Akkermansia muciniphila promotes type H vessels formation and bone fracture healing by reducing gut permeability and inflammation.
ABSTRACT: Improving revascularization is one of the major measures in fracture treatment. Moderate local inflammation triggers angiogenesis, whereas systemic inflammation hampers angiogenesis. Previous studies showed that Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muc), a gut probiotic, ameliorates systemic inflammation by tightening intestinal barrier. In this study, fractured mice intragastrically administrated with A. muc were found to display better fracture healing than mice treated with vehicle. Notably, more preosteclasts positive for platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) were induced by A. muc at 2 weeks post fracture, coinciding with increased formation of type H vessels, a specific vessel subtype that couples angiogenesis and osteogenesis and can be stimulated by PDGF-BB. Moreover, A. muc treatment significantly reduced gut permeability and inflammation at early stage. Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS) was used to disrupt the gut barrier to determine the role of gut barrier in fracture healing and whether A. muc still can stimulate bone fracture healing. As expected, A. muc evidently improved gut barrier, reduced inflammation, and restored the impaired bone healing and angiogenesis in DSS-treated mice. Our results suggest that A. muc reduces intestinal permeability and alleviates inflammation, which probably induces more PDGF-BB positive preosteoclasts and type H vessel formation in callus, thereby promoting fracture healing. This study provides the evidences about the involvement of type H vessels in fracture healing and suggests the potential of A. muc as a promising strategy for bone healing.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tenascin-C (TnC) is a multi-domain extracellular matrix glycoprotein that is expressed at a high level during embryogenesis but is almost absent during normal postnatal life. This multi-domain complex molecule is reported to associate with both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signalling cascades. In this study, we examined how TnC modulated intestinal inflammation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: TnC pathophysiology was evaluated in cultures of rat intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMF) and intestinal epithelial cells. Wild-type and TnC(-/-) mice were treated with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce colitis. KEY RESULTS: DSS-induced colitis in mice markedly increased TnC in the damaged mucosal areas and up-regulated mRNA for TnC, pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors (PDGF-B and TGF-?1). In addition, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis and SAMP1/Yit mice, a model of spontaneous Crohn's disease, also exhibited increased mucosal TnC in colon and ilea respectively. PDGF receptor-? (PDGFR?) positive ISEMF were the primary TnC-producing cells in colon tissues. Accordingly, ISEMF collected from the rat colon constitutively expressed both TnC and PDGFR?. PDGF-BB and TGF-?1 up-regulated both TnC mRNA and protein levels in ISEMF. Knock-down of TnC gene increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis, compared with TnC(+/+) littermates. TnC(-/-) mice showed marked abrasion of intestinal mucosal barrier and increased inflammatory scores. Moreover, TnC accelerated both trans-well migration and wound healing in epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The pharmacological profiles of PDGF-BB and TGF-? in colitis tissues and ISEMF suggest that increased TnC production during inflammation contributed to epithelial cell migration, remodelling and protection of intestinal barriers.
Project description:Platelet-derived growth factor-bb (PDGF-BB) is a potent chemokine and mitogen for fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and vascular endothelium in the injured area, believed to be effective in wound healing. However, the short half-life of PDGF-BB and its rapid release from the wound surface limited its efficacy in vivo and vitro. To evaluate the wound healing effects of dorsal skin in SD rats with polydopamine-assisted immobilized PDGF-BB on PLGA nanofibrous substrate. First, the effects of pDA-coating and PDGF-BB immobilization on the morphology, compositions, and hydrophilicity of substrates were evaluated in details. Second, the wound healing effect of pDA/PLGA/PDGF-BB substrate was assessed in the dorsal skin of SD rats. Last, the cytokine analysis by ELISA method was employed to evaluate the advantages of pDA/PLGA/PDGF-BB substrate on anti-inflammatory, angiogenesis, and cellular proliferation. This method significantly improved the immobilization amount and stability of PDGF-BB on the substrate (p<0.01), further improved the hydrophilicity of substrates (p<0.05). Furthermore, the wound closure process was much more accelerated in the pDA/PLGA/PDGF-BB group (p<0.05). H&E and CD31 staining informed that the wound treated by pDA/PLGA/PDGF-BB substrate showed a high degree of regeneration and angiogenesis. The cytokine analysis showed that pDA significantly reduced the high level of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-? (p<0.05). And the immobilized PDGF-BB significantly elevated the level of TGF-? and VEGF (p<0.05). The pDA/PLGA/PDGF-BB substrate showed great therapeutic effect on wound healing compared with other control groups via regulating anti-inflammatory, angiogenesis, and cellular proliferation. Absolutely, this report offered an available novel method for skin regeneration.
Project description:Current methods for tendon rupture repair suffer from two main drawbacks: insufficient strength and adhesion formation, which lead to rerupture and impaired gliding. A novel polymer tube may help to overcome these problems by allowing growth factor delivery to the wound site and adhesion reduction, and by acting as a physical barrier to the surrounding tissue. In this study, we used a bilayered DegraPol® tube to deliver PDGF-BB to the wound site in a full-transection rabbit Achilles tendon model. We then performed histological and immunohistochemical analysis at 3 weeks postoperation. Sustained delivery of PDGF-BB to the healing Achilles tendon led to a significantly more homogenous cell distribution within the healing tissue. Lower cell densities next to the implant material were determined for +PDGF-BB samples compared to -PDGF-BB. PDGF-BB application increased proteoglycan content and reduced alpha-SMA+ areas, clusters of different sizes, mainly vessels. Finally, PDGF-BB reduced collagens I and III in the extracellular matrix. The sustained delivery of PDGF-BB via an electrospun DegraPol® tube accelerated tendon wound healing by causing a more uniform cell distribution with higher proteoglycan content and less fibrotic tissue. Moreover, the application of this growth factor reduced collagen III and alpha-SMA, indicating a faster and less fibrotic tendon healing.
Project description:Increased subchondral bone angiogenesis with blood vessels breaching the tidemark into the avascular cartilage is a diagnostic feature of human osteoarthritis. However, the mechanisms that initiate subchondral bone angiogenesis remain unclear. We show that abnormally increased platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) secretion by mononuclear preosteoclasts induces subchondral bone angiogenesis, contributing to osteoarthritis development. In mice after destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM), aberrant joint subchondral bone angiogenesis developed during an early stage of osteoarthritis, before articular cartilage damage occurred. Mononuclear preosteoclasts in subchondral bone secrete excessive amounts of PDGF-BB, which activates platelet-derived growth factor receptor-? (PDGFR-?) signaling in pericytes for neo-vessel formation. Selective knockout of PDGF-BB in preosteoclasts attenuates subchondral bone angiogenesis and abrogates joint degeneration and subchondral innervation induced by DMM. Transgenic mice that express PDGF-BB in preosteoclasts recapitulate pathological subchondral bone angiogenesis and develop joint degeneration and subchondral innervation spontaneously. Our study provides the first evidence to our knowledge that PDGF-BB derived from preosteoclasts is a key driver of pathological subchondral bone angiogenesis during osteoarthritis development and offers a new avenue for developing early treatments for this disease.
Project description:Osteogenesis during bone modeling and remodeling is coupled with angiogenesis. A recent study showed that a specific vessel subtype, strongly positive for CD31 and endomucin (CD31(hi)Emcn(hi)), couples angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Here, we found that platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) secreted by preosteoclasts induces CD31(hi)Emcn(hi) vessel formation during bone modeling and remodeling. Mice with depletion of PDGF-BB in the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive cell lineage show significantly lower trabecular and cortical bone mass, serum and bone marrow PDGF-BB concentrations, and fewer CD31(hi)Emcn(hi) vessels compared to wild-type mice. In the ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporotic mouse model, serum and bone marrow levels of PDGF-BB and numbers of CD31(hi)Emcn(hi) vessels are significantly lower compared to sham-operated controls. Treatment with exogenous PDGF-BB or inhibition of cathepsin K to increase the number of preosteoclasts, and thus the endogenous levels of PDGF-BB, increases CD31(hi)Emcn(hi) vessel number and stimulates bone formation in OVX mice. Thus, pharmacotherapies that increase PDGF-BB secretion from preosteoclasts offer a new therapeutic target for treating osteoporosis by promoting angiogenesis and thus bone formation.
Project description:The field of tissue engineering is severely limited by a lack of microvascularization in tissue engineered constructs. Biomimetic poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels containing covalently immobilized platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) were developed to promote angiogenesis. Poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels resist protein absorption and subsequent non-specific cell adhesion, thus providing a "blank slate", which can be modified through the incorporation of cell adhesive ligands and growth factors. PDGF-BB is a key angiogenic protein able to support neovessel stabilization by inducing functional anastomoses and recruiting pericytes. Due to the widespread effects of PDGF in the body and a half-life of only 30 min in circulating blood, immobilization of PDGF-BB may be necessary. In this work bioactive, covalently immobilized PDGF-BB was shown to induce tubulogenesis on two-dimensional modified surfaces, migration in three-dimensional (3D) degradable hydrogels and angiogenesis in a mouse cornea micropocket angiogenesis assay. Covalently immobilized PDGF-BB was also used in combination with covalently immobilized fibroblast growth factor-2, which led to significantly increased endothelial cell migration in 3D degradable hydrogels compared with the presentation of each factor alone. When a co-culture of endothelial cells and mouse pericyte precursor 10T1/2 cells was seeded onto modified surfaces tubule formation was independent of surface modifications with covalently immobilized growth factors. Furthermore, the combination of soluble PDGF-BB and immobilized PDGF-BB induced a more robust vascular response compared with soluble PDGF-BB alone when implanted into an in vivo mouse cornea micropocket angiogenesis assay. Based on these results, we believe bioactive hydrogels can be tailored to improve the formation of functional microvasculature for tissue engineering.
Project description:Diabetes and its concurrent complications impact a significant proportion of the population of the US and create a large financial burden on the American health care system. FDA-approved maggot debridement therapy (MDT), the application of sterile laboratory-reared Lucilia sericata (green bottle fly) larvae to wounds, is a cost-effective and successful treatment for diabetic foot ulcers and other medical conditions. Human platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is a secreted dimeric peptide growth factor that binds the PDGF receptor. PDGF-BB stimulates cell proliferation and survival, promotes wound healing, and has been investigated as a possible topical treatment for non-healing wounds. Genetic engineering has allowed for expression and secretion of human growth factors and other proteins in transgenic insects. Here, we present a novel concept in MDT technology that combines the established benefits of MDT with the power of genetic engineering to promote healing. The focus of this study is to create and characterize strains of transgenic L. sericata that express and secrete PDGF-BB at detectable levels in adult hemolymph, whole larval lysate, and maggot excretions/ secretions (ES), with potential for clinical utility in wound healing.We have engineered and confirmed transgene insertion in several strains of L. sericata that express human PDGF-BB. Using a heat-inducible promoter to control the pdgf-b gene, pdgf-b mRNA was detected via semi-quantitative PCR upon heat shock. PDGF-BB protein was also detectable in larval lysates and adult hemolymph but not larval ES. An alternative, tetracycline-repressible pdgf-b system mediated expression of pdgf-b mRNA when maggots were raised on diet that lacked tetracycline. Further, PDGF-BB protein was readily detected in whole larval lysate as well as larval ES.Here we show robust, inducible expression and production of human PDGF-BB protein from two conditional expression systems in transgenic L. sericata larvae. The tetracycline-repressible system appears to be the most promising as PDGF-BB protein was detectable in larval ES following induction. Our system could potentially be used to deliver a variety of growth factors and anti-microbial peptides to the wound environment with the aim of enhancing wound healing, thereby improving patient outcome in a cost-effective manner.
Project description:The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling system contributes to tumor angiogenesis and vascular remodeling. Here, we show PDGF-BB markedly induces erythropoietin (EPO) mRNA and protein expression by targeting the PDGFR-beta+ stromal and perivascular compartments. In mouse tumor models, PDGF-BB-induced EPO promotes tumor growth via two mechanisms: 1) paracrine stimulation of tumor angiogenesis by directly inducing endothelial cell proliferation, migration, sprouting and tube formation; and 2) endocrine stimulation of extramedullary hematopoiesis leading to increased oxygen perfusion and protection against tumor-associated anemia. Similarly, delivery of an adenovirus-PDGF-BB to tumor-free mice markedly increases EPO production and hematopoietic parameters. An EPO blockade specifically attenuates PDGF-BB-induced tumor growth, angiogenesis and hematopoiesis. At the molecular level, we show that the PDGF-BB-PDGFR-beta signaling system activates EPO promoter via in part transcriptional regulation of ATF3 by possible association with c-Jun and SP1. These findings uncover a novel mechanism of PDGF-BB-induced tumor growth, angiogenesis and hematopoiesis. Comparison of S17 stromal cells treated with PDGF-BB for 72h to control
Project description:Previously, a synbiotic combination of probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri 505 (LG) and a new prebiotic, Cudrania tricuspidata leaf extract (CT) in fermented milk, designated FCT, showed an in vitro immunomodulatory effect and antioxidant activity. Although synbiotic combination might have cancer-protective effects, these activities have not been fully validated in vivo. Ten-week treatment of LG, CT, or FCT to azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) mouse model reduced both the incidence of colonic tumors and damage to the colonic mucosa effectively, suggesting a cancer-protective effect. To understand these, biomarkers associated with inflammation, colon barrier, apoptosis, and cancer cell proliferation were monitored in AOM/DSS group versus LG/CT/FCT groups. A synbiotic combination (FCT) down-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-1?, and IL-6) and inflammation-associated enzymes (iNOS and COX-2), and up-regulated anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). In addition, colon barrier experiment revealed that biomarkers of mucus layer (MUC-2 and TFF3) and tight junction (occludin and ZO-1) were up-regulated. Subsequent apoptosis experiment showed that pro-apoptotic factors (p53, p21, and Bax) were up-regulated and anti-apoptotic factors (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) were down-regulated. Furthermore, comparative metagenome analysis of gut microbiota revealed that Staphylococcus decreased but Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Akkermansia increased, supporting their protective effects, accompanied by increased short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Taken together, the FCT administration showed cancer-protective effects by reducing the risk of colitis-associated colon cancer via regulation of inflammation, carcinogenesis, and compositional change of gut microbiota. Consequently, the synbiotic combination (FCT) could be a novel potential health-protective natural agent against CAC.
Project description:Recently, researchers identified a distinct vessel subtype called type H vessels that couple angiogenesis and osteogenesis. We previously found that type H vessels are reduced in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporotic mice, and preosteoclasts are able to secrete platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) to stimulate type H vessel formation and thereby to promote osteogenesis. This study aimed to explore whether harmine, a ?-carboline alkaloid, is capable of preventing bone loss in OVX mice by promoting preosteoclast PDGF-BB-induced type H vessel formation.The impact of harmine on osteoclastogenesis of RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells was verified by gene expression analysis and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was conducted to test PDGF-BB production by preosteoclasts. A series of angiogenesis-related assays in vitro were performed to assess the pro-angiogenic effects of the conditioned media from RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells treated with or without harmine. Meanwhile, the role of PDGF-BB in this process was determined. In vivo, OVX mice were intragastrically administrated with harmine emulsion or an equal volume of vehicle. 2 months later, bone samples were collected for µCT, histological, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent analyses to evaluate bone mass, osteogenic and osteoclastic activities, as well as the numbers of type H vessels. Bone marrow PDGF-BB concentrations were assessed by ELISA.Exposure of RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells to harmine enhanced the formation of preosteoclasts and the production of PDGF-BB. Harmine augmented the ability of RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells to promote angiogenesis of endothelial cells, whereas the effect was blocked by PDGF-BB inhibition. In vivo, the oral administration of harmine emulsion to OVX mice resulted in enhanced trabecular bone mass and osteogenic responses, increased numbers of preosteoclasts, as well as reduced numbers of osteoclasts and fat cells. Moreover, OVX mice treated with harmine exhibited higher levels of bone marrow PDGF-BB and much more type H vessels in bone.Harmine may exert bone-sparing effects by suppression of osteoclast formation and promotion of preosteoclast PDGF-BB-induced angiogenesis.