Long-Term Imaging Evolution and Clinical Prognosis Among Patients With Acute Penetrating Aortic Ulcers: A Retrospective Observational Study.
ABSTRACT: Background Acute penetrating aortic ulcers (PAUs) are reported to dynamically evolve into different clinical outcomes ranging from regression to aortic rupture, but no practice guidelines are available in China. Methods and Results All 109 patients with acute PAUs were monitored clinically. At 30 days follow-up, 31 patients (28.44%) suffered from aortic-related adverse events, a composite of aortic-related mortality, aortic dissection, or an enlarged ulcer. In addition, 7 (6.42%) patients had clinically related adverse events, including all-cause mortality, cerebral stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, acute heart failure alone or acute exacerbation of chronic heart failure, acute renal failure, arrhythmia, and bleeding events. In the present study, the intervention criteria for the Chinese PAU population included a PAU diameter of 12.5 mm and depth of 9.5 mm. The multivariate analysis showed that an ulcer diameter >12.5 mm (hazard ratio [HR], 3.846; 95% CI, 1.561-9.476; P=0.003) and an ulcer depth >9.5 mm (HR, 3.359; 95% CI, 1.505-7.494; P=0.003) were each independent predictors of aortic-related events. Conclusions Patients with acute PAUs were at high risk for aortic-related adverse events and clinically related adverse events within 30 days after onset. Patients with an ulcer diameter >12.5 mm or an ulcer depth >9.5 mm have a higher risk for disease progression, and early intervention may be recommended.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Aortic intramural hematoma (IMH) is a subset of acute aortic syndrome, and its prognosis may differ between races. This study aimed to study the prognosis of Chinese type B IMH patients and to find out risk factors. METHODS:A total of 71 type B IMH patients with or without penetrating atherosclerosis ulcer (PAU) administrated in our center between September 2013 and October 2017 were retrospectively studied. Both clinical and imaging data were collected and analyzed. The primary end point was aorta-related death, and the secondary end point was progression, which was defined as enlargement of aorta, increased aortic wall thickness, and aortic dissection or aneurysm formation. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis were used for prognostic analysis. RESULTS:Among these 71 patients, 21 had simple type B IMH, when 50 had type B IMH in association with PAU. Twenty-five patients received optimal medical therapy (OMT) alone, while 46 patients received surgery and OMT. The mean follow-up time was 27.5?±?13.5?months. For type B IMH patients, association with PAU indicated poor prognosis and required more intensive management (HR?=?16.68, 1.96~141.87), while maximum aortic diameter (MAD) was an independent risk factor (HR?=?1.096, 1.016~1.182). For patients with PAU-IMH, MAD was an independent risk factor (HR?=?1.04, 1.021~1.194), while surgical treatment was independent protective factor (HR?=?0.172, 0.042~0.696). CONCLUSION:Association with PAU and MAD were independent risk factors for type B IMH patients. Surgery may improve the outcomes for type B IMH in association with PAU.
Project description:C-4 hydroxyethyl branched octoses have been observed in polysaccharides of several genera of gram negative bacteria and in various antibiotics produced by gram positive bacteria. The C-4 hydroxyethyl branch was proposed to be converted from C-4 acetyl branch by an uncharacterized ketoreduction step. Paulomycins (PAUs) are glycosylated antibiotics with potent inhibitory activity against gram positive bacteria and are structurally defined by its unique C-4' hydroxyethyl branched paulomycose moiety. A novel aldo-keto-reductase, Pau7 was characterized as the enzyme catalyzing the stereospecific ketoreduction of 7'-keto of PAU E (1) to give the C-4' hydroxyethyl branched paulomycose moiety of PAU F (2). An acyltransferase Pau6 further decorates the C-4' hydroxyethyl branch of paulomycose moiety of 2 by attaching various fatty acyl chains to 7'-OH to generate diverse PAUs. In addition, another acyltransferase Pau24 was proposed to be responsible for the 13-O-acetylation of PAUs.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The nonaortic cardiovascular morbidity and mortality of patients with aortic dissection (AD), intramural hematoma (IMH), and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU) is unknown. We aimed to define the rates of cardiovascular (CV) events in a cohort of patients with newly diagnosed AD, IMH, and PAU. METHODS:We performed a retrospective review of all Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents diagnosed with AD, IMH, and PAU from 1995 to 2015. The primary outcome was nonaortic CV death. The secondary outcome was a first-time nonfatal CV event (myocardial infarction, heart failure [HF], or stroke). The outcomes were compared with age- and sex-matched population referents using Cox proportional hazards regression, with adjustment for comorbidities. RESULTS:A total of 133 patients (77 with AD, 21 with IMH, 35 with PAU; 57% male) with a mean age of 71.8 ± 14.1 years were identified. The median follow-up was 10 years. Compared with the population referents, the patients with AD/IMH/PAU had an increased risk of CV death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-4.2; P = .003) and an increased risk of any first-time nonfatal CV event (adjusted HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.9-4.8; P < .001), mainly resulting from an increased risk of first-time HF (adjusted HR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.7-4.3; P < .001). When excluding events within 14 days of the diagnosis, the patients with AD/IMH/PAU remained at increased risk of CV death (adjusted HR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4-4.7; P = .002), any first-time nonfatal CV event (adjusted HR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5-4.4, P <.001), and first-time HF (adjusted HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.5-4.3; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS:Compared with the population referents, the patients with AD/IMH/PAU had a two- to threefold risk of nonaortic CV death, any first-time nonfatal CV event, and first-time HF. These data implicate the need for long-term cardiovascular management for patients with AD/IMH/PAU.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients with Stanford type B aortic dissections (ADs) are at risk of long-term disease progression and late complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the natural course and evolution of acute type B AD and intramural hematomas (IMHs) in patients who presented without complications during their initial hospital admission and who were treated with optimal medical management (MM). METHODS:Databases from 2 aortic centers in Europe and the United States were used to identify 136 patients with acute type B AD (n = 92) and acute type B IMH (n = 44) who presented without complications during their index admission and were treated with MM. Computed tomography angiography scans were available at onset (?14 days) and during follow-up for those patients. Relevant data, including evidence of adverse events during follow-up (AE; defined according to current guidelines), were retrieved from medical records and by reviewing computed tomography scan images. Aortic diameters were measured with dedicated 3-dimensional software. RESULTS:The 1-, 2-, and 5-year event-free survival rates of patients with type B AD were 84.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 74.4-90.6), 75.4% (95% CI, 64.0-83.7), and 62.6% (95% CI, 68.9-73.6), respectively. Corresponding estimates for IMH were 76.5% (95% CI, 57.8-87.8), 76.5% (95% CI, 57.8-87.8), and 68.9% (95% CI, 45.2-83.9), respectively. In patients with type B AD, risk of an AE increased with aortic growth within the first 6 months after onset. A diameter increase of 5 mm in the first half year was associated with a relative risk for AE of 2.29 (95% CI, 1.70-3.09) compared with the median 6 months' growth of 2.4 mm. In approximately 60% of patients with IMH, the abnormality resolved within 12 months and in the patients with nonresolving IMH, risk of an adverse event was greatest in the first year after onset and remained stable thereafter. CONCLUSIONS:More than one third of patients with initially uncomplicated type B AD suffer an AE under MM within 5 years of initial diagnosis. In patients with nonresolving IMH, most adverse events are observed in the first year after onset. In patients with type B AD an early aortic growth is associated with a greater risk of AE.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique was developed to facilitate the two-stage surgery of extensive pathologies of the thoracic aorta and is now routinely applied in acute and chronic aortic syndromes. METHODS:From 11/2006 to 07/2017, 68 patients underwent aortic arch repair using the FET technique. Patients received either the Jotec E-vita Open graft (n = 57) or the Vascutek Thoraflex hybrid prosthesis (n = 11). Both, group 1 (acute aortic dissection type A and B; symptomatic penetrating aortic ulcer) and group 2 (aortic aneurysm; chronic aortic dissection) included 34 patients each. RESULTS:Early mortality was 13.2% (14.7% in group 1 vs. 11.7% in group 2, p = 0.720). Neurological complications occurred in 12 patients (17.6%) (stroke: 8.8 vs. 11.7%; p = 0.797 and spinal cord injury: 8.8 vs. 5.9%; p = 0.642 in groups 1 vs. 2 respectively). Cardiopulmonary bypass time and cross clamp time were significantly longer in group 1 (252.2 ± 73.5 and 148.3 ± 34 min vs. 189.2 ± 47.8 and 116.3 ± 34.5 min; p < 0.001). The overall 1-, 3- and 7-year-survival was 80.9, 80.9 and 74.2% with no significant differences between groups 1 and 2. Expansion of true lumen after FET implantation was significant at all levels in both groups for patients with aortic dissection. One-, 3-, and 7-year-freedom from secondary (re-)intervention for patients for aortic dissection was 96.9, 90.2 and 82.7% with no significant differences between groups 1 and 2; p = 0.575. CONCLUSION:The FET technique can be applied in acute aortic syndromes with similar risks regarding adverse events or mortality when compared to chronic degenerative aortic disease. Postoperative increase in true lumen diameter mirrors decrease of false lumen diameter, goes along with favorable midterm outcome and prolongs freedom from secondary interventions in acute aortic dissection.
Project description:Background Penetrating ulcers of aorta, aortic dissections and intramural hematomas all come under acute aortic syndromes and have important similarities and differences. Case report We report a 67?year old man with rupture of a large penetrating ulcer of the distal ascending aorta with hemopericardium and left hemothorax. He underwent interposition graft replacement of ascending aorta and hemi-arch with a 30?mm Gelweave Vascutek graft but represented 6?months later with development of a penetrating ulcer which ruptured into a huge 14?cm pseudoaneurysm. This was repaired with a 28?mm Vascutek Gelseal graft replacement of arch and interposition graft reconstruction of innominate and left common carotid arteries. 6?weeks later, however, he ruptured his proximal descending aorta and underwent TEVAR satisfactorily. Unfortunately, 2?days later, he developed a pathological fracture of left proximal tibia with metastasis from a primary renal cell carcinoma. He died 3?weeks later from respiratory failure. We shall briefly outline the similarities and differences in presentation and management of penetrating aortic ulcers, aortic dissections and intramural haematomas. We shall discuss, in greater detail, penetrating ulcers of thoracic aorta, their natural history, location, complications and management. Conclusion This case report is unique on account of initial successful surgical redressal following rupture of penetrating ulcer of distal ascending aorta into left pleural and pericardial cavities, normally associated with instant death. The haemodynamic effects of the rupture were staggered due to initial contained rupture into a smaller pseudoaneurysm, followed by a further rupture into a false aneurysmal sac followed eventually by generalised rupture into the pleural and pericardial cavities - a unique way of aortic rupture. Further development of another penetrating ulcer and a small pseudoaneurysm in the distal arch 6?months later which further ruptured into a larger 14?cm false aneurysmal sac, which again did not result in exsanguination, is again extraordinarily rare. Thereafter he underwent emergency thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for a further rupture of descending thoracic aorta. All three ruptures were managed successfully and would usually be associated with near-certain death, only for the patient to succumb eventually to the complications of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
Project description:Objective:In the present study, we investigated the associations between D-dimer levels at admission and early adverse events in patients with acute type A aortic dissection undergoing arch replacement and the frozen elephant trunk (FET). Methods:We retrospectively analyzed data of patients with acute type A aortic dissection undergoing aortic arch surgery and FET from July 2017 to December 2018 at Beijing Anzhen Hospital. D-dimer levels were evaluated within 24 h of admission. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors of early postoperative adverse events. Results:A total of 347 patients were included in the study. The average age of the patients was 48.07 ± 10.56 years, with male predominance (79.25%). The incidence of 90-day postoperative adverse events was 18.7%, consisting of 14.7% mortality and 4.0% permanent neurological dysfunction (PND). The median D-dimer level was 1.95 ug/ml (interquartile range, 0.77-3.16 ug/ml). Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that D-dimer level was independently associated with 90-day postoperative adverse events after adjustment for confounding factors (hazard ratio = 1.19 per 10 ug/ml increase in D-dimer, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.41; P = 0.039). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the highest tertile (median 6.27 ug/ml) had more 90-day postoperative adverse events compared with the median and lowest tertiles (P = 0.0014). Sub-analysis found that the association remained unchanged. Conclusion:Increased D-dimer levels at admission were associated with 90-day postoperative adverse events in patients with acute type A aortic dissection undergoing arch replacement and FET. These results may help clinicians optimize the risk evaluation and perioperative clinical management to reduce early adverse events. Key Question:Explore the relationship between D-dimer and early outcomes in patients with aortic dissection with arch replacement. Key Findings:Increased D-dimer at admission was associated with adverse events in patients with aortic dissection with arch surgery. Take-Home Message:The high-risk patients deserve close medical monitoring.
Project description:Erythema multiforme is an uncommon acute inflammatory disorder caused by exposure to microbes or drugs. Erythema multiforme minor typically affects only one mucosa and can be associated with symmetrical target skin lesions on the extremities. The disease usually occurs in patients in their 3rd and 4th decade of life, but can also affect children and adolescents. Alendronate sodium has been approved for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, but is associated with adverse events. This study reports and discusses a case of erythema multiforme minor. In addition, a literature search of articles published in PubMed-Medline was performed. The case was a 96-year-old woman who had taken alendronate. Intraoral clinical examination demonstrated hypersalivation and macrocheilia of the lower lip, associated with an ill-defined ulcer with erythematous borders measuring 20 mm in greatest diameter and covered with serofibrinous exudates. The aging of the population in developed and developing countries has increased the use of alendronate sodium to prevent osteoporosis and clinicians should be aware of possible oral adverse events associated with this drug. Key words:Adverse events, erythema multiforme, therapeutics, diagnosis, alendronate.
Project description:Postoperative adverse outcomes in patients with pressure ulcer are not completely understood. This study evaluated the association between preoperative pressure ulcer and adverse events after major surgeries.Using reimbursement claims from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study of 17391 patients with preoperative pressure ulcer receiving major surgery in 2008-2010. With a propensity score matching procedure, 17391 surgical patients without pressure ulcer were selected for comparison. Eight major surgical postoperative complications and 30-day postoperative mortality were evaluated among patients with pressure ulcer of varying severity.Patients with preoperative pressure ulcer had significantly higher risk than controls for postoperative adverse outcomes, including septicemia, pneumonia, stroke, urinary tract infection, and acute renal failure. Surgical patients with pressure ulcer had approximately 1.83-fold risk (95% confidence interval 1.54-2.18) of 30-day postoperative mortality compared with control group. The most significant postoperative mortality was found in those with serious pressure ulcer, such as pressure ulcer with local infection, cellulitis, wound or treatment by change dressing, hospitalized care, debridement or antibiotics. Prolonged hospital or intensive care unit stay and increased medical expenditures were also associated with preoperative pressure ulcer.This nationwide propensity score-matched retrospective cohort study showed increased postoperative complications and mortality in patients with preoperative pressure ulcer. Our findings suggest the urgency of preventing and managing preoperative pressure ulcer by a multidisciplinary medical team for this specific population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Guidelines for hypertension vary in their preference for initial combination therapy or initial monotherapy, stratified by patient profile; therefore, we compared the efficacy and tolerability of these approaches. METHODS AND RESULTS:We performed a 1-year, double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 605 untreated patients aged 18 to 79 years with systolic blood pressure (BP) ?150 mm Hg or diastolic BP ?95 mm Hg. In phase 1 (weeks 0-16), patients were randomly assigned to initial monotherapy (losartan 50-100 mg or hydrochlorothiazide 12.5-25 mg crossing over at 8 weeks), or initial combination (losartan 50-100 mg plus hydrochlorothiazide 12.5-25 mg). In phase 2 (weeks 17-32), all patients received losartan 100 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 to 25 mg. In phase 3 (weeks 33-52), amlodipine with or without doxazosin could be added to achieve target BP. Hierarchical primary outcomes were the difference from baseline in home systolic BP, averaged over phases 1 and 2 and, if significant, at 32 weeks. Secondary outcomes included adverse events, and difference in home systolic BP responses between tertiles of plasma renin. Home systolic BP after initial monotherapy fell 4.9 mm Hg (range: 3.7-6.0 mm Hg) less over 32 weeks (P<0.001) than after initial combination but caught up at 32 weeks (difference 1.2 mm Hg [range: -0.4 to 2.8 mm Hg], P=0.13). In phase 1, home systolic BP response to each monotherapy differed substantially between renin tertiles, whereas response to combination therapy was uniform and at least 5 mm Hg more than to monotherapy. There were no differences in withdrawals due to adverse events. CONCLUSIONS:Initial combination therapy can be recommended for patients with BP >150/95 mm Hg. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00994617.