Preoperative CT anthropometric measurements and pancreatic pathology increase risk for postoperative pancreatic fistula in patients following pancreaticoduodenectomy.
ABSTRACT: Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is a common complication following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). However, risk factors for this complication remain controversial. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 107 patients who underwent PD. POPF was diagnosed in strict accordance with the definition of the 2016 update of pancreatic fistula from the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent risk factors for POPF. A total of 19 (17.8%) subjects of pancreatic fistula occurred after PD, including 15 (14.1%) with grade B POPF and 4 (3.7%) with grade C POPF. There were 33 (30.8%) patients with biochemical leak. Risk factors for POPF (grade B and C) were larger area of visceral fat (odds ratio [OR], 1.40; p = 0.040) and pathology other than pancreatic adenocarcinoma or pancreatitis (OR, 12.45; p = 0.017) in the multivariate regression analysis. This result could assist the surgeon to identify patients at a high risk of developing POPF.
Project description:Drainage after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) remains controversial because the risk for uncontrolled postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) must be balanced against the potential morbidity associated with prolonged and possibly unnecessary drainage. This study investigated the utility of the level of serum amylase on the night of surgery [postoperative day (PoD) 0 serum amylase] to predict POPF.A total of 185 patients who underwent PD were studied. Occurrences of POPF were graded using the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) classification. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis identified a threshold value of PoD 0 serum amylase associated with clinically significant POPF (ISGPF Grades B and C) in a test cohort (n = 45). The accuracy of this threshold value was then tested in a validation cohort (n = 140).Overall, 43 (23.2%) patients developed clinically significant POPF. The threshold value of PoD 0 serum amylase for the identification of clinically significant POPF was ? 130 IU/l (P = 0.003). Serum amylase of <130 IU/l had a negative predictive value of 88.8% for clinically significant POPF (P < 0.001). Serum amylase of ? 130 IU/l on PoD 0 and a soft pancreatic parenchyma were independent risk factors for clinically significant POPF.Postoperative day 0 serum amylase of <130 IU/l allows for the early and accurate categorization of patients at least risk for clinically significant POPF and may identify patients suitable for early drain removal.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to assess safety and efficacy of pancreatic duct occlusion (PDO) with neoprene-based glue in selected patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) at high risk of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). BACKGROUND DATA:PD is the reference standard approach for tumors of the pancreaticoduodenal region. POPF is the most relevant complication after PD. PDO has been proposed as an alternative to anastomosis to manage the pancreatic stump. METHODS:A single-center, prospective, nonrandomized trial enrolled 100 consecutive PD for cancer. Patients at high risk for POPF according to Fistula Risk Score (FRS) >15% (?6 points) were treated with PDO using neoprene glue (study cohort); patients with FRS ?15% (?5 points) received pancreaticojejunal anastomosis (PJA: control cohort). Primary endpoint was complication rate grade ?3 according to Dindo-Clavien Classification (DCC). Other postoperative outcomes were monitored (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03738787). RESULTS:Fifty-one patients underwent PDO and 49 PJA. DCC ?3, postoperative mortality, and POPF grade B-C were 25.5% versus 24.5% (P = 0.91), 5.9% versus 2% (P = 0.62), and 11.8% versus 16.3% (P = 0.51) in the study versus control cohort, respectively. At 1 and 3 years, new-onset diabetes was diagnosed in 13.7% and 36.7% of the study cohort versu 4.2% and 12.2% in controls (P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS:PDO with neoprene-based glue is a safe technique that equalizes early outcome of selected patients at high risk of POPF to those at low risk undergoing PJA. Neoprene-based PDO, however, triples the risk of diabetes at 1 and 3 years.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To investigate the early prediction value of procalcitonin (PCT) in pancreatic fistula (POPF) after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). METHOD:Retrospective analysis of clinical data of 67 patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and 19 patients undergoing distalpancreatectomy (DP) were performed in the Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Leshan People's Hospital from January 2017 to December 2018. All patients were divided into POPF group and non-POPF group depending on the presence of pancreatic fistula. And fistulas were classified according to the ISGPF classification scheme. Plasma PCT levels, serum CRP concentration, and WBC counts were assessed preoperatively and on postoperative days (PODs) 1, 3, and 5. Statistical analyses were performed with statistical software. The ROC curve was used to analyze the efficacy of PCT and CRP in POPF prediction after surgery and determine their Cut-off value. RESULT:There were no statistically significant differences identified in age, gender, BMI, diabetes, abdominal surgery history, preoperative laboratory data, operation time, intraoperative bleeding volume, tumor nature and medical expenses of PD patients between the two groups (P?>?0.05). While the incidence of postoperative hyperglycemia, postoperative ICU rate and postoperative hospital stay were statistically significant (P?<?0.05). The AUC for PCT diagnosis of pancreatic fistula 1?day after surgery was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.675?~?0.860). Compared with CRP [0.53 (95% CI: 0.420?~?0.639)] and WBC [0.60 (95% CI: 0.490?~?0.705)], the optimal cut-off value (cut-off) was 0.67??g/L. At this time, the sensitivity and specificity of detecting pancreatic fistula were 73.68 and 76.12%, respectively. The results at 3?days after surgery were similar to those at 5?days after surgery. And DP patients had similar results as PD patients. CONCLUSION:The PCT is valuable for early prediction of pancreatic fistula after Pancreaticoduodenectomy.
Project description:Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is the most serious complication after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Recently, Blumgart anastomosis (BA) has been found to have some advantages in terms of decreasing POPF compared with other pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) using either the duct-to-mucosa or invagination approach. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the safety and effectiveness of BA versus non-Blumgart anastomosis after PD. The PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Central Library were systematically searched for studies published from January 2000 to March 2020. One RCT and ten retrospective comparative studies were included with 2412 patients, of whom 1155 (47.9%) underwent BA and 1257 (52.1%) underwent non-Blumgart anastomosis. BA was associated with significantly lower rates of grade B/C POPF (OR 0.38, 0.22 to 0.65; P?=?0.004) than non-Blumgart anastomosis. Additionally, in the subgroup analysis, the grade B/C POPF was also reduced in BA group than the Kakita anastomosis group. There was no significant difference regarding grade B/C POPF in terms of soft pancreatic texture between the BA and non-Blumgart anastomosis groups. In conclusion, BA after PD was associated with a decreased risk of grade B/C POPF. Therefore, BA seems to be a valuable PJ to reduce POPF comparing with non-Blumgart anastomosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is a life-threatening postoperative complication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the fistula risk score (FRS) and preoperative body composition factors for predicting the occurrence of clinically relevant POPF (CR-POPF) after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). METHODS:In this study, 136 consecutive patients who underwent PD between 2006 and 2018 were enrolled. The risk factors of CR-POPF (grades B and C) were analyzed. Preoperative visceral adipose tissue area (VATA), skeletal mass index (SMI), and subcutaneous adipose tissue area (SATA) were calculated from computed tomography data. RESULTS:The overall 30-day mortality and morbidity rates were 0.7 and 38%, respectively. The incidence rates of grade B and C CR-POPF were 27 and 4%, respectively. A univariate analysis revealed that male sex, habitual smoking, prognostic nutritional index (PNI)?<?45, VATA ?90, VATA/SATA ?0.9, VATA/SMI???1.4, and FRS?>?4 were significantly associated with the incidence of CR-POPF. A multivariate analysis revealed that PNI?<?45, VATA/SMI???1.4 and FRS?>?4 were the independent risk factors of CR-POPF. CONCLUSIONS:Preoperative anthropomorphic imbalance, PNI, and FRS were independent risk factors for CR-POPF. Patients with high-risk factors should be closely monitored during the postoperative period.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>The operative scenarios with the highest postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) risk represent situations in which fistula prevention and mitigation strategies have the strongest potential to affect surgical outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Evidence from studies providing risk stratification is lacking.<h4>Objective</h4>To investigate whether pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) or pancreaticogastrostomy (PG), both with externalized transanastomotic stent, is the best reconstruction method for patients at high risk of POPF after pancreaticoduodenectomy.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>A single-center, phase 3, randomized clinical trial was conducted at the Department of General and Pancreatic Surgery, The Pancreas Institute, University of Verona Hospital Trust, Verona, Italy, from July 12, 2017, through March 15, 2019, among adults undergoing elective pancreaticoduodenectomy and considered at high risk for pancreatic fistula after intraoperative assessment of the fistula risk score, some of whom were randomized to undergo PG or PJ. All analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis.<h4>Interventions</h4>Intervention consisted of PJ or PG, both with externalized transanastomotic stent and octreotide omission.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>The primary end point was POPF. The secondary end points were Clavien-Dindo grade 3 or higher morbidity, postpancreatectomy hemorrhage, delayed gastric emptying, and average complication burden.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 604 patients were screened for eligibility; 82 were at high risk for POPF (fistula risk score, 7-10), and 72 were randomized undergo PG (n?=?36; 20 men and 16 women; median age, 65 years [interquartile range, 23-82]) or PJ (n?=?36; 26 men and 10 women; median age, 63 years [interquartile range, 35-79]). There was no significant difference in the incidence of POPF between patients who underwent PG and patients who underwent PJ (18 [50.0%] vs 14 [38.9%]; P?=?.48), but for patients who developed a POPF, the mean (SD) average complication burden was lower for those who underwent PJ than for those who underwent PG (0.25 [0.13] vs 0.39 [0.17]; P?=?.04). The rates of postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (14 [38.9%] in the PG group vs 9 [25.0%] in the PJ group; P?=?.31) and delayed gastric emptying (16 [44.4%] in the PG group vs 18 [50.0%] in the PJ group; P?=?.81) were similar, but patients who underwent PG presented with a significantly higher incidence of Clavien-Dindo grade 3 or higher morbidity than those who underwent PJ (17 [47.2%] vs 8 [22.2%]; P?=?.047).<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>Among patients at the highest risk for POPF, those who underwent PG or PJ experienced similar rates of POPF. However, PG was associated with an increased incidence of Clavien-Dindo grade 3 or higher morbidity and with an increased average complication burden for the patients who developed a POPF. For patients at high risk for pancreatic fistula, PJ with the use of externalized stent and octreotide omission should be considered the most appropriate technical strategy.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03212196.
Project description:PURPOSES:To establish a scoring model for the risk of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) following pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). METHODS:PD Patients from 7 institutions in 2 independent sets: developmental (n?=?457) and validation cohort (n?=?152) were retrospectively enrolled and analyzed. Pancreatic Fibrosis (PF) and Pancreatic Steatosis (PS) were assessed by pathological examination of the pancreatic stump. RESULTS:Stepwise univariate and multivariate analysis indicated that pancreatic duct diameter???3?mm, increased PS and decreased PF were independent risk factors for POPF and Clinically Relevant Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula (CR-POPF). Based on the relative weight and odds ratio of each factor in the POPF, a simplified scoring model was developed. And patients were stratified into high-risk group (22~28 points), medium-risk group (15~21 points) and low-risk group (8~14 points). The receiver operating characteristic curve demonstrated that the Area under the curve for the predictive model was 0.868 and 0.887 in the model design group and the external validation group. CONCLUSIONS:This study establishes a simplified scoring model based on accurately and quantitatively measuring the PS, PF and pancreatic duct diameter. The scoring model accurately predicted the risk of POPF.
Project description:Pancreatic leak or fistula is the most frequent complication after left pancreatectomy. We performed a single-blinded, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial comparing stapled left pancreatectomy with stapled left pancreatectomy using mesh reinforcement of the staple line with either Seamguard or Peristrips Dry.All patients undergoing left pancreatectomy at a large tertiary hospital were eligible for participation. Patients were randomized to either mesh reinforcement or no-mesh reinforcement intraoperatively after being determined a candidate for resection. Patients were blinded to the result of their randomization for 6 weeks. Primary outcome measure was clinically significant leak as defined by the ISGPF (International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula) pancreatic leak grading system.One hundred patients were randomized to either mesh (54) or no-mesh (46) reinforcement of their pancreatic transection. There was 1 death in each group. ISGPF grade B and C leaks were seen in 1.9% (1/53) of patients undergoing resection with mesh reinforcement and 20% (11/45) of patients without mesh reinforcement (P = .0007).Mesh reinforcement of pancreatic transection line significantly reduces the incidence of significant pancreatic fistula in patients undergoing left pancreatectomy.Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01359410.
Project description:Backgound: This study aimed to determine the usefulness of the Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) scorescore for predicting postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). PATIENTS AND METHODS:Data from 108 consecutive pancreaticoduodenectomy cases performed at the Surgery Department of Iwakuni Clinical Center, from April 2008 to May 2018, were included. Preoperative patient data and postoperative complication data were collected. RESULTS:Of the 108 patients (male=65; female=43; mean age=70 years), 41 (37.9%) had indication for pancreaticoduodenectomy due to pancreatic carcinoma. Grade B or higher POPF was diagnosed in 32 patients (29.6%). In the multivariate analysis, body mass index ?22 kg/m2 [odds ratio (OR)=5.24; p=0.005], CONUT score ?4 (OR=3.28; p=0.042), non-pancreatic carcinoma (OR=47.17; p=0.001), and a low computed tomographic contrast attenuation value (late/early ratio) (OR=4.39; p=0.029) were independent risk factors for POPF. CONCLUSION:Patients with high CONUT score are at high risk for POPF. Preoperative nutritional intervention such as immunonutrition might help reduce the POPF risk in these patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula (CR-POPF) is a common and troublesome complication after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify the risk factors of CR-POPF after PD.<h4>Methods</h4>We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases for studies related to risk factors of CR-POPF after PD. Odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted from the included studies, then a meta-analysis was conducted. If necessary, sensitivity analysis would be performed by changing the effect model or excluding 1 study at a time. Publication bias was assessed by funnel plot and Begg test and Egger test.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 27 studies with 24,740 patients were included, and CR-POPF occurred in 3843 patients (incidence = 17%, 95% CI: 16%-19%). Male (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.42-1.70), body mass index >25 kg/m2 (OR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.23-3.18), pancreatic duct diameter <3 mm (OR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.66-2.12), soft pancreatic texture (OR = 3.49, 95% CI: 2.61-4.67), and blood transfusion (OR = 3.10, 95% CI: 2.01-4.77) can significantly increase the risk of CR-POPF. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.47-0.61), vascular resection (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.39-0.83), and preoperative chemoradiotherapy (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.57-0.81) can significantly decrease the factor of CR-POPF. Diabetes mellitus was not statistically associated with CR-POPF (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.40-1.08). However, the analysis of body mass index, pancreatic texture, and diabetes mellitus had a high heterogeneity, then sensitivity analysis was performed, and the result after sensitivity analysis showed diabetes mellitus can significantly decrease the risk of CR-POPF. There was no significant publication bias in this meta-analysis.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The current review assessed the effects of different factors on CR-POPF. This can provide a basis for the prevention and management of CR-POPF. Effective interventions targeting the above risk factors should be investigated in future studies for decreasing the occurrence of CR-POPF.