Betel Nut Arecoline Induces Different Phases of Growth Arrest between Normal and Cancerous Prostate Cells through the Reactive Oxygen Species Pathway.
ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a reproductive system cancer in elderly men. We investigated the effects of betel nut arecoline on the growth of normal and cancerous prostate cells. Normal RWPE-1 prostate epithelial cells, androgen-independent PC-3 PCa cells, and androgen-dependent LNCaP PCa cells were used. Arecoline inhibited their growth in dose- and time-dependent manners. Arecoline caused RWPE-1 and PC-3 cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and LNCaP cell arrest in the G0/G1 phase. In RWPE-1 cells, arecoline increased the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-1, p21, and cyclins B1 and D3, decreased the expression of CDK2, and had no effects on CDK4 and cyclin D1 expression. In PC-3 cells, arecoline decreased CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, p21, p27, and cyclin D1 and D3 protein expression and increased cyclin B1 protein expression. In LNCaP cells, arecoline decreased CDK2, CDK4, and cyclin D1 expression; increased p21, p27, and cyclin D3 expression; had no effects on CDK1 and cyclin B1 expression. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine blocked the arecoline-induced increase in reactive oxygen species production, decreased cell viability, altered the cell cycle, and changed the cell cycle regulatory protein levels. Thus, arecoline oxidant exerts differential effects on the cell cycle through modulations of regulatory proteins.
Project description:Transcriptional repressor complexes containing p130 and E2F4 regulate the expression of genes involved in DNA replication. During the G1 phase of the cell cycle, sequential phosphorylation of p130 by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) disrupts these complexes allowing gene expression. The Cdk inhibitor and tumor suppressor p27(Kip1) associates with p130 and E2F4 by its carboxyl domain on the promoters of target genes but its role in the regulation of transcription remains unclear. We report here that p27(Kip1) recruits cyclin D2/D3-Cdk4 complexes on the promoters by its amino terminal domain in early and mid G1. In cells lacking p27(Kip1), cyclin D2/D3-Cdk4 did not associate to the promoters and phosphorylation of p130 and transcription of target genes was increased. In late G1, these complexes were substituted by p21(Cip1)-cyclin D1-Cdk2. In p21(Cip1) null cells cyclin D1-Cdk2 were not found on the promoters and transcription was elevated. In p21/p27 double null cells transcription was higher than in control cells and single knock out cells. Thus, our results clarify the role of p27(Kip1) and p21(Cip1) in transcriptional regulation of genes repressed by p130/E2F4 complexes in which p27(Kip1) and p21(Cip1) play a sequential role by recruiting and regulating the activity of specific cyclin-Cdk complexes on the promoters.
Project description:Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4)/cyclin D complexes are expressed early in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle and stimulate the expression of genes required for G(1) progression by phosphorylation of the product of the retinoblastoma gene, pRb. To elaborate the molecular pathway of CDK4 activation and substrate selection we have determined the structure of nonphosphorylated CDK4/cyclin D3. This structure of an authentic CDK/cyclin complex shows that cyclin binding may not be sufficient to drive the CDK active site toward an active conformation. Phosphorylated CDK4/cyclin D3 is active as a pRb kinase and is susceptible to inhibition by p27(Kip1). Unlike CDK2/cyclin A, CDK4/cyclin D3 can be inactivated by treatment with lambda-phosphatase, implying that phosphorylated T172 is accessible to a generic phosphatase while bound to a cyclin. Taken together, these results suggest that the structural mechanism of CDK4/cyclin D3 activation differs markedly from that of previously studied CDK/cyclin complexes.
Project description:p21(WAF1/CIP1) is a universal cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. To investigate the role of p21(WAF1/CIP1) in proliferation of human liver cancer cells, we examined the expression of p53, p21(WAF1/CIP1), cdk2 and cdk4 expression in two human liver cancer cell lines (HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells). The effects of p21(WAF1/CIP1) on [(3)H]thymidine incorporation and cdks were also examined in these cells. HepG2 cells expressed all these proteins with lower level of cdk4. PLC/PRF/5 cells expressed the other proteins except p21(WAF1/CIP1). Transfection of p21(WAF1/CIP1) gene inhibited [(3)H]thymidine incorporation of both cells with different extent. Although the transfection of p21(WAF1/CIP1) did not affect cdk2 and cdk4 expression, it did reduce cdk2 kinase activity by 20%. These results suggest that: (a) p21(WAF1/CIP1) involved in DNA synthesis of human liver cancer cells; (b) p21(WAF1/CIP1) could be a target gene for the treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Project description:Cell cycle progression, including genome duplication, is orchestrated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). CDK activation depends on phosphorylation of their T-loop by a CDK-activating kinase (CAK). In animals, the only known CAK for CDK2 and CDK1 is cyclin H-CDK7, which is constitutively active. Therefore, the critical activation step is dephosphorylation of inhibitory sites by Cdc25 phosphatases rather than unrestricted T-loop phosphorylation. Homologous CDK4 and CDK6 bound to cyclins D are master integrators of mitogenic/oncogenic signaling cascades by initiating the inactivation of the central oncosuppressor pRb and cell cycle commitment at the restriction point. Unlike the situation in CDK1 and CDK2 cyclin complexes, and in contrast to the weak but constitutive T177 phosphorylation of CDK6, we have identified the T-loop phosphorylation at T172 as the highly regulated step determining CDK4 activity. Whether both CDK4 and CDK6 phosphorylations are catalyzed by CDK7 remains unclear. To answer this question, we took a chemical-genetics approach by using analogue-sensitive CDK7(as/as) mutant HCT116 cells, in which CDK7 can be specifically inhibited by bulky adenine analogs. Intriguingly, CDK7 inhibition prevented activating phosphorylations of CDK4/6, but for CDK4 this was at least partly dependent on its binding to p21 (cip1) . In response to CDK7 inhibition, p21-binding to CDK4 increased concomitantly with disappearance of the most abundant phosphorylation of p21, which we localized at S130 and found to be catalyzed by both CDK4 and CDK2. The S130A mutation of p21 prevented the activating CDK4 phosphorylation, and inhibition of CDK4/6 and CDK2 impaired phosphorylations of both p21 and p21-bound CDK4. Therefore, specific CDK7 inhibition revealed the following: a crucial but partly indirect CDK7 involvement in phosphorylation/activation of CDK4 and CDK6; existence of CDK4-activating kinase(s) other than CDK7; and novel CDK7-dependent positive feedbacks mediated by p21 phosphorylation by CDK4 and CDK2 to sustain CDK4 activation, pRb inactivation, and restriction point passage.
Project description:Intrinsic resistance of unknown mechanism impedes the clinical utility of inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6i) in malignancies other than breast cancer. Here, we used melanoma patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) to study the mechanisms for CDK4/6i resistance in preclinical settings. We observed that melanoma PDXs resistant to CDK4/6i frequently displayed activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway, and inhibition of this pathway improved CDK4/6i response in a p21-dependent manner. We showed that a target of p21, CDK2, was necessary for proliferation in CDK4/6i-treated cells. Upon treatment with CDK4/6i, melanoma cells up-regulated cyclin D1, which sequestered p21 and another CDK inhibitor, p27, leaving a shortage of p21 and p27 available to bind and inhibit CDK2. Therefore, we tested whether induction of p21 in resistant melanoma cells would render them responsive to CDK4/6i. Because p21 is transcriptionally driven by p53, we coadministered CDK4/6i with a murine double minute (MDM2) antagonist to stabilize p53, allowing p21 accumulation. This resulted in improved antitumor activity in PDXs and in murine melanoma. Furthermore, coadministration of CDK4/6 and MDM2 antagonists with standard of care therapy caused tumor regression. Notably, the molecular features associated with response to CDK4/6 and MDM2 inhibitors in PDXs were recapitulated by an ex vivo organotypic slice culture assay, which could potentially be adopted in the clinic for patient stratification. Our findings provide a rationale for cotargeting CDK4/6 and MDM2 in melanoma.
Project description:Murine protein serine-threonine kinase 38 (MPK38)/maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK), an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related kinase, has previously been shown to interact with p53 and to stimulate downstream signaling. p21, a downstream target of p53, is also known to be involved in adipocyte and obesity metabolism. However, little is known about the mechanism by which p21 mediates obesity-associated metabolic adaptation. Here, we identify MPK38 as an interacting partner of p21. p21 and MPK38 interacted through the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) binding region of p21 and the C-terminal domain of MPK38. MPK38 potentiated p21-mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in a kinase-dependent manner by inhibiting assembly of CDK2-cyclin E and CDK4-cyclin D complexes via induction of CDK2-p21 and CDK4-p21 complex formation and reductions in complex formation between p21 and its negative regulator mouse double minute 2 (MDM2), leading to p21 stabilization. MPK38 phosphorylated p21 at Thr55, stimulating its nuclear translocation, which resulted in greater association of p21 with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), preventing the PPAR? transactivation required for adipogenesis. Furthermore, restoration of p21 expression by adenoviral delivery in diet-induced obese mice ameliorated obesity-induced metabolic abnormalities in a MPK38 phosphorylation-dependent manner. These results suggest that MPK38 functions as a positive regulator of p21, regulating apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and metabolism during obesity.
Project description:Little is known about the posttranslational control of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21. We describe here a transient phosphorylation of p21 in the G2/M phase. G2/M-phosphorylated p21 is short-lived relative to hypophosphorylated p21. p21 becomes nuclear during S phase, prior to its phosphorylation by CDK2. S126-phosphorylated cyclin B1 binds to T57-phosphorylated p21. Cdc2 kinase activation is delayed in p21-deficient cells due to delayed association between Cdc2 and cyclin B1. Cyclin B1-Cdc2 kinase activity and G2/M progression in p21-/- cells are restored after reexpression of wild-type but not T57A mutant p21. The cyclin B1 S126A mutant exhibits reduced Cdc2 binding and has low kinase activity. Phosphorylated p21 binds to cyclin B1 when Cdc2 is phosphorylated on Y15 and associates poorly with the complex. Dephosphorylation on Y15 and phosphorylation on T161 promotes Cdc2 binding to the p21-cyclin B1 complex, which becomes activated as a kinase. Thus, hyperphosphorylated p21 activates the Cdc2 kinase in the G2/M transition.
Project description:In cycling tumour cells, the binary cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk4/cyclin D or Cdk2/cyclin E complex is inhibited by p21 following DNA damage to induce G1 cell-cycle arrest. However, it is not known whether other proteins are also recruited within Cdk complexes, or their role, and this was investigated.Ovarian A2780 tumour cells were exposed to the platinum-based antitumour agent 1R,2R-diaminocyclohexane(trans-diacetato)(dichloro)platinum(IV) (DAP), which preferentially induces G1 arrest in a p21-dependent manner. The Cdk complexes were analysed by gel filtration chromatography, immunoblot and mass spectrometry.The active forms of Cdk4 and Cdk2 complexes in control tumour cells have a molecular size of ~140 kDa, which increased to ~290 kDa when inhibited following G1 checkpoint activation by DAP. Proteomic analysis identified Cdk, cyclin, p21 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the inhibited complex, and biochemical studies provided unequivocal evidence that the increase in ~150 kDa of the inhibited complex is consistent with p21-dependent recruitment of PCNA as a trimer, likely bound to three molecules of p21. Although p21 alone was sufficient to inhibit the Cdk complex, PCNA was critical for stabilising p21.G1 Cdk complexes inhibited by p21 also recruit PCNA, which inhibits degradation and, thereby, prolongs activity of p21 within the complex.
Project description:Cyclin D-CDK4/6 are the first cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) complexes to be activated by mitogenic/oncogenic pathways. They have a central role in the cell multiplication decision and in its deregulation in cancer cells. We identified T172 phosphorylation of CDK4 rather than cyclin D accumulation as the distinctly regulated step determining CDK4 activation. This finding challenges the view that the only identified metazoan CDK-activating kinase, cyclin H-CDK7-Mat1 (CAK), which is constitutively active, is responsible for the activating phosphorylation of all cell cycle CDKs. We previously showed that T172 phosphorylation of CDK4 is conditioned by an adjacent proline (P173), which is not present in CDK6 and CDK1/2. Although CDK7 activity was recently shown to be required for CDK4 activation, we proposed that proline-directed kinases might specifically initiate the activation of CDK4. Here, we report that JNKs, but not ERK1/2 or CAK, can be direct CDK4-activating kinases for cyclin D-CDK4 complexes that are inactivated by p21-mediated stabilization. JNKs and ERK1/2 also phosphorylated p21 at S130 and T57, which might facilitate CDK7-dependent activation of p21-bound CDK4, however, mutation of these sites did not impair the phosphorylation of CDK4 by JNKs. In two selected tumor cells, two different JNK inhibitors inhibited the phosphorylation and activation of cyclin D1-CDK4-p21 but not the activation of cyclin D3-CDK4 that is mainly associated to p27. Specific inhibition by chemical genetics in MEFs confirmed the involvement of JNK2 in cyclin D1-CDK4 activation. Therefore, JNKs could be activating kinases for cyclin D1-CDK4 bound to p21, by independently phosphorylating both CDK4 and p21.
Project description:To investigate the molecular mechanism for the effect of auranofin on the induction of cell differentiation, the cellular events associated with differentiation were analysed in acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) cells.The APL blasts from leukaemia patients and NB4 cells were cotreated with auroanofin and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) at suboptimal concentration. The HL-60 cells were treated with auroanofin and a subeffective dose of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2 vit D3) in combination. The effect of auroanofin was investigated on histone acetylation at the promoter of differentiation-associated genes and expression of cell cycle regulators.Treatment with auroanofin and ATRA cooperatively induced granulocytic differentiation of fresh APL blasts isolated from patients and NB4 cells. The combined treatment also increased reorganization of nuclear PML bodies and histone acetylation at the promoter of the RARbeta2 gene. Auroanofin also promoted monocytic differentiation of the HL-60 cells triggered by subeffective concentration of 1,25(OH)2 vit D3. The combined treatment of auroanofin and 1,25(OH)2 vit D3 stimulated histone acetylation at p21 promoters and increased the accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase. Consistent with this, the expressions of p21, p27 and PTEN were increased and the levels of cyclin A, Cdk2 and Cdk4 were decreased. Furthermore, the hypophosphorylated form of pRb was markedly increased in cotreated cells.These findings indicate that auroanofin in combination with low doses of either ATRA or 1,25(OH)2 vit D3 promotes APL cell differentiation by enhancing histone acetylation and the expression of differentiation-associated genes.