Lung squamous cell carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma differential gene expression regulation through pathways of Notch, Hedgehog, Wnt, and ErbB signalling.
ABSTRACT: Lung malignancies comprise lethal and aggressive tumours that remain the leading cancer-related death cause worldwide. Regarding histological classification, lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) and adenocarcinoma (LUAD) account for the majority of cases. Surgical resection and various combinations of chemo- and radiation therapies are the golden standards in the treatment of lung cancers, although the five-year survival rate remains very poor. Notch, Hedgehog, Wnt and Erbb signalling are evolutionarily conserved pathways regulating pivotal cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation, and angiogenesis during embryogenesis and post-natal life. However, to date, there is no study comprehensively revealing signalling networks of these four pathways in LUSC and LUAD. Therefore, the aim of the present study was the investigation profiles of downstream target genes of pathways that differ between LUSC and LUAD biology. Our results showed a few co-expression modules, identified through weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), which significantly differentiated downstream signaling of Notch, ErbB, Hedgehog, and Wnt in LUSC and LUAD. Among co-expressed genes essential regulators of the cell cycle, DNA damage response, apoptosis, and proliferation have been found. Most of them were upregulated in LUSC compared to LUAD. In conclusion, identified downstream networks revealed distinct biological mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression in LUSC and LUAD that may diversify the clinical outcome of the disease.
Project description:Different subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have distinct sites of origin, histologies, genetic and epigenetic changes. In this study, we explored the mechanisms of ECT2 dysregulation and compared its prognostic value in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). In addition, we also investigated the enrichment of ECT2 co-expressed genes in KEGG pathways in LUAD and LUSC. Bioinformatic analysis was performed based on data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-LUAD and TCGA-LUSC. Results showed that ECT2 expression was significantly upregulated in both LUAD and LUSC compared with normal lung tissues. ECT2 expression was considerably higher in LUSC than in LUAD. The level of ECT2 DNA methylation was significantly lower in LUSC than in LUAD. ECT2 mutation was observed in 5% of LUAD and in 51% of LUSC cases. Amplification was the predominant alteration. LUAD patients with ECT2 amplification had significantly worse disease-free survival (p = 0.022). High ECT2 expression was associated with unfavorable overall survival (OS) (p<0.0001) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) (p = 0.001) in LUAD patients. Nevertheless, these associations were not observed in patients with LUSC. The following univariate and multivariate analysis showed that the high ECT2 expression was an independent prognostic factor for poor OS (HR: 2.039, 95%CI: 1.457-2.852, p<0.001) and RFS (HR: 1.715, 95%CI: 1.210-2.432, p = 0.002) in LUAD patients, but not in LUSC patients. Among 518 genes co-expressed with ECT2 in LUAD and 386 genes co-expressed with ECT2 in LUSC, there were only 98 genes in the overlapping cluster. Some of the genes related KEGG pathways in LUAD were not observed in LUSC. These differences might help to explain the different prognostic value of ECT2 in LUAD and LUSC, which are also worthy of further studies.
Project description:Rationale: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be essential for tumorigenesis, recurrence, and metastasis and therefore serve as a biomarker for tumor progression in diverse cancers. Recent studies have illustrated that specific miRNAs exhibit novel therapeutic potential by controlling CSC properties. miR-1275 is upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and enhances its stemness. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. Methods: miRNA expression microarray of LUAD and adjacent nontumor tissues was used to identify miRNAs involved in LUAD malignant progression. miR-1275 expression level was determined using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH), and its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed in LUAD specimens. The upstream regulator of miR-1275 was validated by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). The biological functions and underlying mechanisms of miR-1275 were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Results: MiR-1275 was highly upregulated in lung cancer cell lines and LUAD tissues. Overexpression of miR-1275 in lung cancer patients was associated with shorter overall- and recurrence-free-survival. Proto-oncogene HIF-1? was identified as the transcription mediator of miR-1275. Activation of Wnt/?-catenin and Notch signaling by miR-1275 was found to enhance the stemness of LUAD cells, while antagonizing miR-1275 or suppressing Wnt/?-catenin and Notch pathways potently reversed miR-1275-induced pathway co-activation and stemness. Enhanced stemness dramatically promoted tumorigenicity, recurrence, and metastasis. miR-1275 directly targeted multiple antagonists of Wnt/?-catenin and Notch pathways, including DKK3, SFRP1, GSK3?, RUNX3, and NUMB, respectively, which resulted in signaling activation. Conclusions: Our findings identified miR-1275 as a potential oncogene in LUAD that exerts its tumorigenic effect through co-activating Wnt/?-catenin and Notch signaling pathways. Thus, HIF-1?-regulated miR-1275 might be a potential therapeutic target for LUAD.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the value of CEP55 as a diagnostic marker and independent prognostic factor in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), and to analyze its co-expression genes and related signaling pathways. METHODS:TCGA database and GEO database were used to analyze the expression of CEP55 in LUAD and LUSC compared with normal tissues. The co-expression genes of CEP55 in LUAD and LUSC were excavated by cBioPortal and enriched by KEGG and GO. Establishing Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to evaluate the value of CEP55 as a diagnostic and prognostic factor. The association between CEP55 expression and the clinicopathological features was evaluated using ?2 tests. ROC curves for diagnosis and prognosis detection were constructed. Prognostic values were analyzed by univariate and multivariate Cox regression models. RESULTS:Compared with normal lung tissues, CEP55 expression was significantly upregulated in both LUAD and LUSC. ROC curve analysis showed that CEP55 could be used as an effective diagnostic target for LUAD (AUC = 0.969) and LUSC (AUC = 0.994). When CEP55 gene was selected as an independent prognostic factor, high expression of CEP55 was more disadvantageous to OS and RFS of LUAD patients (P<0.05), but no significant difference was found in LUSC patients (P>0.05). The number of co-expression genes of CEP55 in LUAD is more than that in LUSC, and is related to cell cycle, DNA replication and P53 signaling pathway. CONCLUSION:CEP55 can be used as a diagnostic marker for LUAD and LUSC, but only as an independent prognostic factor for LUAD rather than LUSC.
Project description:Secreted frizzled related protein 3 (SFRP3) contains a cysteine-rich domain (CRD) that shares homology with Frizzled CRD and regulates WNT signaling. Independent studies showed epigenetic silencing of SFRP3 in melanoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, a tumor suppressive function of SFRP3 was shown in androgen-independent prostate and gastric cancer cells. The current study is the first to investigate SFRP3 expression and its potential clinical impact on non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). WNT signaling components present on NSCLC subtypes were preliminary elucidated by expression data of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We identified a distinct expression signature of relevant WNT signaling components that differ between adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). Of interest, canonical WNT signaling is predominant in LUAD samples and non-canonical WNT signaling is predominant in LUSC. In line, high SFRP3 expression resulted in beneficial clinical outcome for LUAD but not for LUSC patients. Furthermore, SFRP3 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in NSCLC tissue compared to normal lung samples. TCGA data verified the reduction of SFRP3 in LUAD and LUSC patients. Moreover, DNA hypermethylation of SFRP3 was evaluated in the TCGA methylation dataset resulting in epigenetic inactivation of SFRP3 expression in LUAD, but not in LUSC, and was validated by pyrosequencing of our NSCLC tissue cohort and in vitro demethylation experiments. Immunohistochemistry confirmed SFRP3 protein downregulation in primary NSCLC and indicated abundant expression in normal lung tissue. Two adenocarcinoma gain-of-function models were used to analyze the functional impact of SFRP3 on cell proliferation and regulation of CyclinD1 expression in vitro. Our results indicate that SFRP3 acts as a novel putative tumor suppressor gene in adenocarcinoma of the lung possibly regulating canonical WNT signaling.
Project description:Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) are the two major subtypes of lung cancer, with LUSC exhibits faster progression rate than LUAD. To investigate the roles of immune-response related genes (IRGs) in lung cancer progression, we used LUAD and LUSC samples at different cancer progression stages, and identified that the expression profiles of IRGs could serve as a better classification marker for cancerous tissues of both LUAD and LUSC. We found that the expression changes of IRGs were different between LUAD and LUSC. Cell cycle promoting genes, including KIFs and proteasomes, showed faster up-regulation in LUSC, whereas immune response promoting genes, including MHC molecules and chemokines, were more rapidly repressed in LUSC. Comparative pathway analysis revealed that members of the Toll-like receptor and T cell receptor signaling pathways exhibited diverged expression changes between LUAD and LUSC, especially at the early cancer stages. Our results revealed the difference of LUAD and LUSC from the immune response point of view, and provided new clues for the differential treatment of LUAD and LUSC.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) with bioinformatics analysis and search for potential biomarkers for clinical diagnosis of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS:The gene expression profiling datasets of LUAD and LUSC were acquired. The transcriptome differences between LUAD and LUSC were identified using R language processing and t-test analysis. The differential expressions of the genes were shown by Venn diagram. The DEGs identified by GEO2R were analyzed with DAVID and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to identify the signaling pathways and biomarkers that could be used for differential diagnosis of LUAD and LUSC. The TCGA data and the biomarker expression data from clinical lung cancer samples were used to verify the differential expressions of the Osteoarthritis pathway and LXR/RXR between LUAD and LUSC. We further examined the differential expressions of miR-181 and its two target genes, WNT5A and MBD2, in 23 clinical specimens of lung squamous cell carcinoma and the paired adjacent tissues. RESULTS:GEO data analysis identified 851 DEGs (including 276 up-regulated and 575 down-regulated genes) in LUAD and 885 DEGs (including 406 up-regulated and 479 down-regulated genes) in LUSC. DAVID and IPA analysis revealed that leukocyte migration and inflammatory responses were more abundant in LUAD than in LUSC. Osteoarthritis pathway was inhibited in LUAD and activated in LUSC. IPA analysis showed that transcription factors (GATA4, RELA, YBX1, TP63 and MBD2), cytokines (WNT5A and IL1A) and microRNAs (miR-34a, miR-181b and miR-15a) differed significantly between LUAD and LUSC. miR-34a with IL-1A, miR-15a with YBX1, and miR-181b with WNT5A and MBD2 could serve as the paired microRNA and mRNA targets for differential diagnosis of NSCLC subtypes. Analysis of the clinical samples showed an increased expression of miR-181b-5p and the down-regulation of WNT5A, which could be used as molecular markers for the diagnosis of LUSC. CONCLUSIONS:Through transcriptome analysis, we identified candidate genes, paired microRNAs and pathways for differentiating LUAD and LUSC, and they can provide novel differential diagnosis and therapeutic strategies for LUAD and LUSC.
Project description:The present study aimed to explore gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression differences between lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) were identified by analyzing mRNA and miRNA expression data in normal and cancerous lung tissues that were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. A total of 778 DEGs and 7 DEMs were identified. Altered gene functions and signaling pathways were investigated using Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses, which revealed that DEGs were significantly enriched in extracellular matrix organization, cell differentiation, negative regulation of toll signaling pathway, and several other terms and pathways. Transcription factor (TF)‑miRNA‑gene networks in LUAD and LUSC were predicted using the TargetScan, Miranda, and TRANSFAC databases, which revealed the regulatory links among the TFs, DEMs, and DEGs. The central TFs, i.e., the TFs in the middle of the TF‑miRNA‑gene network, of LUAD and LUSC were similar. Although LUAD and LUSC shared similar miRNAs in the predicted networks, miR‑29b‑3p was demonstrated to be upregulated only in LUAD, whereas miR‑1, miR‑105‑5p, and miR‑193b‑5p were altered in LUSC. These findings may improve our understanding of the different molecular mechanisms in non‑small cell lung cancers and may promote new and accurate strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lung cancer is a very heterogeneous disease that can be pathologically classified into different subtypes including small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) and large-cell carcinoma (LCC). Although much progress has been made towards the oncogenic mechanism of each subtype, transcriptional circuits mediating the upstream signaling pathways and downstream functional consequences remain to be systematically studied. RESULTS:Here we trained a one-class support vector machine (OC-SVM) model to establish a general transcription factor (TF) regulatory network containing 325 TFs and 18724 target genes. We then applied this network to lung cancer subtypes and identified those deregulated TFs and downstream targets. We found that the TP63/SOX2/DMRT3 module was specific to LUSC, corresponding to squamous epithelial differentiation and/or survival. Moreover, the LEF1/MSC module was specifically activated in LUAD and likely to confer epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, known important for cancer malignant progression and metastasis. The proneural factor, ASCL1, was specifically up-regulated in SCLC which is known to have a neuroendocrine phenotype. Also, ID2 was differentially regulated between SCLC and LUSC, with its up-regulation in SCLC linking to energy supply for fast mitosis and its down-regulation in LUSC linking to the attenuation of immune response. We further described the landscape of TF regulation among the three major subtypes of lung cancer, highlighting their functional commonalities and specificities. CONCLUSIONS:Our approach uncovered the landscape of transcriptional deregulation in lung cancer, and provided a useful resource of TF regulatory network for future studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Micro(mi)RNAs, potent gene expression regulators associated with tumorigenesis, are stable, abundant circulating molecules, and detectable in plasma. Thus, miRNAs could potentially be useful in early lung cancer detection. We aimed to identify circulating miRNA signatures in plasma from patients with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), and to verify whether miRNAs regulate lung oncogenesis pathways. METHODS:RNA isolated from 139 plasma samples (40 LUAD, 38 LUSC; 61 healthy/non-diseased individuals) were divided into discovery (38 patients; 21 controls for expression quantification using an 800-miRNA panel; Nanostring nCounter®) and validation (40 patients; 40 controls; TaqMan® RT-qPCR) cohorts. Elastic net, Maximizing-R-Square Analysis (MARSA), and C-Statistics were applied for miRNA signature identification. RESULTS:When compared to healthy individuals, 580 of 606 deregulated miRNAs in LUAD and 221 of 226 deregulated miRNAs in LUSC had significantly increased levels. Among the 10 most significantly overexpressed miRNAs, 6 were common to patients with LUAD and LUSC. Further analysis identified three signatures composed of 12 miRNAs. Signatures included miRNAs commonly overexpressed in patient plasma. Enriched pathways included target genes modulated by three miRNAs in the C-Statistics signature: miR-16-5p, miR-92a-3p, and miR-451a. CONCLUSIONS:The 3-miRNA signature (miR-16-5p, miR-92a-3p, miR-451a) had high specificity (100%) and sensitivity (84%) to predict cancer (LUAD and LUSC). These miRNAs are predicted to modulate genes and pathways with known roles in lung tumorigenesis, including EGFR, K-RAS, and PI3K/AKT signaling, suggesting that the 3-miRNA signature is biologically relevant in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in pathogenesis of various cancers, including lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). We used cBioPortal to analyze lncRNA alteration frequencies and their ability to predict overall survival (OS) using 504 LUSC and 522 LUAD samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. In LUSC, 624 lncRNAs had alteration rates > 1% and 64 > 10%. In LUAD 625 lncRNAs had alteration rates > 1% and 36 > 10%. Among those, 620 lncRNAs had alteration frequencies > 1% in both LUSC and LUAD, while 22 were LUSC-specific and 23 were LUAD-specific. Twenty lncRNAs had alteration frequencies > 10% in both LUSC and LUAD, while 44 were LUSC-specific and 16 were LUAD specific. Genome ontology and pathway analyses produced similar results for LUSC and LUAD. Two lncRNAs (IGF2BP2-AS1 and DGCR5) correlated with better OS in LUSC, and three (MIR31HG, CDKN2A-AS1 and LINC01600) predicted poor OS in LUAD. Chip-seq and luciferase reporter assays identified potential IGF2BP2-AS1, DGCR5 and LINC01600 promoters and enhancers. This study presented lncRNA landscapes and revealed differentially expressed, highly altered lncRNAs in LUSC and LUAD. LncRNAs that act as oncogenes and lncRNA-regulating transcription factors provide novel targets for anti-lung cancer therapeutics.