Functional Domain Order of an Anti-EGFR × Anti-CD16 Bispecific Diabody Involving NK Cell Activation.
ABSTRACT: Bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) have emerged as promising therapeutics. A bispecific diabody (bsDb) is a small bsAb consisting of two distinct chimeric single-chain components, with two possible arrangements of the domains. We previously reported the effect of domain order on the function of a humanized bsDb targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on cancer cells, and CD3 on T cells. Notably, the co-localization of a T-cell receptor (TCR) with CD3 is bulky, potentially affecting the cross-linking ability of bsDbs, due to steric hindrance. Here, we constructed and evaluated humanized bsDbs, with different domain orders, targeting EGFR and CD16 on natural killer (NK) cells (hEx16-Dbs). We predicted minimal effects due to steric hindrance, as CD16 lacks accessory molecules. Interestingly, one domain arrangement displayed superior cytotoxicity in growth inhibition assays, despite similar cross-linking abilities for both domain orders tested. In hEx16-Dbs specifically, domain order might affect the agonistic activity of the anti-CD16 portion, which was supported by a cytokine production test, and likely contributed to the superiority of one of the hEx16-Dbs. Our results indicate that both the target antigen and mode of action of an antibody must be considered in the construction of highly functional bsAbs.
Project description:Designing non-natural antibody formats is a practical method for developing highly functional next-generation antibody drugs, particularly for improving the therapeutic efficacy of cancer treatments. One approach is constructing bispecific antibodies (bsAbs). We previously reported a functional humanized bispecific diabody (bsDb) that targeted epidermal growth factor receptor and CD3 (hEx3-Db). We enhanced its cytotoxicity by constructing an Fc fusion protein and rearranging order of the V domain. In this study, we created an additional functional bsAb, by integrating the molecular formats of bsAb and high-affinity mutants previously isolated by phage display in the form of Fv. Introducing the high-affinity mutations into bsDbs successfully increased their affinities and enhanced their cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. However, there were some limitations to affinity maturation of bsDb by integrating high-affinity Fv mutants, particularly in Fc-fused bsDb with intrinsic high affinity, because of their bivalency. The tetramers fractionated from the bsDb mutant exhibited the highest in vitro growth inhibition among the small bsAbs and was comparable to the in vivo anti-tumor effects of Fc-fused bsDbs. This molecule shows cost-efficient bacterial production and high therapeutic potential.
Project description:One approach to creating more beneficial therapeutic antibodies is to develop bispecific antibodies (bsAbs), particularly IgG-like formats with tetravalency, which may provide several advantages such as multivalent binding to each target antigen. Although the effects of configuration and antibody-fragment type on the function of IgG-like bsAbs have been studied, there have been only a few detailed studies of the influence of the variable fragment domain order. Here, we prepared four types of hEx3-scDb-Fc, IgG-like bsAbs, built from a single-chain hEx3-Db (humanized bispecific diabody [bsDb] that targets epidermal growth factor receptor and CD3), to investigate the influence of domain order and fusion manner on the function of a bsDb with an Fc fusion format. Higher cytotoxicities were observed with hEx3-scDb-Fcs with a variable light domain (VL)-variable heavy domain (VH) order (hEx3-scDb-Fc-LHs) compared with a VH-VL order, indicating that differences in the Fc fusion manner do not affect bsDb activity. In addition, flow cytometry suggested that the higher cytotoxicities of hEx3-scDb-Fc-LH may be attributable to structural superiority in cross-linking. Interestingly, enhanced degradation resistance and prolonged in vivo half-life were also observed with hEx3-scDb-Fc-LH. hEx3-scDb-Fc-LH and its IgG2 variant exhibited intense in vivo antitumor effects, suggesting that Fc-mediated effector functions are dispensable for effective anti-tumor activities, which may cause fewer side effects. Our results show that merely rearranging the domain order of IgG-like bsAbs can enhance not only their antitumor activity, but also their degradation resistance and in vivo half-life, and that hEx3-scDb-Fc-LHs are potent candidates for next-generation therapeutic antibodies.
Project description:We previously reported a functional humanized bispecific diabody (bsDb) that targeted EGFR and CD3 (hEx3-Db) and enhancement of its cytotoxicity by rearranging the domain order in the V domain. Here, we further dissected the effect of domain order in bsDbs on their cross-linking ability and binding kinetics to elucidate general rules regarding the design of functional bsDbs. Using Ex3-Db as a model system, we first classified the four possible domain orders as anti-parallel (where both chimeric single-chain components are variable heavy domain (VH)-variable light domain (VL) or VL-VH order) and parallel types (both chimeric single-chain components are mixed with VH-VL and VL-VH order). Although anti-parallel Ex3-Dbs could cross-link the soluble target antigens, their cross-linking ability between soluble targets had no correlation with their growth inhibitory effects. In contrast, the binding affinity of one of the two constructs with a parallel-arrangement V domain was particularly low, and structural modeling supported this phenomenon. Similar results were observed with E2x3-Dbs, in which the V region of the anti-EGFR antibody clone in hEx3 was replaced with that of another anti-EGFR clone. Only anti-parallel types showed affinity-dependent cancer inhibitory effects in each molecule, and E2x3-LH (both components in VL-VH order) showed the most intense anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that, in addition to rearranging the domain order of bsDbs, increasing their binding affinity may be an ideal strategy for enhancing the cytotoxicity of anti-parallel constructs and that E2x3-LH is particularly attractive as a candidate next-generation anti-cancer drug.
Project description:Among different cancer immunotherapy approaches, bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) are of great interest due to their ability to recruit immune cells to kill tumor cells directly. Various BsAbs against Her2 tumor cells have been proposed with potent cytotoxic activities. However, most of these formats require extensive processing to obtain heterodimeric bispecific antibodies. In this study, we describe a bispecific antibody, BiHC (bispecific Her2-CD3 antibody), constructed with a single-domain anti-Her2 and a single-chain Fv (variable fragment) of anti-CD3 in an IgG-like format. In contrast to most IgG-like BsAbs, the two arms in BiHC have different molecular weights, making it easier to separate hetero- or homodimers. BiHC can be expressed in Escherichia coli and purified via Protein A affinity chromatography. The purified BiHC can recruit T cells and induce specific cytotoxicity of Her2-expressing tumor cells in vitro. The BiHC can also efficiently inhibit the tumor growth in vivo. Thus, BiHC is a promising candidate for the treatment of Her2-positive cancers.
Project description:T-cell-recruiting bispecific antibodies (T-BsAbs) have shown potent tumor killing activity in humans, but cytokine release-related toxicities have affected their clinical utility. The use of novel anti-CD3 binding domains with more favorable properties could aid in the creation of T-BsAbs with improved therapeutic windows. Using a sequence-based discovery platform, we identified new anti-CD3 antibodies from humanized rats that bind to multiple epitopes and elicit varying levels of T-cell activation. In T-BsAb format, 12 different anti-CD3 arms induce equivalent levels of tumor cell lysis by primary T-cells, but potency varies by a thousand-fold. Our lead CD3-targeting arm stimulates very low levels of cytokine release, but drives robust tumor antigen-specific killing in vitro and in a mouse xenograft model. This new CD3-targeting antibody underpins a next-generation T-BsAb platform in which potent cytotoxicity is uncoupled from high levels of cytokine release, which may lead to a wider therapeutic window in the clinic.
Project description:Many methods have been developed to produce bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) for industrial application. However, huge challenges still remain in synthesizing whole length BsAbs, including their assembly, stability, immunogenicity, and pharmacodynamics. Here we present for first time a generic technology platform of generating bispecific IgG antibodies, "Bispecific Antibody by Protein Trans-splicing (BAPTS)". Different from published methods, we assembled two parental antibody fragments in the hinge region by the protein trans-splicing reaction of a split intein to generate BsAbs without heavy/heavy and light/heavy chain mispairing. Utilizing this simple and efficient approach, there have been several BsAbs (CD3×HER2, CD3×EGFR, EGFR×HER2) synthesized to demonstrate its broad applicability. Correctly paired mAb arms were assembled to form BsAbs that were purified through protein A affinity chromatography to demonstrate industrial applicability at large scale. Further, the products were characterized through physical-biochemistry properties and biological activities to confirm expected quality of the products from "BAPTS". More importantly, correct pairing was confirmed by mass spectrum. Proof-of-concept studies with CD3×HER2 BsAb (T-cell recruitment) demonstrated superior bioactivity compared with trastuzumab. The results of undetectable mispairing and high biological activity have indicated that this method has the potential to be utilized to manufacture BsAbs with high efficiency at industrial scale.
Project description:During the past two decades, a great evolution of bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) for therapeutic applications has been made. BsAbs can bind simultaneously two different antigens or epitopes, which leads to a wide range of applications including redirecting T cells or NK cells to tumor cells, blocking two different signaling pathways, dual targeting of different disease mediators, and delivering payloads to targeted sites. Aside from approved catumaxomab (anti-CD3 and anti-EpCAM) and blinatumomab (anti-CD3 and anti-CD19), many more BsAbs are now in various phases of clinical development. Here, this review focus on the development of bispecific antibodies and their applications in tumor immune escape.
Project description:Four different formats of bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) were generated that consist of anti-Her2 IgG or Fab site-specifically conjugated to anti-CD3 Fab using the genetically encoded noncanonical amino acid. These bsAbs varied in valency or in the presence or absence of an Fc domain. Different valencies did not significantly affect antitumor efficacy, whereas the presence of an Fc domain enhanced cytotoxic activity, but triggered antigen-independent T-cell activation. We show that the bsAbs can efficiently redirect T?cells to kill all Her2 expressing cancer cells, including Her2 1+ cancers, both in?vitro and in rodent xenograft models. This work increases our understanding of the structural features that affect bsAb activity, and underscores the potential of bsAbs as a promising therapeutic option for breast cancer patients with low or heterogeneous Her2 expression.
Project description:Bispecific antibodies (BsAb) that engage T cells bind to tumor cells via a tumor-associated antigen and to T cells through surface CD3. BsAbs have promising antitumor properties in vivo Here, we describe the effects of Fc silencing on BsAb-driven T-cell trafficking to solid tumors. We used BsAbs specific for disialoganglioside GD2 or oncoprotein ErbB2 (HER2) and built on the IgG(L)-scFv platform with or without Fc silencing. We studied the kinetics of T-cell infiltration from blood into solid tumor masses when driven by these BsAbs. We also investigated the therapeutic efficacy of these BsAbs in two mouse models: immunodeficient mice xenografted with patient-derived GD2+ neuroblastoma or HER2+ breast cancer, and human CD3? transgenic mice implanted with a GD2+ murine tumor. BsAbs built with intact Fc domain were unable to drive T cells to tumor, thereby failing to achieve an antitumor effect in mice. T cells became sequestered in lungs by myeloid cells or depleted in circulation. In contrast, when Fc function was silenced by N297A ± K322A mutations, T cells were able to infiltrate into subcutaneous solid tumors, a prerequisite for successful therapy outcome.
Project description:Bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) recognize two different epitopes. This dual specificity opens up a wide range of applications, including redirecting T cells to tumor cells, blocking two different signaling pathways simultaneously, dual targeting of different disease mediators, and delivering payloads to targeted sites. The approval of catumaxomab (anti-EpCAM and anti-CD3) and blinatumomab (anti-CD19 and anti-CD3) has become a major milestone in the development of bsAbs. Currently, more than 60 different bsAb formats exist, some of them making their way into the clinical pipeline. This review summarizes diverse formats of bsAbs and their clinical applications and sheds light on strategies to optimize the design of bsAbs.