylation of all three proteins to target them for proteasomal degradation. RNF146 is a cytoplasmic protein that also prevents tankyrase protein aggregation at a centrosomal location. Tankyrase auto-PARsylation and PARsylation of Axin is known to lead to proteasome-mediated degradation of these proteins, and we demonstrate that, through ubiquitylation, RNF146 mediates this process to regulate Wnt signaling.
Project description:Aberrant activation of the Wnt signal transduction pathway triggers the development of colorectal cancer. The ADP-ribose polymerase Tankyrase (TNKS) mediates proteolysis of Axin-a negative regulator of Wnt signaling-and provides a promising therapeutic target for Wnt-driven diseases. Proteolysis of TNKS substrates is mediated through their ubiquitination by the poly-ADP-ribose (pADPr)-dependent RING-domain E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF146/Iduna. Like TNKS, RNF146 promotes Axin proteolysis and Wnt pathway activation in some cultured cell lines, but in contrast with TNKS, RNF146 is dispensable for Axin degradation in colorectal carcinoma cells. Thus, the contexts in which RNF146 is essential for TNKS-mediated Axin destabilization and Wnt signaling remain uncertain. Herein, we tested the requirement for RNF146 in TNKS-mediated Axin proteolysis and Wnt pathway activation in a range of in vivo settings. Using null mutants in Drosophila, we provide genetic and biochemical evidence that Rnf146 and Tnks function in the same proteolysis pathway in vivo Furthermore, like Tnks, Drosophila Rnf146 promotes Wingless signaling in multiple developmental contexts by buffering Axin levels to ensure they remain below the threshold at which Wingless signaling is inhibited. However, in contrast with Tnks, Rnf146 is dispensable for Wingless target gene activation and the Wingless-dependent control of intestinal stem cell proliferation in the adult midgut during homeostasis. Together, these findings demonstrate that the requirement for Rnf146 in Tnks-mediated Axin proteolysis and Wingless pathway activation is dependent on physiological context, and suggest that, in some cell types, functionally redundant pADPr-dependent E3 ligases or other compensatory mechanisms promote the Tnks-dependent proteolysis of Axin in both mammalian and Drosophila cells.
Project description:Protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) has a role in diverse cellular processes such as DNA repair, transcription, Wnt signalling, and cell death. Recent studies have shown that PARylation can serve as a signal for the polyubiquitination and degradation of several crucial regulatory proteins, including Axin and 3BP2 (refs 7, 8, 9). The RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF146 (also known as Iduna) is responsible for PARylation-dependent ubiquitination (PARdU). Here we provide a structural basis for RNF146-catalysed PARdU and how PARdU specificity is achieved. First, we show that iso-ADP-ribose (iso-ADPr), the smallest internal poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) structural unit, binds between the WWE and RING domains of RNF146 and functions as an allosteric signal that switches the RING domain from a catalytically inactive state to an active one. In the absence of PAR, the RING domain is unable to bind and activate a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) efficiently. Binding of PAR or iso-ADPr induces a major conformational change that creates a functional RING structure. Thus, RNF146 represents a new mechanistic class of RING E3 ligases, the activities of which are regulated by non-covalent ligand binding, and that may provide a template for designing inducible protein-degradation systems. Second, we find that RNF146 directly interacts with the PAR polymerase tankyrase (TNKS). Disruption of the RNF146-TNKS interaction inhibits turnover of the substrate Axin in cells. Thus, both substrate PARylation and PARdU are catalysed by enzymes within the same protein complex, and PARdU substrate specificity may be primarily determined by the substrate-TNKS interaction. We propose that the maintenance of unliganded RNF146 in an inactive state may serve to maintain the stability of the RNF146-TNKS complex, which in turn regulates the homeostasis of PARdU activity in the cell.
Project description:RNF146 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that specifically recognizes and polyubiquitinates poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR)-conjugated substrates for proteasomal degradation. RNF146 has been shown to be neuroprotective against PAR polymerase-1 (PARP1)-induced cell death during stroke. Here we report that RNF146 expression and RNF146 inducers can prevent cell death elicited by Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated and PARP1-activating stimuli. In SH-SY5Y cells, RNF146 expression conferred resistance to toxic stimuli that lead to PARP1 activation. High-throughput screen using a luciferase construct harboring the RNF146 promoter identified liquiritigenin as an RNF146 inducer. We found that RNF146 expression by liquiritigenin was mediated by estrogen receptor activation and contributed to cytoprotective effect of liquiritigenin. Finally, RNF146 expression by liquiritigenin in mouse brains provided dopaminergic neuroprotection in a 6-hydroxydopamine PD mouse model. Given the presence of PARP1 activity and RNF146 deficits in PD, it could be a potential therapeutic strategy to restore RNF146 expression by natural compounds or estrogen receptor activation.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) catalyzed by the tankyrase enzymes (Tankyrase-1 and -2; a.k.a. PARP-5a and -5b) is involved in mitosis, telomere length regulation, GLUT-4 vesicle transport, and cell growth and differentiation. Together with the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF146 (a.k.a. Iduna), tankyrases regulate the cellular levels of several important proteins including Axin, 3BP2, and angiomotins, which are key regulators of Wnt, Src and Hippo signaling, respectively. These tankyrase substrates are first PARylated and then ubiquitylated by RNF146, which is allosterically activated by binding to PAR polymer. Each tankyrase substrate is recognized by a tankyrase-binding motif (TBM). Here we show that RNF146 binds directly to tankyrases via motifs in its C-terminal region. Four of these RNF146 motifs represent novel, extended TBMs, that have one or two additional amino acids between the most conserved Arg and Gly residues. The individual RNF146 motifs display weak binding, but together mediate a strong multivalent interaction with the substrate-binding region of TNKS, forming a robust one-to-one complex. A crystal structure of the first RNF146 noncanonical TBM in complex with the second ankyrin repeat domain of TNKS shows how an extended motif can be accommodated in a peptide-binding groove on tankyrases. Overall, our work demonstrates the existence of a new class of extended TBMs that exist in previously uncharacterized tankyrase-binding proteins including those of IF4A1 and NELFE.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) activation is a hallmark of oxidative stress-induced cellular injury that can lead to energetic failure and necrotic cell death via depleting the cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) and ATP pools. Pharmacological PARP-1 inhibition or genetic PARP-1 deficiency exert protective effects in multiple models of cardiomyocyte injury. However, the connection between nuclear PARP-1 activation and depletion of the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial energy pools is poorly understood. By using cultured rat cardiomyocytes, here we report that ring finger protein 146 (RNF146), a cytoplasmic E3-ubiquitin ligase, acts as a direct interactor of PARP-1. Overexpression of RNF146 exerts protection against oxidant-induced cell death, whereas PARP-1-mediated cellular injury is augmented after RNF146 silencing. RNF146 translocates to the nucleus upon PARP-1 activation, triggering the exit of PARP-1 from the nucleus, followed by rapid degradation of both proteins. PARP-1 and RNF146 degradation occurs in the early phase of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury; it precedes the induction of heat shock protein expression. Taken together, PARP-1 release from the nucleus and its rapid degradation represent newly identified steps of the necrotic cell death program induced by oxidative stress. These steps are controlled by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway protein RNF146. The current results shed new light on the mechanism of necrotic cell death. RNF146 may represent a distinct target for experimental therapeutic intervention of oxidant-mediated cardiac injury.
Project description:Glutamate induced excitotoxicity is common in diverse neurological disorders. RNF146 as an E3 ubiquitin ligase protects neurons against excitotoxicity via interfering with Poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer-induced cell death (parthanatos). However, the neuroprotective role of RNF146 has not been fully understood. We aimed to investigate the role of RNF146 in modulating autophagy in HT22 cells under glutamate excitotoxicity injury. Here we found that induction of RNF146 decreased the cellular damage and excitotoxicity induced by glutamate. RNF146 also suppressed the excessive autophagy, which is detrimental to HT22 cells survival, induced by glutamate or rapamycin treatment. In addition, we find that Wnt/?-catenin was a negative regulation factor for autophagy in glutamate excitotoxicity. Over-expression of RNF146 promoted Wnt/?-catenin signaling, which was related to destabilization of ?-catenin destruction complex. These results indicated that RNF146 acted as a neuroprotective agent against glutamate-induced excitatory damage, and this neuroprotection might be at least partly dependent on the inhibition of excessive autophagy by regulating Wnt/?-catenin signaling.
Project description:Ring finger protein 146 (RNF146) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase whose activity prevents poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1)-dependent neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Previously, we reported that rhododendrin is a chemical inducer that increases RNF146 expression. However, the molecular mechanism of rhododendrin-induced RNF146 expression is largely unknown and its translational application for the treatment of Parkinson's disease remains unexplored. Here we found that rhododendrin increased RNF146 expression via estrogen receptor ? (ER?) activation. Rhododendrin stimulated ER? nuclear translocation and binding to the RNF146 promoter, thereby enhancing its transcription. Rhododendrin is cytoprotective against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cell death, which is largely dependent on ER? activity and RNF146 expression. Finally, we demonstrated that rhododendrin treatment resulted in RNF146 expression in dopaminergic neurons in mice. Moreover, dopaminergic neuron viability was markedly enhanced by pretreatment with rhododendrin in 6-OHDA-induced mouse models for PD. Our findings indicate that estrogen receptor activation plays a neuroprotective role and that rhododendrin could be a potential therapeutic agent in preventing PARP1-dependent dopaminergic cell loss in PD.
Project description:Progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons characterizes Parkinson's disease (PD). This neuronal loss occurs through diverse mechanisms, including a form of programmed cell death dependent on poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) called parthanatos. Deficient activity of the kinase Akt1 and aggregation of the protein α-synuclein are also implicated in disease pathogenesis. Here, we found that Akt1 suppressed parthanatos in dopaminergic neurons through a transcriptional mechanism. Overexpressing constitutively active Akt1 in SH-SY5Y cells or culturing cells with chlorogenic acid (a polyphenol found in coffee that activates Akt1) stimulated the CREB-dependent transcriptional activation of the gene encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF146. RNF146 inhibited PARP1 not through its E3 ligase function but rather by binding to and sequestering PAR, which enhanced the survival of cultured cells exposed to the dopaminergic neuronal toxin 6-OHDA or α-synuclein aggregation. In mice, intraperitoneal administration of chlorogenic acid activated the Akt1-CREB-RNF146 pathway in the brain and provided neuroprotection against both 6-OHDA and combinatorial α-synucleinopathy in an RNF146-dependent manner. Furthermore, dysregulation of the Akt1-CREB pathway was observed in postmortem brain samples from patients with PD. The findings suggest that therapeutic restoration of <i>RNF146</i> expression, such as by activating the Akt1-CREB pathway, might halt neurodegeneration in PD.