Side-stream products of malting: a neglected source of phytochemicals.
ABSTRACT: Whole grain consumption reduces the risk of several chronic diseases. A major contributor to the effect is the synergistic and additive effect of phytochemicals. Malting is an important technological method to process whole grains; the main product, malted grain, is used mainly for brewing, but the process also yields high amounts of side-stream products, such as rootlet. In this study, we comprehensively determined the phytochemical profile of barley, oats, rye, and wheat in different stages of malting and the subsequent extraction phases to assess the potential of malted products and side-streams as a dietary source of bioactive compounds. Utilizing semi-quantitative LC-MS metabolomics, we annotated 285 phytochemicals from the samples, belonging to more than 13 chemical classes. Malting significantly altered the levels of the compounds, many of which were highly increased in the rootlet. Whole grain cereals and the malting products were found to be a diverse and rich source of phytochemicals, highlighting the value of these whole foods as a staple. The characterization of phytochemicals from the 24 different sample types revealed previously unknown existence of some of the compound classes in certain species. The rootlet deserves more attention in human nutrition, rather than its current use mainly as feed, to benefit from its high content of bioactive components.
Project description:The effect of malting periods on the nutritional composition and physico-chemical properties of flour from pearl millet (Ex-Borno) variety was evaluated. Grains were steeped at 25 °C for 24 h and germinated for different durations (12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96 h) before kilning at 55 °C for 18 h. The kilned seeds were devegetated, milled, sieved and analysed for their proximate composition, amino acid composition, total phenolic content, functional and pasting properties. The carbohydrate, fat and total phenolic contents of the pearl millet flour samples decreased while protein content increased with increased malting periods. Leucine was the dominant amino acid in the flour and 48 h-malted flour had the highest total amino acid (6.72). Peak viscosity significantly decreased as the malting period increased. Solubility index, pasting temperature and phenolic content of the flours ranged from 5.13 to 17.24%, 69.05 to 89.5 °C and 130.20 to 169.90 mg/100 g, respectively. Malting offers a means of improving the nutritional profile of Ex-Borno pearl millet flour with an increased protein and fibre and reduced fat content. Malting also enhanced the functional and pasting properties of the flour.
Project description:Barley is the cornerstone of the malting and brewing industry. It is known that 250 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of the grain are associated with 19 malting-quality phenotypes. However, only a few of the contributing genetic components have been identified. One of these, on chromosome 4H, contains a major malting QTL, QTL2, located near the telomeric region that accounts, respectively, for 28.9% and 37.6% of the variation in the ?-glucan and extract fractions of malt. In the current study, we dissected the QTL2 region using an expression- and microsynteny-based approach. From a set of 22 expressed sequence tags expressed in seeds at the malting stage, we identified a candidate gene, TLP8 (thaumatin-like protein 8), which was differentially expressed and influenced malting quality. Transcript abundance and protein profiles of TLP8 were studied in different malt and feed varieties using quantitative PCR, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The experiments demonstrated that TLP8 binds to insoluble (1, 3, 1, 4)-?-D glucan in grain extracts, thereby facilitating the removal of this undesirable polysaccharide during malting. Further, the binding of TLP8 to ?-glucan was dependent on redox. These findings represent a stride forward in our understanding of the malting process and provide a foundation for future improvements in the final beer-making process.
Project description:To meet the strict requirements for the malting quality of both grain size and protein content for malting barley, a better understanding of the partitioning and remobilization of dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) from individual vegetative organs during grain filling may contribute to adjusting a balance in both quality parameters to satisfy the malting criteria of the brewing industry. A 2-year experiment that included 23 spring malting barley varieties was carried out to determine the DM and N partitioning in different organs at anthesis and maturity and to estimate their remobilization to grains. In contrast to the genetic variation of the 23 barley varieties, year effect was the most important single factor influencing the DM and N accumulation at pre-anthesis, and the DM and N translocation from their reserves at pre-anthesis. Post-anthesis assimilates accounted for 71-94% of the total grain yield among the barley varieties in 2014 and 53-81% in 2015. In contrast, the N reserved in vegetative tissues at anthesis contributed to barley grain N from 67% in the variety Union to 91% in the variety Marthe in 2014, and 71% in the variety Grace to 97% in the variety Shakira in 2015. The results concluded that photosynthetically derived assimilates at post-anthesis played an important role in determining grain size, whereas N reserves at pre-anthesis and N remobilization at post-anthesis probably determined the grain protein content of the malting barley. To achieve a high quality of malting barley grains in both grain size and protein content simultaneously, balancing photosynthetic assimilates at post-anthesis and N reserves at pre-anthesis and N remobilization should be considered as strategies for the combination of the selection of spring malting barley varieties together with agronomic N management.
Project description:This study investigated the impact of malting of six wheat cultivars inoculated with <i>Fusarium culmorum</i> on the dynamics of content changes of selected <i>Fusarium</i> toxins. The grains of all the tested cultivars showed a high content of deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and their derivatives, whereas nivalenol (NIV) and its glucoside were found only in the Legenda cultivar. Our experiments confirmed that the malting process of wheat grain enables the secondary growth of <i>Fusarium</i>, and mycotoxin biosynthesis. The levels of toxins in malt were few-fold higher than those in grain; an especially high increase was noted in the case of ZEN and its sulfate as the optimal temperature and pH conditions for the biosynthesis of these toxins by the pathogen are similar to those used in the grain malting process. This is the first paper reporting that during the malting process, biosynthesis of ZEN sulfate occurs, instead of glycosylation, which is a typical modification of mycotoxins by plant detoxication enzymes.
Project description:Evaluation of breeding progress for spring barley varieties in Germany showed that both grain yield and malting quality were considerably improved during the last 33 years, and that genetic effects of protein concentration and malting traits were not associated. Based on historical data, this study aimed to investigate yield potential and malting quality of 187 varieties tested and released in German registration trials to evaluate the value for cultivation and use (VCU) during 1983-2015, and to quantify the environmental variability and the association among traits. We used mixed linear models with multiple linear regression terms to dissect genetic and non-genetic trend components. Grain yield increased by 43% (23.4 dt ha-1) in VCU trials and 35% (14.0 dt ha-1) on-farm relative to 1983. All yield components contributed significantly. Malting quality was also considerably improved by 2.3% for extract content up to 25.1% for friability, relative to 1983, nearly completely due to new varieties. Total variability of individual traits was very different between traits (2.4-24.4% relative to 1983). The relative influence of genotypes on total variation was low for grain yield and its components, whereas it was considerably larger for other traits. We found remarkable differences between phenotypic and genetic correlation coefficients for grain yield and protein concentration with malting traits. The observed positive phenotypic relation between grain yield and malting quality can be attributed to a shift of selection and environmental effects, but genetic correlations showed a negative association. Genetic effects of protein concentration and malting quality were not correlated indicating that both were not genetically linked. Considerable yield progress and improvement of malting quality were achieved despite of their weak to moderate negative genetic dependence.
Project description:Many biological processes, such as cell wall hydrolysis and the mobilisation of nutrient reserves from the starchy endosperm, require stringent regulation to successfully malt barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain in an industrial context. Much of the accumulated knowledge defining these events has been collected from individual, unrelated experiments, and data have often been extrapolated from Petri dish germination, rather than malting, experiments. Here, we present comprehensive morphological, biochemical, and transcript data from a simulated malt batch of the three elite malting cultivars Admiral, Navigator, and Flagship, and the feed cultivar Keel. Activities of lytic enzymes implicated in cell wall and starch depolymerisation in germinated grain have been measured, and transcript data for published cell wall hydrolytic genes have been provided. It was notable that Flagship and Keel exhibited generally similar patterns of enzyme and transcript expression, but exhibited a few key differences that may partially explain Flagship's superior malting qualities. Admiral and Navigator also showed matching expression patterns for these genes and enzymes, but the patterns differed from those of Flagship and Keel, despite Admiral and Navigator having Keel as a common ancestor. Overall (1,3;1,4)-?-glucanase activity differed between cultivars, with lower enzyme levels and concomitantly higher amounts of (1,3;1,4)-?-glucan in the feed variety, Keel, at the end of malting. Transcript levels of the gene encoding (1,3;1,4)-?-glucanase isoenzyme EI were almost three times higher than those encoding isoenzyme EII, suggesting a previously unrecognised importance for isoenzyme EI during malting. Careful morphological examination showed that scutellum epithelial cells in mature dry grain are elongated but expand no further as malting progresses, in contrast to equivalent cells in other cereals, perhaps demonstrating a morphological change in this critical organ over generations of breeding selection. Fluorescent immuno-histochemical labelling revealed the presence of pectin in the nucellus and, for the first time, significant amounts of callose throughout the starchy endosperm of mature grain.
Project description:The present study examined the influence of malting on the phenolic composition of two cultivars of finger millet using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometer. Total polyphenols and antioxidant activities of the grains were also evaluated using sorghum as an external reference. Catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, taxifolin, and hesperitin were isolated flavonoids, whereas protocatechuic acid was the phenolic acid detected in finger millet malt. Increases in the content of catechin, epicatechin, and protocatechuic acid were observed for 72 h and 96 h for brown finger millet and sorghum malt. Complete loss of taxifolin and hesperitin were observed with the malting period for finger millet cultivars. A similar loss was noted in the proanthocyanidin A1/A2 and catechin content of sorghum with malting time. The grain malt exhibited 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl,2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging and iron reducing activities. Increased ABTS and iron reducing activity with malting time were observed for the finger millet cultivars. The study demonstrates the presence of hesperitin in finger millet, and also shows that 72 h and 96 h of malting enhanced the catechin, epicatechin, and protocatechuic acid content, in addition to the antioxidant activity of the grain.
Project description:Barley malting quality depends on seed characteristics achieved during grain development and germination. One important parameter is protein accumulation in the mature seed, which may vary between cultivars. Here we conducted a protein pattern analysis in the range of pI 4-7 of mature grains from five Mexican barley cultivars, commonly used for malt and beer production. Reproducibly distinct protein spots, separated by 2D SDS PAGE, were identified by mass spectrometry and considered as potential markers for cultivars with distinct seed protein accumulation. The expression patterns of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI1-1) were followed at transcript level during grain development for three independent growth cycles to establish whether differences between cultivars were reproducible. Quantitative determination of PDI1-1 protein levels by ELISA confirmed a reproducibly, distinctive accumulation and post-translational modifications between cultivars, which were independent of plant growth regimes. According to its impact on differential storage protein accumulation, we propose the PDI1-1 protein as potential biomarker for Mexican malting barley cultivars.
Project description:Malting quality is an important trait in breeding barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). It requires elaborate, expensive phenotyping, which involves micro-malting experiments. Although there is abundant historical information available for different cultivars in different years and trials, that historical information is not often used in genetic analyses. This study aimed to exploit historical records to assist in identifying genomic regions that affect malting and kernel quality traits in barley. This genome-wide association study utilized information on grain yield and 18 quality traits accumulated over 25 years on 174 European spring and winter barley cultivars combined with diversity array technology markers. Marker-trait associations were tested with a mixed linear model. This model took into account the genetic relatedness between cultivars based on principal components scores obtained from marker information. We detected 140 marker-trait associations. Some of these associations confirmed previously known quantitative trait loci for malting quality (on chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 5H). Other associations were reported for the first time in this study. The genetic correlations between traits are discussed in relation to the chromosomal regions associated with the different traits. This approach is expected to be particularly useful when designing strategies for multiple trait improvements.
Project description:This project was initiated with the goal of investigating the malt quality of winter rye cultivars and hybrids grown in the United States in 2014 and 2015, but high levels of deoxynivalenol (DON) were subsequently found in many of the malt samples. DON levels in 75% of the investigated rye samples (n = 117) were actually below 1.0 mg/kg, as quantified by a gas chromatography combined with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). However, 83% of the samples had DON in excess of 1.0 mg/kg following malting, and the average DON level in malted rye was 10.6 mg/kg. In addition, relatively high levels of 3-acetate DON (3-ADON), 15-acetate DON (15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), and DON-3-glucoside (D3G) were observed in some rye malts. Our results show that rye grain DON is likely a poor predicator of type B trichothecenes in malt in practice, because high levels of malt DON, 15-ADONm and D3G were produced, even when the rye samples with DON levels below 0.50 mg/kg were processed. <i>Fusarium</i> Tri5 DNA content in rye was highly associated with malt DON levels (<i>r</i> = 0.83) in a small subset of samples (n = 55). The impact of <i>Fusarium</i> infection on malt quality was demonstrated by the significant correlations between malt DON levels and wort viscosity, <i>?</i>-glucan content, wort color, wort <i>p</i>-coumaric acid content, and total phenolic content. Additional correlations of rye <i>Fusarium</i> Tri5 DNA contents with malt diastatic power (DP), wort free amino nitrogen (FAN) content, and arabinoxylan content were observed.