Efficacy of Treatments for Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Management in Adolescents.
ABSTRACT: Limited evidence on treatment options for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has led to considerable variation in health care practices. We aimed to compare the effects of metformin and/or oral contraceptive pills (OCP) in combination with pioglitazone, spironolactone, flutamide, and lifestyle interventions among adolescents aged 11 to 19 years with PCOS. Literature searches were performed in Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from database inception through December 2018, with no language restriction. Two reviewers screened titles and abstracts, assessed full text eligibility, and extracted information from eligible trials. Evidence was synthesized through network meta-analyses (NMA) using a Bayesian random-effects approach. We identified 37 randomized controlled trials, in which 2400 patients were randomized. NMA showed no statistically important difference among all interventions to improve menstrual regulation or body mass index. Moderate-quality evidence showed hirsutism scores were reduced by multiple interventions that included single and combination medications namely; lifestyle intervention, metformin, OCP, spironolactone, pioglitazone, metformin-OCP, metformin-spironolactone, and metformin-flutamide against placebo. Moderate-quality evidence showed OCP results in more dysglycemia compared to metformin (odds ratio, 2.98; 95% credible interval, 1.02-8.96), no intervention resulted in dysglycemia reduction. In conclusion, metformin and OCP as monotherapy or in combination with other interventions compared with placebo can reduce hirsutism scores, but none of these medications lead to effective menstrual cycle regulation or weight reduction. However, the use of OCP leads to worse cardiometabolic risk factors. Further research into new treatment options is urgently needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5%-15% of women and is the most common cause of hirsutism. Data on the time-course of improvement to suppressive therapy and predictors of that response in PCOS are lacking. The objectives of our study are to determine the long-term response and identify predictors of response in PCOS women treated with suppressive therapy, including spironolactone (SPL) + oral contraceptives (OCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS:Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 200 women with PCOS (1990 NIH criteria) treated with suppressive therapy in general, and a subgroup of 138 subjects treated with OCP+SPL who had been prospectively included in a biorepository. Main outcome measure included improvement rate per 100 person-month of follow-up for hirsutism, menstrual irregularity and acne measured qualitatively as "feeling better", and changes in the severity of hirsutism quantified by modified Ferriman-Gallwey [mF-G] score. RESULTS:During a mean follow-up of 34.2 months, 85.1%, 82.7%, and 79.3% of patients reported improvement in hirsutism, menstrual dysfunction, and acne, respectively. The modified Ferriman-Gallwey (mF-G) hirsutism score improved by 59.9%. The net reduction in mF-G score and the percent of patients reporting improvement in hirsutism were greater for OC+SPL than for either drug alone, with no difference in the percent of patients free of adverse effects. Among those treated with OC+SPL (n?=?138), the initial mF-G and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) independently predicted successful therapy for hirsutism. CONCLUSION:There is a high rate of patient satisfaction with suppressive therapy in PCOS. The efficacy of suppressive therapy for hirsutism was greater with OC+SPL than with either drug alone. Successful treatment of hirsutism with combination OC+SPL requires at least 6 months of therapy, with the proportion of satisfied patients continuing to increase with treatment duration. The probability of patient satisfaction with OC+SPL treatment for hirsutism can be predicted by her initial mF-G score or SHBG level.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting about 10% of women in reproductive age and associated with a variety of hormonal abnormalities, including hyperandrogenemia and infertility, all of which could lead to PCOS. Statins were previously introduced as a therapeutic option for reducing testosterone levels in women with PCOS, either alone or in combination. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of different statins alone or in combination with metformin in reducing testosterone levels in women with PCOS. METHODS:Medline, Embase, and clinicaltrials.gov were searched for studies that investigated the efficacy of statins, metformin, spironolactone, or combined oral contraceptives (COCs), individually or in combination, in reducing the testosterone level in patients with PCOS. The search was limited to randomized clinical trials and conducted according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses - extension statement for network meta-analyses (PRISMA-NMA). The quality of included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias (RoB) assessment tool. A frequentist network meta-analysis using random-effects models was used to assess the efficacy in reducing testosterone level and were expressed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% credible interval (95%Crl). All statistical analyses were performed using netmeta Version 1.0 on R statistical package. RESULT:Nine RCTs involving 613 patients were included. Atorvastatin showed greater reduction in testosterone level compared to COC (MD -2.78, 95%CrI -3.60, -1.97), spironolactone plus metformin (MD -2.83, 95%CrI -3.80, -1.87), simvastatin (MD -2.88, 95%CrI -3.85, -1.92), spironolactone (MD -2.90, 95%CI -3.77, -2.02), simvastatin plus metformin (MD -2.93, 95%CrI -3.79, -2.06), metformin (MD -2.97, 95%CrI -3.69, -2.25), lifestyle modification (MD -3.02, 95%CrI -3.87, -2.18), and placebo (MD -3.04, 95%CrI -3.56, -2.53). CONCLUSION:Atorvastatin was found to be more effective than the other management strategies in reducing the total testosterone level for patients with PCOS. Future studies should focus on the optimal dose.
Project description:Metformin is associated with increased insulin sensitivity, whereas oral contraceptive pills (OCP) could increase the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Certain miRNAs might serve as biomarkers for the risk of T2D. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in circulating miRNA levels during treatment with metformin and OCP in women with PCOS. Sixty-five women with PCOS according to Rotterdam criteria were randomized to metformin (2 g/day), metformin + OCP (150 mg desogestrel + 30 µg ethinylestradiol) or OCP alone for 12 months. Serum miRNA analysis was performed with individual RT-qPCR or Taqman low density array cards of 22 selected miRNAs previously related to PCOS, glucose and/or lipid metabolism. miR-122 and miR-29a levels were decreased after treatment with metformin compared with metformin + OCP and OCP group: miR-122: log2 difference -0.7 (P = 0.01) and -0.7 (P = 0.02), miR-29a: log2 difference -0.5 (P = 0.01) and -0.4 (P = 0.04), while miR-223 levels were decreased in the metformin + OCP group after treatment: log2 difference -0.5 (P = 0.02). During the treatment period, a significant weight loss was observed in the metformin group compared with the OCP group. In the OCP group, miRNA levels were unchanged during the treatment period. Levels of circulating miRNAs associated with lipid and glucose metabolism decreased during metformin treatment. Changes in miRNA levels in the metformin group could be explained by the simultaneous weight loss in the same group. These results support the notion that metformin treatment alone may be superior for metabolic health compared with OCP.
Project description:Aims:Despite the very clear association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and dysglycemia, few studies have explored the continuum of glycemic alterations leading from minor glucose abnormalities to overt diabetes. The purpose of this review is to trace the natural history of glycemic alteration in women with PCOS. Methods:We performed a literature review without time limit until August 2019. Inclusion criteria were studies addressing the association between impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes (T2D) and PCOS with at least an English abstract. The exclusion criteria were no PCOS or impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose or T2D as outcome. The outcomes of interest were the onset of impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose, T2D, and the progression from impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose to T2D. Results:Healthy diet and physical activity are the first-line therapy for PCOS. Treatment with metformin was associated with significant lower 2-hour postload glucose levels and with reduction in fasting glucose when compared to placebo. Thiazolidinediones were more effective in reducing fasting glucose levels compared to placebo. Metformin and pioglitazone treatments showed similar effects on fasting glucose levels. The sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor empagliflozin did not show differences in metabolic parameters when compared to metformin. The combination therapy with metformin plus the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide was associated with significant improvements in basal and postload glucose levels compared with only liraglutide. Likewise, a combination therapy with the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor saxagliptin and metformin demonstrated superiority versus metformin in fasting glucose and oral glucose tolerance test normalization. Myo-inositol supplementation was associated with lower insulin levels, glucose levels, and insulin resistance when compared with placebo, metformin, or estrogen treatments. Conclusions:The use of insulin-sensitizing agents, such as metformin and inositols, along with lifestyle interventions may improve the metabolic profile in PCOS women.
Project description:Many women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) experience infertility and hirsutism and often seek treatment for both concurrently. We investigated whether women who ovulate in response to treatment with clomiphene citrate, metformin, or both would have greater improvement in hirsutism compared with those who did not ovulate.This is a secondary analysis evaluating the change in Ferriman-Gallwey score for the hirsute women (n=505 [80.7%]) from the Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome I study. This was a prospective, randomized, doubled-blind trial of 626 women with PCOS and infertility recruited from 12 university sites. They were treated with clomiphene citrate, metformin, or both (combination) for up to six cycles, and hirsutism evaluators were blinded to group assignment.There was a significant decrease in the Ferriman-Gallwey score between baseline and completion of the study in each of the three individual groups (clomiphene citrate, P=.024; metformin, P=.005; combination, P<.001). There was no significant difference in the degree to which the hirsutism score changed when comparing the three groups (P=.44). The change in hirsutism was not associated with the duration of treatment or with the presence or absence of ovulation.In infertile hirsute women with PCOS, treatment with clomiphene citrate, metformin, or both for up to six cycles does not alter hirsutism.ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00068861.II.
Project description:A randomized trial on women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared simvastatin, metformin, and a combination of these drugs.The aim of the study was to evaluate long-term effects of simvastatin and metformin on PCOS.Women with PCOS (n = 139) were randomized to simvastatin (S), metformin (M), or simvastatin plus metformin (SM) groups. Evaluations were performed at baseline and at 3 and 6 months.The study was conducted at a university medical center.We measured the change of serum total testosterone.Ninety-seven subjects completed the study. Total testosterone decreased significantly and comparably in all groups: by 25.6, 25.6, and 20.1% in the S, M, and SM groups, respectively. Both simvastatin and metformin improved menstrual cyclicity and decreased hirsutism, acne, ovarian volume, body mass index, C-reactive protein, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate declined significantly only in the S group. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly declined only in the S and SM groups. Ongoing reduction of ovarian volume, decreased hirsutism, acne and testosterone were observed between 0 and 3 months as well as between 3 and 6 months. Improvement of lipid profile, C-reactive protein, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 occurred only during the first 3 months of treatment, with little change thereafter. Treatments were well tolerated, and no significant adverse effects were encountered.Long-term treatment with simvastatin was superior to metformin. Improvement of ovarian hyperandrogenism continued throughout the duration of the study.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To study the associations between maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and hirsutism with offspring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, conduct disorder, and behavioral problems.<h4>Design</h4>Prospective birth cohort study.<h4>Setting</h4>Not applicable.<h4>Patient(s)</h4>A total of 1,915 mother-child dyads.<h4>Intervention(s)</h4>None.<h4>Main outcome measure(s)</h4>Maternal report of offspring ADHD, anxiety, or conduct disorder diagnosis at 7 to 8 years; emotional symptoms, behavioral problems (including peer relationship, conduct, hyperactivity/inattention), and prosocial problems measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) at 7 years.<h4>Result(s)</h4>Prevalence of PCOS and hirsutism were 12.0% and 3.9%; 84% of women with hirsutism had PCOS. After adjustment for sociodemographic covariates, prepregnancy body mass index, and parental history of affective disorders, children born to mothers with PCOS had higher risk of anxiety (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-2.57) and borderline emotional symptoms (aRR 1.66; 95% CI, 1.18-2.33) compared with children born to mothers without PCOS. The associations between maternal PCOS and offspring ADHD were positive but imprecise. Maternal hirsutism was related to a higher risk of children's ADHD (aRR 2.33; 95% CI, 1.28-4.24), conduct disorder (aRR 2.54; 95% CI 1.18-5.47), borderline emotional symptoms, peer relationship problems, and conduct problems (aRRs 2.61; 95% CI, 1.69-4.05; 1.92; 95% CI, 1.16-3.17; and 2.22; 95% CI, 1.30-3.79, respectively).<h4>Conclusion(s)</h4>Maternal PCOS was associated with offspring anxiety, and hirsutism was related to other offspring behavioral problems. These findings should be interpreted with caution as replication is needed in prospective cohort studies that assess PCOS and hirsutism diagnoses using medical records.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To date, little is known about differences in the knowledge, diagnosis making and treatment strategies of health care providers regarding polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) across different disciplines in countries with similar health care systems. To inform guideline translation, we aimed to study physician reported awareness, diagnosis and management of PCOS and to explore differences between medical disciplines in the Nordic countries and Estonia. METHODS:This cross-sectional survey was conducted among 382 endocrinologists and obstetrician-gynaecologists in the Nordic countries and Estonia in 2015-2016. Of the participating physicians, 43% resided in Finland, 18% in Denmark, 16% in Norway, 13% in Estonia, and 10% in Sweden or Iceland, and 75% were obstetrician-gynaecologists. Multivariable logistic regression models were run to identify health care provider characteristics for awareness, diagnosis and treatment of PCOS. RESULTS:Clinical features, lifestyle management and comorbidity were commonly recognized in women with PCOS, while impairment in psychosocial wellbeing was not well acknowledged. Over two-thirds of the physicians used the Rotterdam diagnostic criteria for PCOS. Medical endocrinologists more often recommended lifestyle management (OR = 3.6, CI 1.6-8.1) or metformin (OR = 5.0, CI 2.5-10.2), but less frequently OCP (OR = 0.5, CI 0.2-0.9) for non-fertility concerns than general obstetrician-gynaecologists. The physicians aged <35 years were 2.2 times (95% CI 1.1-4.3) more likely than older physicians to recommend lifestyle management for patients with PCOS for fertility concerns. Physicians aged 46-55 years were less likely to recommend oral contraceptive pills (OCP) for patients with PCOS than physicians aged >56 (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8). CONCLUSION:Despite well-organized healthcare, awareness, diagnosis and management of PCOS is suboptimal, especially in relation to psychosocial comorbidities, among physicians in the Nordic countries and Estonia. Physicians need more education on PCOS and evidence-based information on Rotterdam diagnostic criteria, psychosocial features and treatment of PCOS, with the recently published international PCOS guideline well needed and welcomed.
Project description:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility. The selection of first-line therapies for ovulation induction is empiric.The aim of the study was to develop a clinically useful predictive model of live birth with varying ovulation induction methods.We built four prognostic models from a large multicenter randomized controlled infertility trial of 626 women with PCOS performed at academic health centers in the United States to predict success of ovulation, conception, pregnancy, and live birth, evaluating the influence of patients' baseline characteristics.Ovulation was induced with clomiphene, metformin, or the combination of both for up to six cycles or conception.The primary outcome of the trial was the rate of live births.Baseline free androgen index, baseline proinsulin level, interaction of treatment arm with body mass index, and duration of attempting conception were significant predictors in all four models. History of a prior loss predicted ovulation and conception, but not pregnancy or live birth. A modified Ferriman Gallwey hirsutism score of less than 8 was predictive of conception, pregnancy, and live birth (although it did not predict ovulation success). Age was a divergent predictor based on outcome; age greater than 34 predicted ovulation, whereas age less than 35 was a predictive factor for a successful pregnancy and live birth. Smoking history had no predictive value.A live birth prediction chart developed from basic clinical parameters (body mass index, age, hirsutism score, and duration of attempting conception) may help physicians counsel and select infertility treatments for women with PCOS.