LncRNA GCAT1 is involved in premature ovarian insufficiency by regulating p27 translation in GCs via competitive binding to PTBP1.
ABSTRACT: Dysfunction of granulosa cells (GCs) leading to follicle atresia has been extensively studied as a major cause of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), but the regulatory role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in this process is still poorly understood. Here, we show that the lncRNA LINC02690 or GCAT1 (granulosa cell-associated transcript 1) is downregulated in GCs from patients with biochemical POI (bPOI), and we show a significant correlation between downregulated GCAT1 and serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and anti-Müllerian hormone. Downregulation of GCAT1 inhibited G1/S cell cycle progression and thus inhibited the proliferation of GCs. Mechanistically, we show that GCAT1 competes with cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B) mRNA for polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1) binding, and thus decreased GCAT1 might promote PTBP1 binding to CDKN1B mRNA and thereby initiate CDKN1B protein (p27) translation. Together, our results suggest that downregulation of GCAT1 under conditions of bPOI inhibits the proliferation of GCs through PTBP1-dependent p27 regulation, thus suggesting a novel form of lncRNA-mediated epigenetic regulation of GC function that contributes to the pathogenesis of POI.
Project description:The genetic etiology of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) has been well established to date, however, the role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in POI is largely unknown. In this study, we identified a down-expressed lncRNA HCP5 in granulosa cells (GCs) from biochemical POI (bPOI) patients, which impaired DNA damage repair and promoted apoptosis of GCs. Mechanistically, we discovered that HCP5 stabilized the interaction between YB1 and its partner ILF2, which could mediate YB1 transferring into the nucleus of GCs. HCP5 silencing affected the localization of YB1 into nucleus and reduced the binding of YB1 to the promoter of MSH5 gene, thereby diminishing MSH5 expression. Taken together, we identified that the decreased expression of HCP5 in bPOI contributed to dysfunctional GCs by regulating MSH5 transcription and DNA damage repair via the interaction with YB1, providing a novel epigenetic mechanism for POI pathogenesis.
Project description:Chemotherapy treatment in women can frequently cause damage to the ovaries, which may lead to primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). In this study, we assessed the preventative effects of hyaluronic acid (HA) in immunosuppressive drug-induced POI-like rat models and investigated the possible mechanisms. We found that HA, which was reduced in primary and immunosuppressant-induced POI patients, could protect the immunosuppressant-induced damage to granulosa cells (GCs) in vitro. Then we found that HA blocked the tripterygium glycosides (TG) induced POI-like presentations in rats, including delayed or irregular estrous cycles, reduced 17 beta-estradiol(E2) concentration, decreased number of follicles, destruction of follicle structure, and damage of reproductive ability. Furthermore, we investigated the mechanisms of HA prevention effects on POI, which was associated with promotion of GC proliferation and PGRMC1 expression. In conclusion, HA prevents chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage by promoting PGRMC1 in GCs. This study may provide a new strategy for prevention and treatment of POI.
Project description:Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) imposes great challenges on women's fertility and lifelong health. POI is highly heterogeneous and encompasses occult, biochemical, and overt stages. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are negative regulators of gene expression, whose roles in physiology and diseases like cancers and neurological disorders have been recognized, but little is known about the miRNAs profile and functional relevance in biochemical POI (bPOI). In this study, the expression of miRNAs and mRNAs in granulosa cells (GCs) of bPOI women was determined by two microarrays, respectively. MiR-379-5p, PARP1, and XRCC6 were differentially expressed in GCs of bPOI as revealed by microarrays. Subsequently, functional studies demonstrated that miR-379-5p overexpression inhibited granulosa cell proliferation and attenuated DNA repair efficiency. Furthermore, both PARP1 and XRCC6 showed lower levels in GCs from patients with bPOI and were identified as executives of miR-379-5p. Therefore, our data first uncovered potentially pathogenic miR-379-5p and two novel targets PARP1 and XRCC6 in bPOI, which corroborated the significance of DNA repair for POI, and brought up an epigenetic explanation for the disease.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is one of the major causes of infertility. We previously demonstrated that transplantation of menstrual blood-derived stromal cells (MenSCs) effectively improved ovarian function in a murine model of POI. Recent studies indicated that mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes were important components in tissue repair. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of MenSCs-derived exosomes (MenSCs-Exos) in a rat model of POI and its mechanism in restoring ovulation.<h4>Methods</h4>Ovaries of 4.5-day-old Sprague Dawley rats (SD rats) were cultured in vitro to evaluate the effects of MenSCs-Exos exposure on early follicle development. Furthermore, POI in rats was induced by intraperitoneal administration of 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD). Forty-eight POI rats were randomly assigned to four groups, each receiving a different treatment: PBS, MenSCs, MenSCs-Exos, and Exo-free culture supernatant of MenSCs. Estrous cyclicity, ovarian morphology, follicle dynamics, serum hormones, pregnancy outcomes, and molecular changes were investigated.<h4>Results</h4>Exposure to MenSCs-Exos promoted the proliferation of granulosa cells in primordial and primary follicles in vitro and increased the expression of early follicle markers Deleted In Azoospermia Like (DAZL) and Forkhead Box L2 (FOXL2) while inhibiting follicle apoptosis. In vivo, MenSCs-Exos transplantation effectively promoted follicle development in the rat model of POI and restored the estrous cyclicity and serum sex hormone levels, followed by improving the live birth outcome. In addition, transplantation of MenSCs-Exos regulated the composition of the ovarian extracellular matrix and accelerated the recruitment of dormant follicles in the ovarian cortex and increased proliferation of granulosa cells in these follicles.<h4>Conclusion</h4>MenSCs-Exos markedly promoted follicle development in vitro and in vivo and restored fertility in POI rats, suggesting a restorative effect on ovarian functions. The therapeutic effect of MenSCs-Exos transplantation was sustainable, consistent with that of MenSCs transplantation. Our results suggested that MenSCs-Exos transplantation may be a promising cell-free bioresource in the treatment of POI.
Project description:Our study is designed to demonstrate altered profiles of lncRNAs in the granulosa cells from patients with bPOI. Functional studies will be further confirmed. This study will provide new viewpoint for understanding the roles of non-coding RNA for GCs function, as well as potential etiologic mechanism for POI. Overall design: We have completed the human LncRNA microarray analysis of the 20 samples.
Project description:Primordial follicles, consisting of granulosa cell (GC)-enveloped oocytes are maintained in a state of developmental arrest until activated to grow. The mechanism that operates to maintain this arrested state in GCs is currently unknown. Here, we show the TGFβ-activated transcription factor SMAD3 is expressed in primordial GC nuclei alongside the cell cycle proteins, cyclin D2 (CCND2) and P27. Using neonatal C57/Bl6 mouse ovaries densely populated with primordial follicles, CCND2 protein co-localised and was detected in complex with P27 by immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation, respectively. In the same tissue, SMAD3 co-precipitated with DNA sequences upstream of Ccnd2 and Myc transcription start sites implicating both as direct SMAD3 targets. In older ovaries follicle growth was associated with nuclear exclusion of SMAD3 and reduced P27 and CCND2 in GCs, alongside elevated Myc expression. Brief (2 H) exposure of neonatal ovaries to TGFβ1 (10 ng/ml) in vitro led to immediate dissociation of SMAD3 from the Ccnd2 and Myc promoters. This coincided with elevated Myc and phospho-S6, an indicator of mTOR signalling, followed by a small increase in mean primordial GC number after 48 H. These findings highlight a concentration-dependent role for TGFβ signalling in the maintenance and activation of primordial follicles, through SMAD-dependent and independent signalling pathways, respectively.
Project description:Mammalian ovarian follicular development is tightly regulated by crosstalk between cell death and survival signals, which include both endocrine and intra-ovarian regulators. Whether the follicle ultimately ovulates or undergoes atresia is dependent on the expression and actions of factors promoting follicular cell proliferation, differentiation or apoptosis. Prohibitin (PHB) is a highly conserved, ubiquitous protein that is abundantly expressed in granulosa cells (GCs) and associated with GC differentiation and apoptosis. The current study was designed to characterize the regulation of anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic factors in undifferentiated rat GCs (gonadotropin independent phase) governed by PHB. Microarray technology was initially employed to identify potential apoptosis-related genes, whose expression levels within GCs were altered by either staurosporine (STS) alone or STS in presence of ectopically over-expressed PHB. Next, immunoblot studies were performed to examine the expression patterns of selective Bcl-2 family members identified by the microarray analysis, which are commonly regulated in the intrinsic-apoptotic pathway. These studies were designed to measure protein levels of Bcl2 family in relation to expression of the acidic isoform (phosphorylated) PHB and the components of MEK-Erk1/2 pathway. These studies indicated that over-expression of PHB in undifferentiated GCs inhibit apoptosis which concomitantly results in an increased level of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl2 and Bclxl, reduced release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and inhibition of caspase-3 activity. In contrast, silencing of PHB expression resulted in change of mitochondrial morphology from the regular reticular network to a fragmented form, which enhanced sensitization of these GCs to the induction of apoptosis. Collectively, these studies have provided new insights on the PHB-mediated anti-apoptotic mechanism, which occurs in undifferentiated GCs through a PHB ? Mek-Erk1/2 ? Bcl/Bcl-xL pathway and may have important clinical implications.
Project description:Gata3 is a DNA-binding transcription factor involved in cellular differentiation in a variety of tissues including inner ear, hair follicle, kidney, mammary gland and T-cells. In a previous study in 2009, Maeda et al. (Dev. Dyn. 238, 2280-2291; doi:10.1002/dvdy.22035) found that Gata3 mutants could be rescued from midgestational lethality by the expression of a Gata3 transgene in sympathoadrenal neuroendocrine cells. The rescued embryos clearly showed multiple defects in lens fibre cell differentiation. To determine whether these defects were truly due to the loss of Gata3 expression in the lens, we generated a lens-specific Gata3 loss-of-function model. Analogous to the previous findings, our Gata3 null embryos showed abnormal regulation of cell cycle exit during lens fibre cell differentiation, marked by reduction in the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors Cdkn1b/p27 and Cdkn1c/p57, and the retention of nuclei accompanied by downregulation of Dnase II?. Comparisons of transcriptomes between control and mutated lenses by RNA-Seq revealed dysregulation of lens-specific crystallin genes and intermediate filament protein Bfsp2. Both Cdkn1b/p27 and Cdkn1c/p57 loci are occupied in vivo by Gata3, as well as Prox1 and c-Jun, in lens chromatin. Collectively, our studies suggest that Gata3 regulates lens differentiation through the direct regulation of the Cdkn1b/p27and Cdkn1c/p57 expression, and the direct/or indirect transcriptional control of Bfsp2 and Dnase II?.
Project description:Background:4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) has long been considered a hazardous occupational chemical that promotes ovarian failure. However, VCD is also used as a research compound to chemically induce animal models of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), and in related work we unexpectedly found that VCD apparently exhibits both dose- and duration-dependent opposing, hormone-like effects on the maintenance of the primordial follicle pool, follicle development, and ovulation induction. Results:We conducted experiments with cultured murine ovaries and performed transplantation experiments using postnatal day (PD) 2 and PD12 mice and found that low-dose, short-term exposure to VCD (VCDlow) actually protects the primordial/primary follicle pool and improves the functional ovarian reserve (FOR) by disrupting follicular atresia. VCDlow inhibits follicular apoptosis and regulates the Pten-PI3K-Foxo3a pathway. Short-term VCD exposure in vivo (80 mg/kg, 5 days) significantly increases the number of superovulated metaphase II oocytes, preovulatory follicles, and corpus luteum in middle-aged mice with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). We demonstrate that low-dose but not high-dose VCD promotes aromatase levels in granulosa cells (GCs), thereby enhancing the levels of estradiol secretion. Conclusion:Our study illustrates a previously unappreciated, hormone-like action for the occupational "ovotoxin" molecule VCD and strongly suggests that VCDlow should be explored for its potential utility for treating human ovarian follicular development disorders, including subfertility in perimenopausal women.
Project description:The tumor suppressor p53 plays a pivotal role in the protection against cancer. Increasing evidence suggests that long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) plays an important role in the regulation of the p53 pathway, however, the detailed mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. In this study, we report a new p53-inducible lncRNA that we termed TRMP (TP53-regulated modulator of p27). As a direct transcriptional target of p53, TRMP plays an unexpected pro-survival function. Knockdown of TRMP inhibits cell proliferation by inducing a G1 cell cycle arrest. Mechanistically, TRMP suppresses internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-dependent translation of p27 by competing p27 mRNA for polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1) binding. Furthermore, TRMP is able to regulate cell proliferation, G1/S cell cycle progression, and tumor xenograft growth via the inhibition of p27. Taken together, these findings suggest lncRNA as a new layer to fine-tune the p53 response and reveal TRMP as an important downstream effector of p53 activity.