Methods: We reviewed RHC and echocardiography data in 4036 patients (1714 with CKD) obtained between 2011 and 2014 at a single center. We used multivariate regression to determine the associations of echocardiography measurements with PH, and evaluated whether estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) modified these associations. Using internal validation, we sequentially added measurements to predictive models and analyzed the incremental predictive performance using the change in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (?AUC) and net reclassification improvement.
Results: The echocardiography measurements most strongly associated with the diagnosis of PH included tricuspid regurgitant velocity (TRV), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), right atrial pressure, diastolic dysfunction, and right ventricular function. Among these measurements, eGFR significantly modified the associations of TAPSE and diastolic dysfunction with the diagnosis of PH. The model consisting of a combination of TRV, right atrial pressure, and TAPSE most accurately predicted the diagnosis of PH in a CKD population (AUC 0.82).
Conclusions: The optimal model to predict PH diagnosis included TRV, right atrial pressure, and TAPSE. Since TAPSE more strongly associated with PH in the CKD population, these findings support a CKD-specific approach to the development of noninvasive screening algorithms for PH.