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Enhancing Top-Down Analysis Using Chromophore-Assisted Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation from (Phospho)peptides to Protein Assemblies.

ABSTRACT: Infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) has been used in mass spectrometry to fragment peptides and proteins, providing fragments mostly similar to collisional activation. Using the 10.6 ?m wavelength of a CO2 laser, IRMPD suffers from the relative low absorption cross-section of peptides and small proteins. Focusing on top-down analysis, we investigate different means to tackle this issue. We first reassess efficient sorting of phosphopeptides from nonphosphopeptides based on IR-absorption cross-sectional enhancement by phosphate moieties. We subsequently demonstrate that a myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) noncovalent adduct can substantially enhance IRMPD for nonphosphopeptides and that this strategy can be extended to proteins. As a natural next step, we show that native phospho-proteoforms of proteins display a distinct and enhanced fragmentation, compared to their unmodified counterparts, facilitating phospho-group site localization. We then evaluate the impact of size on the IRMPD of proteins and their complexes. When applied to protein complexes ranging from a 365 kDa CRISPR-Cas Csy ribonucleoprotein hetero-decamer, a 800 kDa GroEL homo-tetradecamer in its apo-form or loaded with its ATP cofactor, to a 1 MDa capsid-like homo-hexacontamer, we conclude that while phosphate moieties present in crRNA and ATP molecules enhance IRMPD, an increase in the IR cross-section with the size of the protein assembly also favorably accrues dissociation yields. Overall, our work showcases the versatility of IRMPD in the top-down analysis of peptides, phosphopeptides, proteins, phosphoproteins, ribonucleoprotein assemblies, and large protein complexes.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC7711774 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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