Inhibiting the NLRP3 Inflammasome.
ABSTRACT: Inflammasomes are protein complexes which are important in several inflammatory diseases. Inflammasomes form part of the innate immune system that triggers the activation of inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18. The inflammasome most studied in sterile inflammation and non-communicable disease is the NLRP3 inflammasome. Upon activation by diverse pathogen or disease associated signals, NLRP3 nucleates the oligomerization of an adaptor protein ASC forming a platform (the inflammasome) for the recruitment and activation of the protease caspase-1. Active caspase-1 catalyzes the processing and release of IL-1? and IL-18, and via cleavage of the pore forming protein gasdermin D can drive pyroptotic cell death. This review focuses on the structural basis and mechanism for NLRP3 inflammasome signaling in the context of drug design, providing chemical structures, activities, and clinical potential of direct inflammasome inhibitors. A cryo-EM structure of NLRP3 bound to NEK7 protein provides structural insight and aids in the discovery of novel NLRP3 inhibitors utilizing ligand-based or structure-based approaches.
PROVIDER: S-EPMC7728307 | BioStudies |