Toward New Modalities in VEP-Based BCI Applications Using Dynamical Stimuli: Introducing Quasi-Periodic and Chaotic VEP-Based BCI.
ABSTRACT: Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) to periodic stimuli are commonly used in brain computer interfaces for their favorable properties such as high target identification accuracy, less training time, and low surrounding target interference. Conventional periodic stimuli can lead to subjective visual fatigue due to continuous and high contrast stimulation. In this study, we compared quasi-periodic and chaotic complex stimuli to common periodic stimuli for use with VEP-based brain computer interfaces (BCIs). Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and coherence methods were used to evaluate the performance of the three stimulus groups. Subjective fatigue caused by the presented stimuli was evaluated by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Using CCA with the M2 template approach, target identification accuracy was highest for the chaotic stimuli (M = 86.8, SE = 1.8) compared to the quasi-periodic (M = 78.1, SE = 2.6, p = 0.008) and periodic (M = 64.3, SE = 1.9, p = 0.0001) stimulus groups. The evaluation of fatigue rates revealed that the chaotic stimuli caused less fatigue compared to the quasi-periodic (p = 0.001) and periodic (p = 0.0001) stimulus groups. In addition, the quasi-periodic stimuli led to lower fatigue rates compared to the periodic stimuli (p = 0.011). We conclude that the target identification results were better for the chaotic group compared to the other two stimulus groups with CCA. In addition, the chaotic stimuli led to a less subjective visual fatigue compared to the periodic and quasi-periodic stimuli and can be suitable for designing new comfortable VEP-based BCIs.
Project description:Code modulated Visual Evoked Potentials (c-VEP) based BCI studies usually employ m-sequences as a modulating codes for their broadband spectrum and correlation property. However, subjective fatigue of the presented codes has been a problem. In this study, we introduce chaotic codes containing broadband spectrum and similar correlation property. We examined whether the introduced chaotic codes could be decoded from EEG signals and also compared the subjective fatigue level with m-sequence codes in normal subjects. We generated chaotic code from one-dimensional logistic map and used it with conventional 31-bit m-sequence code. In a c-VEP based study in normal subjects (n = 44, 21 females) we presented these codes visually and recorded EEG signals from the corresponding codes for their four lagged versions. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and spatiotemporal beamforming (STB) methods were used for target identification and comparison of responses. Additionally, we compared the subjective self-declared fatigue using VAS caused by presented m-sequence and chaotic codes. The introduced chaotic code was decoded from EEG responses with CCA and STB methods. The maximum total accuracy values of 93.6 ± 11.9% and 94 ± 14.4% were achieved with STB method for chaotic and m-sequence codes for all subjects respectively. The achieved accuracies in all subjects were not significantly different in m-sequence and chaotic codes. There was significant reduction in subjective fatigue caused by chaotic codes compared to the m-sequence codes. Both m-sequence and chaotic codes were similar in their accuracies as evaluated by CCA and STB methods. The chaotic codes significantly reduced subjective fatigue compared to the m-sequence codes.
Project description:In a c-VEP BCI setting, test subjects can have highly varying performances when different pseudorandom sequences are applied as stimulus, and ideally, multiple codes should be supported. On the other hand, repeating the experiment with many different pseudorandom sequences is a laborious process.This study aimed to suggest an efficient method for choosing the optimal stimulus sequence based on a fast test and simple measures to increase the performance and minimize the time consumption for research trials.A total of 21 healthy subjects were included in an online wheelchair control task and completed the same task using stimuli based on the m-code, the gold-code, and the Barker-code. Correct/incorrect identification and time consumption were obtained for each identification. Subject-specific templates were characterized and used in a forward-step first-order model to predict the chance of completion and accuracy score.No specific pseudorandom sequence showed superior accuracy on the group basis. When isolating the individual performances with the highest accuracy, time consumption per identification was not significantly increased. The Accuracy Score aids in predicting what pseudorandom sequence will lead to the best performance using only the templates. The Accuracy Score was higher when the template resembled a delta function the most and when repeated templates were consistent. For completion prediction, only the shape of the template was a significant predictor.The simple and fast method presented in this study as the Accuracy Score, allows c-VEP based BCI systems to support multiple pseudorandom sequences without increase in trial length. This allows for more personalized BCI systems with better performance to be tested without increased costs.
Project description:There is currently a great interest to combine electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study brain function. Earlier studies have shown different EEG components to correlate well with the fMRI signal arguing for a complex relationship between both measurements. In this study, using separate EEG and fMRI measurements, we show that (1) 0.1 ms visual stimulation evokes detectable hemodynamic and visual-evoked potential (VEP) responses, (2) the negative VEP deflection at approximately 80 ms (N2) co-varies with stimulus duration/intensity such as with blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response; the positive deflection at approximately 120 ms (P2) does not, and (3) although the N2 VEP-BOLD relationship is approximately linear, deviation is evident at the limit of zero N2 VEP. The latter finding argues that, although EEG and fMRI measurements can co-vary, they reflect partially independent processes in the brain tissue. Finally, it is shown that the stimulus-induced impulse response function (IRF) at 0.1 ms and the intrinsic IRF during rest have different temporal dynamics, possibly due to predominance of neuromodulation during rest as compared with neurotransmission during stimulation. These results extend earlier findings regarding VEP-BOLD coupling and highlight the component- and context-dependency of the relationship between evoked potentials and hemodynamic responses.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of test duration on the visual-evoked potential (VEP) and related alpha power spectrum measures.Two conditions (eyes-closed and eyes-open) were tested using four different durations: 10, 20, 45, and 60 s. The Diopsys™ NOVA-TR system was used to obtain the visual-evoked potential (VEP) and extracted alpha wave with its related power spectrum. Sixteen visually normal, young-adult subjects (aged 22-25 years) participated in the experiment. The stimulus for the eyes-open condition consisted of a black-and-white, alternating checkerboard pattern with a small central fixation target. All trials were performed during one session.Regarding the VEP parameters, only variability of the VEP amplitude changed significantly with test duration. Sentence should end with a period, not a colon. It decreased with increasing test duration, with the 45- and 60-s trials showing similarly low variability. Regarding the alpha-wave parameters, test duration did not have a significant effect on either the mean alpha power or its variability across trials.The findings demonstrate that forty-five-second test durations are sufficient to minimize intra-session variability of the VEP amplitude and latency measurements, whereas 10-s test durations may be sufficient for accurate measurement of the alpha wave. Optimization of test duration allows for repeatable measures with less total test time. This is especially important for special clinical populations.
Project description:Pattern onset VEPs do not always show distinct C1-C2-C3 peaks and troughs. Our purpose was to study changes in pattern onset VEP with age to determine when the illustrated ISCEV standard onset VEP waveform can be reliably recorded.We recorded pattern onset VEPs from an Oz electrode referred to mid-frontal electrode according to ISCEV standards by presenting checks of 60' and 15' side length in a 15° field. Twenty-four adults aged 20-63 years participated. Amplitudes and latencies were collated. Pattern onset adult VEP shapes were compared to the waveform published in the ISCEV VEP standard and to paediatric pattern onset VEP waveforms recorded from 16 infants aged 7 months.The shape of the pattern onset VEP changed gradually with age. The C1-C2-C3 morphology of the ISCEV standard pattern onset VEP becomes apparent consistently after 40 years to 60' check stimulation. As age increases a negative trough, C2 is more frequently seen; however, the broad positive peak which characterises infant onset VEPs may still be recorded at 20 years. The group median measurements of onset VEPs to 60' were C1 7 µV@ 88 ms (range 67-110 ms), C2 9 µV@109 ms (range 89-158 ms) and C3 13 µV@121-246 ms. To smaller 15' checks, peak latencies were earlier and C2 became more obvious. The group median measures of onset VEPs to 15' were C1 2 µV@69 ms (55-108 ms), C2 10 µV@90 ms (77-145 ms) and C3 14 µV@122 ms (99-200 ms).The ISCEV standard onset VEP best describes the waveform configuration and latency of the onset VEP produced by 60' checks in adults of more than 40 years of age. The onset VEP waveform produced by 15' checks is distinguished by more prominent negative C2 and earlier C1 and C2 latencies.
Project description:A brain-computer interface (BCI) based on code modulated visual evoked potentials (c-VEP) is among the fastest BCIs that have ever been reported, but it has not yet been given a thorough study. In this study, a pseudorandom binary M sequence and its time lag sequences are utilized for modulation of different stimuli and template matching is adopted as the method for target recognition. Five experiments were devised to investigate the effect of stimulus specificity on target recognition and we made an effort to find the optimal stimulus parameters for size, color and proximity of the stimuli, length of modulation sequence and its lag between two adjacent stimuli. By changing the values of these parameters and measuring classification accuracy of the c-VEP BCI, an optimal value of each parameter can be attained. Experimental results of ten subjects showed that stimulus size of visual angle 3.8°, white, spatial proximity of visual angle 4.8° center to center apart, modulation sequence of length 63 bits and the lag of 4 bits between adjacent stimuli yield individually superior performance. These findings provide a basis for determining stimulus presentation of a high-performance c-VEP based BCI system.
Project description:Background: Recent EEG-SSVEP signal based BCI studies have used high frequency square pulse visual stimuli to reduce subjective fatigue. However, the effect of total harmonic distortion (THD) has not been considered. Compared to CRT and LCD monitors, LED screen displays high-frequency wave with better refresh rate. In this study, we present high frequency sine wave simple and rhythmic patterns with low THD rate by LED to analyze SSVEP responses and evaluate subjective fatigue in normal subjects. Materials and Methods: We used patterns of 3-sequence high-frequency sine waves (25, 30, and 35 Hz) to design our visual stimuli. Nine stimuli patterns, 3 simple (repetition of each of above 3 frequencies e.g., P25-25-25) and 6 rhythmic (all of the frequencies in 6 different sequences e.g., P25-30-35) were chosen. A hardware setup with low THD rate (<0.1%) was designed to present these patterns on LED. Twenty two normal subjects (aged 23-30 (25 ± 2.1) yrs) were enrolled. Visual analog scale (VAS) was used for subjective fatigue evaluation after presentation of each stimulus pattern. PSD, CCA, and LASSO methods were employed to analyze SSVEP responses. The data including SSVEP features and fatigue rate for different visual stimuli patterns were statistically evaluated. Results: All 9 visual stimuli patterns elicited SSVEP responses. Overall, obtained accuracy rates were 88.35% for PSD and > 90% for CCA and LASSO (for TWs > 1 s). High frequency rhythmic patterns group with low THD rate showed higher accuracy rate (99.24%) than simple patterns group (98.48%). Repeated measure ANOVA showed significant difference between rhythmic pattern features (P < 0.0005). Overall, there was no significant difference between the VAS of rhythmic [3.85 ± 2.13] compared to the simple patterns group [3.96 ± 2.21], (P = 0.63). Rhythmic group had lower within group VAS variation (min = P25-30-35 [2.90 ± 2.45], max = P35-25-30 [4.81 ± 2.65]) as well as least individual pattern VAS (P25-30-35). Discussion and Conclusion: Overall, rhythmic and simple pattern groups had higher and similar accuracy rates. Rhythmic stimuli patterns showed insignificantly lower fatigue rate than simple patterns. We conclude that both rhythmic and simple visual high frequency sine wave stimuli require further research for human subject SSVEP-BCI studies.
Project description:We aimed to develop an efficient, flexible and scalable approach to diagnostic genome-wide sequence analysis of genetically heterogeneous clinical presentations. Here we present G2P ( www.ebi.ac.uk/gene2phenotype ) as an online system to establish, curate and distribute datasets for diagnostic variant filtering via association of allelic requirement and mutational consequence at a defined locus with phenotypic terms, confidence level and evidence links. An extension to Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor (VEP), VEP-G2P was used to filter both disease-associated and control whole exome sequence (WES) with Developmental Disorders G2P (G2PDD; 2044 entries). VEP-G2PDD shows a sensitivity/precision of 97.3%/33% for de novo and 81.6%/22.7% for inherited pathogenic genotypes respectively. Many of the missing genotypes are likely false-positive pathogenic assignments. The expected number and discriminative features of background genotypes are defined using control WES. Using only human genetic data VEP-G2P performs well compared to other freely-available diagnostic systems and future phenotypic matching capabilities should further enhance performance.
Project description:Regulatory gene circuit motifs play crucial roles in performing and maintaining vital cellular functions. Frequently, theoretical studies of gene circuits focus on steady-state behaviors and do not include time delays. In this study, the inclusion of time delays is shown to entirely change the time-dependent dynamics for even the simplest possible circuits with one and two gene elements with self and cross regulations. These elements can give rise to rich behaviors including periodic, quasi-periodic, weak chaotic, strong chaotic and intermittent dynamics. We introduce a special power-spectrum-based method to characterize and discriminate these dynamical modes quantitatively. Our simulation results suggest that, while a single negative feedback loop of either one- or two-gene element can only have periodic dynamics, the elements with two positive/negative feedback loops are the minimalist elements to have chaotic dynamics. These elements typically have one negative feedback loop that generates oscillations, and another unit that allows frequent switches among multiple steady states or between oscillatory and non-oscillatory dynamics. Possible dynamical features of several simple one- and two-gene elements are presented in details. Discussion is presented for possible roles of the chaotic behavior in the robustness of cellular functions and diseases, for example, in the context of cancer.
Project description:A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a channel of communication that transforms brain activity into specific commands for manipulating a personal computer or other home or electrical devices. In other words, a BCI is an alternative way of interacting with the environment by using brain activity instead of muscles and nerves. For that reason, BCI systems are of high clinical value for targeted populations suffering from neurological disorders. In this paper, we present a new processing approach in three publicly available BCI data sets: (a) a well-known multi-class (N = 6) coded-modulated Visual Evoked potential (c-VEP)-based BCI system for able-bodied and disabled subjects; (b) a multi-class (N = 32) c-VEP with slow and fast stimulus representation; and (c) a steady-state Visual Evoked potential (SSVEP) multi-class (N = 5) flickering BCI system. Estimating cross-frequency coupling (CFC) and namely ?-? [?: (0.5-4 Hz), ?: (4-8 Hz)] phase-to-amplitude coupling (PAC) within sensor and across experimental time, we succeeded in achieving high classification accuracy and Information Transfer Rates (ITR) in the three data sets. Our approach outperformed the originally presented ITR on the three data sets. The bit rates obtained for both the disabled and able-bodied subjects reached the fastest reported level of 324 bits/min with the PAC estimator. Additionally, our approach outperformed alternative signal features such as the relative power (29.73 bits/min) and raw time series analysis (24.93 bits/min) and also the original reported bit rates of 10-25 bits/min. In the second data set, we succeeded in achieving an average ITR of 124.40 ± 11.68 for the slow 60 Hz and an average ITR of 233.99 ± 15.75 for the fast 120 Hz. In the third data set, we succeeded in achieving an average ITR of 106.44 ± 8.94. Current methodology outperforms any previous methodologies applied to each of the three free available BCI datasets.