A randomized controlled double-blind study of rotigotine on neuropsychiatric symptoms in de novo PD
ABSTRACT: Management of apathy, depression and anxiety in Parkinson’s disease (PD) represents a challenge. Dopamine agonists have been suggested to be effective. This multicenter, randomized (1:1), double-blind study assessed the 6-month effect of rotigotine versus placebo on apathy, depression and anxiety in de novo PD. The primary outcome was the change of apathy, measured with the LARS. The secondary outcomes were the change in depression and anxiety, measured with BDI-2 and STAI-trait and state. Forty-eight drug-naive PD patients were included. The primary outcome was not reached, with a surprisingly high placebo effect on apathy (60%). There was no significant difference in the change of depression at 6 months between rotigotine and placebo. Trait-anxiety was significantly improved by rotigotine compared to placebo (p?=?0.04). Compared to placebo, low dose rotigotine significantly improved trait anxiety, but not apathy and depression. The major placebo effect on apathy points towards the importance of a multidisciplinary and tight follow-up in the management of neuropsychiatric symptoms.
Project description:This multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the efficacy of rotigotine transdermal patch on apathy and motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).Patients with PD-associated apathy (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS] I item 4 [motivation] ?2 and patient-rated Apathy Scale [AS] ?14) were randomized 1:1:1 to "low-dose" rotigotine (?6 mg/24 h for early PD [those not receiving levodopa] or ?8 mg/24 h for advanced PD [those receiving levodopa]), "high-dose" rotigotine (?8 mg/24 h for early PD or ?16 mg/24 h for advanced PD), or placebo, and maintained at optimal/maximal dose for 12 weeks. Coprimary efficacy variables were: change from baseline to End of Maintenance in patient-rated AS and UPDRS II?+?III total score. Recruitment was stopped after an interim futility analysis; therefore, all p values are exploratory.Of 122 patients randomized, 81.1 % completed the study (placebo, n?=?32/40 [80.0 %]; low-dose rotigotine, n?=?30/41 [73.2 %]; high-dose rotigotine, n?=?37/41 [90.2 %]). No treatment difference was observed in the change in patient-rated AS (least squares mean [95 % confidence interval (CI)] difference: low-dose, 0.04 [-2.42, 2.50], p =0.977; high-dose, -0.22 [-2.61, 2.18], p?=?0.859). Rotigotine improved UPDRS II?+?III total scores versus placebo (least squares mean [95 % CI] treatment difference: low-dose, -7.29 [-12.30, -2.28], p?=?0.005; high-dose, -6.06 [-10.90, -1.21], p?=?0.015), and the "mood/apathy" domain of the Non-Motor Symptom Scale as rated by the investigator (secondary outcome). The most frequent adverse events in rotigotine-treated patients were application site reactions, somnolence, and nausea.Rotigotine did not improve PD-associated apathy as rated by the patient but provided clinically relevant improvement in motor control and activities of daily living.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01782222 . Trial registration date: January 30, 2013.
Project description:In a multinational, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (NCT00474058), 287 subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) and unsatisfactory early-morning motor symptom control were randomized 2:1 to receive rotigotine (2-16 mg/24 hr [n = 190]) or placebo (n = 97). Treatment was titrated to optimal dose over 1-8 weeks with subsequent dose maintenance for 4 weeks. Early-morning motor function and nocturnal sleep disturbance were assessed as coprimary efficacy endpoints using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part III (Motor Examination) measured in the early morning prior to any medication intake and the modified Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS-2) (mean change from baseline to end of maintenance [EOM], last observation carried forward). At EOM, mean UPDRS Part III score had decreased by -7.0 points with rotigotine (from a baseline of 29.6 [standard deviation (SD) 12.3] and by -3.9 points with placebo (baseline 32.0 [13.3]). Mean PDSS-2 total score had decreased by -5.9 points with rotigotine (from a baseline of 19.3 [SD 9.3]) and by -1.9 points with placebo (baseline 20.5 [10.4]). This represented a significantly greater improvement with rotigotine compared with placebo on both the UPDRS Part III (treatment difference: -3.55 [95% confidence interval (CI) -5.37, -1.73]; P = 0.0002) and PDSS-2 (treatment difference: -4.26 [95% CI -6.08, -2.45]; P < 0.0001). The most frequently reported adverse events were nausea (placebo, 9%; rotigotine, 21%), application site reactions (placebo, 4%; rotigotine, 15%), and dizziness (placebo, 6%; rotigotine 10%). Twenty-four-hour transdermal delivery of rotigotine to PD patients with early-morning motor dysfunction resulted in significant benefits in control of both motor function and nocturnal sleep disturbances.
Project description:The efficacy and safety of rotigotine transdermal patch in Parkinson's disease (PD) were studied in some clinical trials. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of rotigotine transdermal patch versus placebo in PD.Six randomized controlled trials (1789 patients) were included in this meta-analysis. As compared with placebo, the use of rotigotine resulted in greater improvements in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale activities of daily living score (weighted mean difference [WMD] -1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.18 to -1.19), motor score (WMD -3.86, 95% CI -4.86 to -2.86), and the activities of daily living and motor subtotal score (WMD -4.52, 95% CI -5.86 to -3.17). Rotigotine was associated with a significantly higher rate of withdrawals due to adverse events (relative risk [RR] 1.82, 95% CI 1.29-2.59), and higher rates of application site reactions (RR 2.92, 95% CI 2.29-3.72), vomiting (RR 5.18, 95% CI 2.25-11.93), and dyskinesia (RR 2.52, 95% CI 1.47-4.32) compared with placebo. No differences were found in the relative risks of headache, constipation, back pain, diarrhea, or serious adverse events.Our meta-analysis showed that the use of rotigotine can reduce the symptoms of PD. However, rotigotine was also associated with a higher incidence of adverse events, especially application site reactions, compared with placebo.
Project description:Pain is a troublesome non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). The RECOVER (Randomized Evaluation of the 24-hour Coverage: Efficacy of Rotigotine; Clintrials.gov: NCT00474058) study demonstrated significant improvements in early-morning motor function (UPDRS III) and sleep disturbances (PDSS-2) with rotigotine transdermal system. Improvements were also reported on a Likert pain scale (measuring any type of pain). This post hoc analysis of RECOVER further evaluates the effect of rotigotine on pain, and whether improvements in pain may be attributable to benefits in motor function or sleep disturbance.PD patients with unsatisfactory early-morning motor impairment were randomized to optimal-dose (up to 16 mg/24 h) rotigotine or placebo, maintained for 4 weeks. Pain was assessed in the early-morning using an 11-point Likert pain scale (rated average severity of pain (of any type) over the preceding 12 hours from 0 [no pain] to 10 [worst pain ever experienced]). Post hoc analyses for patients reporting 'any' pain (pain score ≥1) at baseline, and subgroups reporting 'mild' (score 1-3), and 'moderate-to-severe' pain (score ≥4) were performed. Likert pain scale change from baseline in rotigotine-treated patients was further analyzed based on a UPDRS III/PDSS-2 responder analysis (a responder defined as showing a ≥30% reduction in early morning UPDRS III total score or PDSS-2 total score). As post hoc analyses, all p values presented are exploratory.Of 267 patients with Likert pain data (178 rotigotine, 89 placebo), 187 (70%) reported 'any' pain; of these 87 (33%) reported 'mild', and 100 (37%) 'moderate-to-severe' pain. Change from baseline pain scores decreased with rotigotine compared with placebo in patients with 'any' pain (-0.88 [95% CI: -1.56, -0.19], p = 0.013), and in the subgroup with 'moderate-to-severe' pain (-1.38 [-2.44, -0.31], p = 0.012). UPDRS III or PDSS-2 responders showed greater improvement in pain than non-responders.The results from this post hoc analysis of the RECOVER study suggest that pain was improved in patients with PD treated with rotigotine; this may be partly attributable to benefits in motor function and sleep disturbances. Prospective studies are warranted to investigate this potential benefit and the clinical relevance of these findings.
Project description:Sleep disturbances represent important predictors of poor quality of life (QoL) in Parkinson's disease (PD). This open-label pilot study aimed to objectively assess, by means of actigraphic recording, effect of rotigotine on sleep in PD patients with self-reported sleep complaints. 15 PD patients underwent one-week actigraphic recording before (T0) and during (T1) rotigotine treatment, which was titrated to the dose subjectively improving motor symptoms (4-8?mg/24?h). Sleep disturbances, daytime sleepiness, cognitive performance, QoL, and depression were also evaluated with questionnaires. Actigraphic recordings showed a significant reduction in nocturnal motor activity and mean duration of wake episodes after sleep onset during rotigotine treatment compared to baseline. In 10 patients presenting objective evidence of poor sleep quality at T0 (sleep efficiency ? 85%), rotigotine also significantly improved other sleep parameters and further reduced nocturnal motor activity and mean duration of wake episodes. A significant decrease in number and duration of daytime sleep episodes was also observed at T1. Finally we confirmed that rotigotine significantly improves perceived sleep quality and QoL. Our study showed for the first time that rotigotine is associated with an objective improvement of nocturnal and diurnal sleep disturbances in PD patients with self-reported sleep complaints. This study is registered with AIFA-observational study registry number 12021.
Project description:Sleep disturbances occur frequently in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rotigotine on sleep fluctuations in a sample of PD patients with self-reported complaints of nocturnal awakenings. This prospective, open-label, observational, and multicenter study enrolled consecutive outpatients with PD and administered rotigotine (mean dose 8.9?mg/day) for 3 months. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in sleep fragmentation, assessed using the sleep maintenance subscale score of the Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS). The newly designed Parkinson's Disease Sleep Fragmentation Questionnaire (PD-SFQ) was used to measure other sleep parameters. A total of 62 patients were enrolled (mean age 70.2 years; 66% male). At 3 months, rotigotine significantly improved sleep fragmentation from baseline on the PDSS-2 sleep maintenance subscale (from 3.4 ± 0.9 to 1.9 ± 1.4; P < 0.0001). Rotigotine also significantly improved nocturnal motor symptoms (P < 0.0001), restless legs-like symptoms (P < 0.005), and nocturia (P = 0.004). Rotigotine significantly improved self-reported complaints of sleep fragmentation in PD patients and could be a useful treatment to improve this specific sleep problem in PD. However, these results are based on a small and clinically heterogeneous sample so they must be taken cautiously.
Project description:Importance:Impairment of dopaminergic transmission may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer disease (AD). Objective:To investigate whether therapy with dopaminergic agonists may affect cognitive functions in patients with AD. Design, Setting, and Participants:This phase 2, monocentric, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in Italy. Patients with mild to moderate AD were enrolled between September 1, 2017, and December 31, 2018. Data were analyzed from July 1 to September 1, 2019. Interventions:A rotigotine 2 mg transdermal patch for 1 week followed by a 4 mg patch for 23 weeks (n?=?47) or a placebo transdermal patch for 24 weeks (n?=?47). Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary end point was change from baseline on the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale. Secondary end points were changes in Frontal Assessment Battery, Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory scores. Prefrontal cortex activity was evaluated by transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography. Results:Among 94 patients randomized (mean [SD] age, 73.9 [5.6] years; 58 [62%] women), 78 (83%) completed the study. Rotigotine, as compared with placebo, had no significant effect on the primary end point: estimated mean change in Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale score was 2.92 (95% CI, 2.51-3.33) for the rotigotine group and 2.66 (95% CI, 2.31-3.01) for the placebo group. For the secondary outcomes, there were significant estimated mean changes between groups for Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living score (-3.32 [95% CI, -4.02 to -2.62] for rotigotine and -7.24 [95% CI, -7.84 to -6.64] for placebo) and Frontal Assessment Battery score (0.48 [95% CI, 0.31 to 0.65] for rotigotine and -0.66 [95% CI, -0.80 to -0.52] for placebo). There was no longitudinal change in Neuropsychiatric Inventory scores (1.64 [95% CI, 1.06-2.22] for rotigotine and 1.26 [95% CI, 0.77-1.75] for placebo group). Neurophysiological analysis of electroencephalography results indicated that prefrontal cortical activity increased in rotigotine but not in the placebo group. Adverse events were more common in the rotigotine group, with 11 patients dropping out compared with 5 in the placebo group. Conclusions and Relevance:In this randomized clinical trial, rotigotine treatment did not significantly affect global cognition in patients with mild to moderate AD; however, improvement was observed in cognitive functions highly associated with the frontal lobe and in activities of daily living. These findings suggest that treatment with the dopaminergic agonist rotigotine may reduce symptoms associated with frontal lobe cognitive dysfunction and thus may delay the impairment of activities of daily living. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03250741.
Project description:Transdermal delivery of rotigotine maintains stable plasma concentrations for 24 hours. Three phase 3 studies of rotigotine as add-on to levodopa in advanced Parkinson's disease showed a significant reduction in "off" time from baseline to end of maintenance (EoM). However, detailed analyses over the range of a day have not yet been performed. The objective was to examine the time course of the efficacy profile of rotigotine throughout the day.Post hoc analysis of diary data from 3 double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of rotigotine in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease inadequately controlled with levodopa, with average "off" time of ?2.5 h/d (CLEOPATRA-PD [NCT00244387], 16-week maintenance; PREFER, 24-week maintenance; SP921 [NCT00522379], 12-week maintenance). Patients marked 30-minute intervals as "off," "on without troublesome dyskinesia," "on with troublesome dyskinesia," or "sleep." Diaries completed on the 3 days before EoM were analyzed. A 2-sample t test was performed for comparison of rotigotine + levodopa versus placebo + levodopa for mean percentage of time per status during four 6-hour periods: 12:00AM (midnight) to 6:00AM, 6:00AM to 12:00PM (noon), noon to 6:00PM, and 6:00PM to midnight.Data were available for 967 patients (placebo + levodopa, 260; rotigotine + levodopa, 707). During the 24-hour period at EoM, an advantage in mean percentage time spent "off" and "on without troublesome dyskinesia" was observed with rotigotine + levodopa versus placebo + levodopa during the three 6-hour periods from 6:00AM to midnight (P < 0.05; exploratory analysis).These exploratory analyses of patients with motor fluctuations suggest that the efficacy of rotigotine transdermal patch, as captured by diary data, in reducing "off" time and increasing "on time without troublesome dyskinesia" may cover the full waking day.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dopamine Replacement Therapy (DRT) represents the most effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). Nevertheless, several symptoms are unresponsive to treatment and its long-term use leads to serious side effects. To optimize the pharmacological management of PD, dopamine-agonists are often prescribed to "de-novo" patients. Moreover, several studies have shown the effectiveness and the synergic effect of rehabilitation in treating PD. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the synergism between DRT and rehabilitation in treating PD, by investigating the short and the long-term effectiveness of a multidisciplinary, intensive and goal-based rehabilitation treatment (MIRT) in a group of patients treated with Rotigotine. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In this multicenter, single blinded, parallel-group, 1:1 allocation ratio, randomized, non-inferiority trial, 36 "de-novo" PD patients were evaluated along 18 months: 17 were treated with Rotigotine plus MIRT; 19 were treated with Rotigotine alone (R). The primary outcome measure was the total score of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). The secondary outcomes included the UPDRS sub-sections II and III (UPDRS II-III), the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) and the amount of Rotigotine. Patients were evaluated at baseline (T0), 6 months (T1), 1 year (T2), and at 18 months (T3). RESULTS:No differences in UPDRS scores in the two groups (total score, III part and II part, p = 0.48, p = 0.90 and p = 0.40, respectively) were found in the time course. Conversely, a greater improvement in Rotigotine + MIRT group was observed for 6MWT (p < 0.0001) and TUG (p = 0.03). Along time, the dosage of Rotigotine was higher in patients who did not undergo MIRT, at all observation times following T0. CONCLUSIONS:Over the course of 18 months, the effectiveness of the combined treatment (Rotigotine + MIRT) on the patients' global clinical status, evaluated with total UPDRS, was not inferior to that of the pharmacological treatment with Rotigotine alone. Importantly, rehabilitation allowed patients to gain better motor performances with lower DRT dosage.
Project description:Continuous delivery of antiparkinsonian medication during a perioperative period is desirable to avoid 'off'-symptom complications in surgical patients with concomitant Parkinson's disease (PD). Fourteen PD patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia were switched from oral dopaminergic medication to transdermally delivered 24-h rotigotine (median dose 12 mg/24 h) for the perioperative period. Rotigotine treatment was considered feasible by patients, their anesthesiologists and neurologists with good control of PD symptoms and easy switching and re-switching of PD medication.