Mapping transmembrane binding partners for E-cadherin ectodomains.
ABSTRACT: We combine proximity labeling and single molecule binding assays to discover transmembrane protein interactions in cells. We first screen for candidate binding partners by tagging the extracellular and cytoplasmic regions of a "bait" protein with BioID biotin ligase and identify proximal proteins that are biotin tagged on both their extracellular and intracellular regions. We then test direct binding interactions between proximal proteins and the bait, using single molecule atomic force microscope binding assays. Using this approach, we identify binding partners for the extracellular region of E-cadherin, an essential cell-cell adhesion protein. We show that the desmosomal proteins desmoglein-2 and desmocollin-3, the focal adhesion protein integrin-α2β1, the receptor tyrosine kinase ligand ephrin-B1, and the classical cadherin P-cadherin, all directly interact with E-cadherin ectodomains. Our data shows that combining extracellular and cytoplasmic proximal tagging with a biophysical binding assay increases the precision with which transmembrane ectodomain interactors can be identified.
Project description:In mammalian cells, when tandem affinity purification approach is employed, the existence of untagged endogenous target protein and repetitive washing steps together result in overall low yield of purified/stable complexes and the loss of weakly and transiently interacting partners of biological significance. To avoid the trade-offs involving in methodological sensitivity, precision, and throughput, here we introduce an integrated method, biotin tagging coupled with amino acid-coded mass tagging, for highly sensitive and accurate screening of mammalian protein-protein interactions. Without the need of establishing a stable cell line, using a short peptide tag which could be specifically biotinylated in vivo, the biotin-tagged target/bait protein was then isolated along with its associates efficiently by streptavidin magnetic microbeads in a single step. In a pulled-down complex amino acid-coded mass tagging serves as "in-spectra" quantitative markers to distinguish those bait-specific interactors from non-specific background proteins under stringent criteria. Applying this biotin tagging coupled with amino acid-coded mass tagging approach, we first biotin-tagged in vivo a multi-functional protein family member, 14-3-3epsilon, which was expressed at close to endogenous level. Starting with approximately 20 millions of 293T cells which were significantly less than what needed for a tandem affinity purification run, 266 specific interactors of 14-3-3epsilon were identified in high confidence.
Project description:VE-cadherin is the essential adhesion molecule in endothelial adherens junctions, and the regulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation is thought to be important for the control of adherens junction integrity. We show here that VE-PTP (vascular endothelial protein tyrosine phosphatase), an endothelial receptor-type phosphatase, co-precipitates with VE-cadherin, but not with beta-catenin, from cell lysates of transfected COS-7 cells and of endothelial cells. Co-precipitation of VE-cadherin and VE-PTP required the most membrane-proximal extracellular domains of each protein. Expression of VE-PTP in triple-transfected COS-7 cells and in CHO cells reversed the tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin elicited by vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2). Expression of VE-PTP under an inducible promotor in CHO cells transfected with VE-cadherin and VEGFR-2 increased the VE-cadherin-mediated barrier integrity of a cellular monolayer. Surprisingly, a catalytically inactive mutant form of VE-PTP had the same effect on VE-cadherin phosphorylation and cell layer permeability. Thus, VE-PTP is a transmembrane binding partner of VE-cadherin that associates through an extracellular domain and reduces the tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and cell layer permeability independently of its enzymatic activity.
Project description:We successfully modified an existing method to investigate protein-protein interactions in the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium). This method includes (i) addition of a histidine-biotin-histidine tag to the bait proteins via recombinant DNA techniques, (ii) in vivo cross-linking with formaldehyde, (iii) tandem affinity purification of bait proteins under fully denaturing conditions, and (iv) identification of the proteins cross-linked to the bait proteins by liquid-chromatography in conjunction with tandem mass-spectrometry. In vivo cross-linking stabilized protein interactions and permitted the subsequent two-step purification step conducted under denaturing conditions. The two-step purification greatly reduced nonspecific binding of noncross-linked proteins to bait proteins. Two different negative controls were employed to eliminate the possibility of identifying background and nonspecific proteins as interacting partners, especially those caused by nonspecific binding to the stationary phase used for protein purification. In an initial demonstration of this approach, we tagged three Salmonella proteinsHimD, PduB and PhoPwith known binding partners that ranged from stable (e.g., HimD) to transient (i.e., PhoP). Distinct sets of interacting proteins were identified for each bait protein, including the known binding partners such as HimA for HimD, as well as unexpected binding partners. Our results suggest that novel protein-protein interactions identified may be critical to pathogenesis by Salmonella.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Keratinocytes form the main protective barrier in the skin to separate the underlying tissue from the external environment. In order to maintain this barrier, keratinocytes form robust junctions between neighbouring cells as well as with the underlying extracellular matrix. Cell-cell adhesions are mediated primarily through cadherin receptors, whereas the integrin family of transmembrane receptors is predominantly associated with assembly of matrix adhesions. Integrins have been shown to also localise to cell-cell adhesions, but their role at these sites remains unclear.<h4>Results</h4>Here we show that α2β1 integrins are enriched at mature keratinocyte cell-cell adhesions, where they play a crucial role in organising cytoskeletal networks to stabilize adherens junctions. Loss of α2β1 integrin has significant functional phenotypes associated with cell-cell adhesion destabilisation, including increased proliferation, reduced migration and impaired barrier function. Mechanistically, we show that α2β1 integrins suppress activity of Src and Shp2 at cell-cell adhesions leading to enhanced Cdc42-GDI interactions and stabilisation of junctions between neighbouring epithelial cells.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our data reveals a new role for α2β1 integrins in controlling integrity of epithelial cell-cell adhesions.
Project description:Cadherin 6 (CDH6) is significantly overexpressed in advanced ovarian and renal cancers. However, the role of CDH6 in cancer metastasis is largely unclear. Here, we investigated the impact of CDH6 expression on integrin-mediated metastatic progression. CDH6 preferentially bound to αIIbβ3 integrin, a platelet receptor scarcely expressed in cancer cells, and this interaction was mediated through the cadherin Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif. Furthermore, CDH6 and CDH17 were found to interact with α2β1 in αIIbβ3<sup>low</sup> cells. Transient silencing of CDH6, ITGA2B, or ITGB3 genes caused a significant loss of proliferation, adhesion, invasion, and lung colonization through the downregulation of SRC, FAK, AKT, and ERK signaling. In ovarian and renal cancer cells, integrin αIIbβ3 activation appears to be a prerequisite for proper α2β1 activation. Interaction of αIIbβ3 with CDH6, and subsequent αIIbβ3 activation, promoted activation of α2β1 and cell adhesion in ovarian and renal cancer cells. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies specific to the cadherin RGD motif and clinically approved αIIbβ3 inhibitors could block pro-metastatic activity in ovarian and renal tumors. In summary, the interaction between CDH6 and αIIbβ3 regulates α2β1-mediated adhesion and invasion of ovarian and renal cancer metastatic cells and constitutes a therapeutic target of broad potential for treating metastatic progression.
Project description:E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion and signaling plays an essential role in development and maintenance of healthy epithelial tissues. Adhesiveness mediated by E-cadherin is conferred by its extracellular cadherin domains and is regulated by an assembly of intracellular adaptors and enzymes associated with its cytoplasmic tail. We used proximity biotinylation and quantitative proteomics to identify 561 proteins in the vicinity of the cytoplasmic tail of E-cadherin. In addition, we used proteomics to identify proteins associated with E-cadherin-containing adhesion plaques from a cell-glass interface, which enabled the assignment of cellular localization to putative E-cadherin-interacting proteins. Moreover, by tagging identified proteins with GFP (green fluorescent protein), we determined the subcellular localization of 83 putative E-cadherin-proximal proteins and identified 24 proteins that were previously uncharacterized as part of adherens junctions. We constructed and characterized a comprehensive E-cadherin interaction network of 79 published and 394 previously uncharacterized proteins using a structure-informed database of protein-protein interactions. Finally, we found that calcium chelation, which disrupts the interaction of the extracellular E-cadherin domains, did not disrupt most intracellular protein interactions with E-cadherin, suggesting that the E-cadherin intracellular interactome is predominantly independent of cell-cell adhesion.
Project description:Proximity biotinylation is a commonly used method to identify the in vivo proximal proteome for proteins of interest. This technology typically relies on fusing a bait protein to a biotin ligase using overexpression or CRISPR-based tagging, thus prohibiting such assays in (primary) cell types that are difficult to transfect. We recently developed an ‘off the shelf’ proximity biotinylation method, which makes use of a recombinant enzyme consisting of the biotin ligase TurboID fused to the antibody-recognizing moiety Protein A. In this method, a bait specific antibody and the ProteinA-Turbo enzyme are consecutively added to permeabilized fixed or unfixed cells. Following incubation, during which ProteinA-Turbo-antibody-antigen complexes are formed, unbound molecules are washed away, after which bait-proximal biotinylation is triggered by the addition of exogenous biotin. Finally, biotinylated proteins are enriched from crude lysates using streptavidin beads followed by mass spectrometry-based protein identification. Here, we present a detailed protocol for this method
Project description:Tight junctions are complex membrane structures that regulate paracellular movement of material across epithelia and play a role in cell polarity, signaling and cytoskeletal organization. In order to expand knowledge of the tight junction proteome, we used biotin ligase (BioID) fused to occludin and claudin-4 to biotinylate their proximal proteins in cultured MDCK II epithelial cells. We then purified the biotinylated proteins on streptavidin resin and identified them by mass spectrometry. Proteins were ranked by relative abundance of recovery by mass spectrometry, placed in functional categories, and compared not only among the N- and C- termini of occludin and the N-terminus of claudin-4, but also with our published inventory of proteins proximal to the adherens junction protein E-cadherin and the tight junction protein ZO-1. When proteomic results were analyzed, the relative distribution among functional categories was similar between occludin and claudin-4 proximal proteins. Apart from already known tight junction- proteins, occludin and claudin-4 proximal proteins were enriched in signaling and trafficking proteins, especially endocytic trafficking proteins. However there were significant differences in the specific proteins comprising the functional categories near each of the tagging proteins, revealing spatial compartmentalization within the junction complex. Taken together, these results expand the inventory of known and unknown proteins at the tight junction to inform future studies of the organization and physiology of this complex structure.
Project description:Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is associated with sustained inflammation and progressive fibrosis, changes that have been linked to altered connexin hemichannel-mediated release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Kidney fibrosis develops in response to increased deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), and up-regulation of collagen I is an early marker of renal disease. With ECM remodeling known to promote a loss of epithelial stability, in the current study we used a clonal human kidney (HK2) model of proximal tubular epithelial cells to determine if collagen I modulates changes in cell function, via connexin-43 (Cx43) hemichannel ATP release. HK2 cells were cultured on collagen I and treated with the beta 1 isoform of the pro-fibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor (TGFβ1) ± the Cx43 mimetic Peptide 5 and/or an anti-integrin α2β1 neutralizing antibody. Phase microscopy and immunocytochemistry observed changes in cell morphology and cytoskeletal reorganization, whilst immunoblotting and ELISA identified changes in protein expression and secretion. Carboxyfluorescein dye uptake and biosensing measured hemichannel activity and ATP release. A Cytoselect extracellular matrix adhesion assay assessed changes in cell-substrate interactions. Collagen I and TGFβ1 synergistically evoked increased hemichannel activity and ATP release. This was paralleled by changes to markers of tubular injury, partly mediated by integrin α2β1/integrin-like kinase signaling. The co-incubation of the hemichannel blocker Peptide 5, reduced collagen I/TGFβ1 induced alterations and inhibited a positive feedforward loop between Cx43/ATP release/collagen I. This study highlights a role for collagen I in regulating connexin-mediated hemichannel activity through integrin α2β1 signaling, ahead of establishing Peptide 5 as a potential intervention.
Project description:Understanding how proteins are organized in compartments is essential to elucidating their function. While proximity-dependent approaches such as BioID have enabled a massive increase in information about organelles, protein complexes, and other structures in cell culture, to date there have been only a few studies on living vertebrates. Here, we adapted proximity labeling for protein discovery in vivo in the vertebrate model organism, zebrafish. Using lamin A (LMNA) as bait and green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a negative control, we developed, optimized, and benchmarked in vivo TurboID and miniTurbo labeling in early zebrafish embryos. We developed both an mRNA injection protocol and a transgenic system in which transgene expression is controlled by a heat shock promoter. In both cases, biotin is provided directly in the egg water, and we demonstrate that 12 h of labeling are sufficient for biotinylation of prey proteins, which should permit time-resolved analysis of development. After statistical scoring, we found that the proximal partners of LMNA detected in each system were enriched for nuclear envelope and nuclear membrane proteins and included many orthologs of human proteins identified as proximity partners of lamin A in mammalian cell culture. The tools and protocols developed here will allow zebrafish researchers to complement genetic tools with powerful proteomics approaches.