GRAS-Di system facilitates high-density genetic map construction and QTL identification in recombinant inbred lines of the wheat progenitor Aegilops tauschii.
ABSTRACT: Due to large and complex genomes of Triticeae species, skim sequencing approaches have cost and analytical advantages for detecting genetic markers and building linkage maps. Here, we develop a high-density linkage map and identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for recombinant inbred lines of Aegilops tauschii, a D-genome donor of bread wheat, using the recently developed genotyping by Random Amplicon Sequencing-Direct (GRAS-Di) system, which facilitates skimming of the large and complicated genome and generates a large number of genetic markers. The deduced linkage groups based on the GRAS-Di genetic markers corresponded to the chromosome number of Ae. tauschii. We successfully identified stable QTLs for flowering time and spikelet shape-related traits. Genotype differences of RILs at the QTL-linked markers were significantly associated with the trait variations. In particular, one of the QTL-linked markers for flowering time was mapped close to VRN3 (also known as FLOWERING LOCUS T), which controls flowering. The GRAS-Di system is, therefore, an efficient and useful application for genotyping and linkage mapping in species with large and complex genomes, such as Triticeae species.
Project description:For identification of genes responsible for varietal differences in flowering time and leaf morphological traits, we constructed a linkage map of Brassica rapa DNA markers including 170 EST-based markers, 12 SSR markers, and 59 BAC sequence-based markers, of which 151 are single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. By BLASTN, 223 markers were shown to have homologous regions in Arabidopsis thaliana, and these homologous loci covered nearly the whole genome of A. thaliana. Synteny analysis between B. rapa and A. thaliana revealed 33 large syntenic regions. Three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for flowering time were detected. BrFLC1 and BrFLC2 were linked to the QTLs for bolting time, budding time, and flowering time. Three SNPs in the promoter, which may be the cause of low expression of BrFLC2 in the early-flowering parental line, were identified. For leaf lobe depth and leaf hairiness, one major QTL corresponding to a syntenic region containing GIBBERELLIN 20 OXIDASE 3 and one major QTL containing BrGL1, respectively, were detected. Analysis of nucleotide sequences and expression of these genes suggested possible involvement of these genes in leaf morphological traits.
Project description:The hybrids between Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. and L.cylindrica (L.) Roem. have strong heterosis effects. However, some reproductive isolation traits hindered their normal hybridization and fructification, which was mainly caused by the flowering time and hybrid pollen sterility. In order to study the genetic basis of two interspecific reproductive isolation traits, we constructed a genetic linkage map using an F2 population derived from a cross between S1174 [L. acutangula (L.) Roxb.] and 93075 [L. cylindrica (L.) Roem.]. The map spans 1436.12 CentiMorgans (cM), with an average of 8.11 cM among markers, and consists of 177 EST-SSR markers distributed in 14 linkage groups (LG) with an average of 102.58 cM per LG. Meanwhile, we conducted colinearity analysis between the sequences of EST-SSR markers and the genomic sequences of cucumber, melon and watermelon. On the basis of genetic linkage map, we conducted QTL mapping of two reproductive isolation traits in sponge gourd, which were the flowering time and hybrid male sterility. Two putative QTLs associated with flowering time (FT) were both detected on LG 1. The accumulated contribution of these two QTLs explained 38.07% of the total phenotypic variance (PV), and each QTL explained 15.36 and 22.71% of the PV respectively. Four QTLs for pollen fertility (PF) were identified on LG 1 (qPF1.1 and qPF1.2), LG 3 (qPF3) and LG 7 (qPF7), respectively. The percentage of PF explained by these QTLs varied from 2.91 to 16.79%, and all together the four QTLs accounted for 39.98% of the total PV. Our newly developed EST-SSR markers and linkage map are very useful for gene mapping, comparative genomics and molecular marker-assisted breeding. These QTLs for interspecific reproductive isolation will also contribute to the cloning of genes relating to interspecific reproductive isolation and the utilization of interspecific heterosis in sponge gourd in further studies.
Project description:A high-density linkage map is crucial for the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), positional cloning, and physical map assembly. Here, we report the development of a high-density linkage map based on specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) for adzuki bean and the identification of flowering time-related QTLs. Through SLAF library construction and Illumina sequencing of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, a total of 4425 SLAF markers were developed and assigned to 11 linkage groups (LGs). After binning the SLAF markers that represented the same genotype, the final linkage map of 1628.15?cM contained 2032 markers, with an average marker density of 0.80?cM. Comparative analysis showed high collinearity with two adzuki bean physical maps and a high degree of synteny with the reference genome of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Using this map, one major QTL on LG03 and two minor QTLs on LG05 associated with first flowering time (FLD) were consistently identified in tests over a two-year period. These results provide a foundation that will be useful for future genomic research, such as identifying QTLs for other important traits, positional cloning, and comparative mapping in legumes.
Project description:Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum) is an important floricultural crop cultivated worldwide. Despite its commercial importance, few DNA markers are available for molecular genetic research. In this study, we constructed a genetic linkage map and to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for important agronomic traits of lisianthus. To develop simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, we used 454-pyrosequencing technology to obtain genomic shotgun sequences and subsequently identified 8263 putative SSRs. A total of 3990 primer pairs were designed in silico and 1189 unique primer pairs were extracted through a BLAST search. Amplification was successful for more than 1000 primer pairs, and ultimately 278 SSR markers exhibited polymorphism between the two lisianthus accessions evaluated. Based on these markers, a genetic linkage map was constructed using a breeding population derived from crosses between the two accessions, for which flowering time differed (>140 days when grown under 20°C). We detected one QTL associated with flowering time (phenotypic variance, 27%; LOD value, 3.7). The SSR marker located at this QTL may account for variation in flowering time among accessions (i.e., three accessions whose nodes of the first flower were over 30 had late-flowering alleles of this QTL).
Project description:Wild diploid wheat Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome progenitor of common wheat, carries large genetic variation in spikelet and grain morphology. Two differentiated subspecies of Ae. tauschii, subspecies tauschii and strangulata, have been traditionally defined based on differences in spikelet morphology. Here, we first assessed six spikelet shape-related traits among 199 Ae. tauschii accessions, and found that the accessions belonging to TauL1major lineage produced significantly longer spikes, higher spikelet density, and shorter, narrower spikelets than another major lineage, TauL2, in which the strangulata accessions are included. Next, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of the spikelet and grain shape using three mapping populations derived from interlineage crosses between TauL1 and TauL2 to identify the genetic loci for the morphological variations of the spikelet and grain shape in Ae. tauschii. Three major QTL regions for the examined traits were detected on chromosomes 3D, 4D and 7D. The 3D and 4D QTL regions for several spikelet shape-related traits were conserved in the three mapping populations, which indicated that the 3D and 4D QTLs contribute to divergence of the two major lineages. The 7D QTLs were found only in a mapping population from a cross of the two subspecies, suggesting that these 7D QTLs may be closely related to subspecies differentiation in Ae. tauschii. Thus, QTL analysis for spikelet and grain morphology may provide useful information to elucidate the evolutionary processes of intraspecific differentiation.
Project description:Seed size and shape traits are important determinants of seed yield and appearance quality in soybean [<i>Glycine max</i> (L.) Merr.]. Understanding the genetic architecture of these traits is important to enable their genetic improvement through efficient and targeted selection in soybean breeding, and for the identification of underlying causal genes. To map seed size and shape traits in soybean, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population developed from K099 (small seed size) × Fendou 16 (large seed size), was phenotyped in three growing seasons. A genetic map of the RIL population was developed using 1,485 genotyping by random amplicon sequencing-direct (GRAS-Di) and 177 SSR markers. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was conducted by inclusive composite interval mapping. As a result, 53 significant QTLs for seed size traits and 27 significant QTLs for seed shape traits were identified. Six of these QTLs (<i>qSW8.1, qSW16.1, qSLW2.1, qSLT2.1, qSWT1.2</i>, and <i>qSWT4.3</i>) were identified with LOD scores of 3.80-14.0 and <i>R</i> <sup>2</sup> of 2.36%-39.49% in at least two growing seasons. Among the above significant QTLs, 24 QTLs were grouped into 11 QTL clusters, such as, three major QTLs (<i>qSL2.3</i>, <i>qSLW2.1</i>, and <i>qSLT2.1</i>) were clustered into a major QTL on Chr.02, named as <i>qSS2</i>. The effect of <i>qSS2</i> was validated in a pair of near isogenic lines, and its candidate genes (<i>Glyma.02G269400, Glyma.02G272100, Glyma.02G274900, Glyma.02G277200</i>, and <i>Glyma.02G277600</i>) were mined. The results of this study will assist in the breeding programs aiming at improvement of seed size and shape traits in soybean.
Project description:Crossing experiments indicate that hybrid sterility barriers frequently have developed within diploid, circumpolar plant species of the genus Draba. To gain insight into the rapid evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation in this system, we augmented the linkage map of one of these species, D. nivalis, and searched for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with reproductive isolation. The map adds 63 new dominant markers to a previously published dataset of 31 co-dominant microsatellites. These markers include 52 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and 11 sequence-specific amplified polymorphisms (SSAPs) based on retrotransposon sequence. 22 markers displaying transmission ratio distortion were further included in the map. We resolved eight linkage groups with a total map length of 894 cM. Significant genotype-trait associations, or quantitative trait loci (QTL), were detected for reproductive phenotypes including pollen fertility (4 QTLs), seed set (3 QTLs), flowering time (3 QTLs) and number of flowers (4 QTLs). Observed patterns of inheritance were consistent with the influence of both nuclear-nuclear interactions and chromosomal changes on these traits. All seed set QTLs and one pollen fertility QTL displayed underdominant effects suggestive of the involvement of chromosomal rearrangements in hybrid sterility. Interestingly, D. nivalis is predominantly self-fertilizing, which may facilitate the establishment of underdominant loci and contribute to reproductive isolation.
Project description:Timely flowering is important for seed formation and maximization of rapeseed (<i>Brassica napus</i>) yield. Here, we performed flowering-time quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping using a double haploid (DH) population grown in three environments to study the genetic architecture. Brassica 60 K Illumina Infinium™ single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used for genotyping of the DH population, and a high-density genetic linkage map was constructed. QTL analysis of flowering time from the three environments revealed five consensus QTLs, including two major QTLs. A major QTL located on chromosome A03 was detected specifically in the semi-winter rapeseed growing region, and the one on chromosome C08 was detected in all environments. Ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed on the parents' leaves at seven time-points in a day to determine differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The biological processes and pathways with significant enrichment of DEGs were obtained. The DEGs in the QTL intervals were analyzed, and four flowering time-related candidate genes were found. These results lay a foundation for the genetic regulation of rapeseed flowering time and create a rapeseed gene expression library for seven time-points in a day.
Project description:Recently, we investigated the effect of the wheat 90K single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) array and three gene-specific (Ppd-D1, Vrn-A1 and Rht-B1) markers on quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection in a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population derived from a cross between two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, 'Attila' and 'CDC Go', and evaluated for eight agronomic traits at three environments under organic management. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of conventional management on QTL detection in the same mapping population using the same set of markers as the organic management and compare the results with organic management. Here, we evaluated 167 RILs for number of tillers (tillering), flowering time, maturity, plant height, test weight (grain volume weight), 1000 kernel weight, grain yield, and grain protein content at seven conventionally managed environments from 2008 to 2014. Using inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) on phenotypic data averaged across seven environments and a subset of 1203 informative markers (1200 SNPs and 3 gene specific markers), we identified a total of 14 QTLs associated with flowering time (1), maturity (2), plant height (1), grain yield (1), test weight (2), kernel weight (4), tillering (1) and grain protein content (2). Each QTL individually explained from 6.1 to 18.4% of the phenotypic variance. Overall, the QTLs associated with each trait explained from 9.7 to 35.4% of the phenotypic and from 22.1 to 90.8% of the genetic variance. Three chromosomal regions on chromosomes 2D (61-66 cM), 4B (80-82 cM) and 5A (296-297 cM) harbored clusters of QTLs associated with two to three traits. The coincidental region on chromosome 5A harbored QTL clusters for both flowering and maturity time, and mapped about 2 cM proximal to the Vrn-A1 gene, which was in high linkage disequilibrium (0.70 ? r2 ? 0.75) with SNP markers that mapped within the QTL confidence interval. Six of the 14 QTLs (one for flowering time and plant height each, and two for maturity and kernel weight each) were common between the conventional and organic management systems, which suggests issues in directly utilizing gene discovery results based on conventional management to make in detail selection (decision) for organic management.
Project description:In the recent past, genetic analyses of grapevine focused mainly on the identification of resistance loci for major diseases such as powdery and downy mildew. Currently, breeding programs make intensive use of these results by applying molecular markers linked to the resistance traits. However, modern genetics also allows to address additional agronomic traits that have considerable impact on the selection of grapevine cultivars. In this study, we have used linkage mapping for the identification and characterization of flowering time and ripening traits in a mapping population from a cross of V3125 ('Schiava Grossa' × 'Riesling') and the interspecific rootstock cultivar 'Börner' (Vitis riparia × Vitis cinerea). Comparison of the flowering time QTL mapping with data derived from a second independent segregating population identified several common QTLs. Especially a large region on linkage group 1 proved to be of special interest given the genetic divergence of the parents of the two populations. The proximity of the QTL region contains two CONSTANS-like genes. In accordance with data from other plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, we hypothesize that these genes are major contributors to control the time of flowering in Vitis.