Identification and Validation of Six Autophagy-related Long Non-coding RNAs as Prognostic Signature in Colorectal Cancer.
ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a commonly occurring tumour with poor prognosis. Autophagy-related long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have received much attention as biomarkers for cancer prognosis and diagnosis. However, few studies have focused on their prognostic predictive value specifically in CRC. This research aimed to construct a robust autophagy-related lncRNA prognostic signature for CRC. Autophagy-related lncRNAs from The Cancer Genome Atlas database were screened using univariate Cox, LASSO, and multivariate Cox regression analyses, and the resulting key lncRNAs were used to establish a prognostic risk score model. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis was performed to detect the expression of several lncRNAs in cancer tissues from CRC patients and in normal tissues adjacent to the cancer tissues. A prognostic signature comprising lncRNAs AC125603.2, LINC00909, AC016876.1, MIR210HG, AC009237.14, and LINC01063 was identified in patients with CRC. A graphical nomogram based on the autophagy-related lncRNA signature was developed to predict CRC patients' 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival. Overall survival in patients with low risk scores was significantly better than in those with high risk scores (P < 0.0001); a similar result was obtained in an internal validation sample. The nomogram was shown to be suitable for clinical use and gave correct predictions. The 1- and 3-year values of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.797 and 0.771 in the model sample, and 0.656 and 0.642 in the internal validation sample, respectively. The C-index values for the verification samples and training samples were 0.756 (95% CI = 0.668-0.762) and 0.715 (95% CI = 0.683-0.829), respectively. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that the six autophagy-related lncRNAs were greatly enriched in CRC-related signalling pathways, including p53 and VEGF signalling. The qRT-PCR results showed that the expression of lncRNAs in CRC was higher than that in adjacent tissues, consistent with the expression trends of lncRNAs in the CRC data set. In summary, we established a signature of six autophagy-related lncRNAs that could effectively guide clinical prediction of prognosis in patients with CRC. This lncRNA signature has significant clinical implications for improving the prediction of outcomes and, with further prospective validation, could be used to guide tailored therapy for CRC patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Autophagy is a "self-feeding" phenomenon of cells, which is crucial in mammalian development. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a new regulatory factor for cell autophagy, which can regulate the process of autophagy to affect tumor progression. However, poor attention has been paid to the roles of autophagy-related lncRNAs in breast cancer.<h4>Objective</h4>This study aimed to construct an autophagy-related lncRNA signature that can effectively predict the prognosis of breast cancer patients and explore the potential functions of these lncRNAs.<h4>Methods</h4>The RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data of breast cancer patients was collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and the GSE20685 database. Multivariate Cox analysis was implemented to produce an autophagy-related lncRNA signature in the TCGA cohort. The signature was then validated in the GSE20685 cohort. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was performed to evaluate the predictive ability of the signature. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used to explore the potential functions based on the signature. Finally, the study developed a nomogram and internal verification based on the autophagy-related lncRNAs.<h4>Results</h4>A signature composed of 9 autophagy-related lncRNAs was determined as a prognostic model, and 1,109 breast cancer patients were divided into high-risk group and low-risk group based on median risk score of the signature. Further analysis demonstrated that the over survival (OS) of breast cancer patients in the high-risk group was poorer than that in the low-risk group based on the prognostic signature. The area under the curve (AUC) of ROC curve verified the sensitivity and specificity of this signature. Additionally, we confirmed the signature is an independent factor and found it may be correlated to the progression of breast cancer. GSEA showed gene sets were notably enriched in carcinogenic activation pathways and autophagy-related pathways. The qRT-PCR identified 5 lncRNAs with significantly differential expression in breast cancer cells based on the 9 lncRNAs of the prognostic model, and the results were consistent with the tissues.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In summary, our signature has potential predictive value in the prognosis of breast cancer and these autophagy-related lncRNAs may play significant roles in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer.
Project description:<b>Objective:</b> Our study aimed to construct a robust long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) prognostic signature for colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis. <b>Methods:</b> Differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified between metastatic CRC and non-metastatic CRC samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas Database (TCGA) using the edgeR package. The differentially expressed lncRNAs with prognosis of patients with CRC metastasis were identified by univariate Cox regression analysis, followed by a stepwise multivariate Cox regression model. The survminer package in R was used to identify the optimal cutoff point for high-risk and low-risk groups. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted to assess this signature. To explore potential signaling pathways associated with these lncRNAs, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was performed. <b>Results:</b> A 6-lncRNA signature was built based on the lncRNA expression profile for CRC metastasis. The optimal cutoff value was used to classify high-risk and low-risk groups using the survminer package. The high-risk groups could have poorer survival time than the low-risk groups. ROC curve result indicated that this lncRNA signature had high sensitivity and accuracy. GSEA analysis results showed that the six lncRNAs were significantly enriched in several CRC metastasis-related signaling pathways such as "cell cycle," "DNA replication," "mismatch repair," "oxidative phosphorylation," "regulation of autophagy," and "insulin signaling pathway." <b>Conclusion:</b> Our study constructed a 6-lncRNA model for predicting the survival outcomes of patients with CRC metastasis, which could become potential prognostic biomarkers, and therapeutic targets for CRC metastasis.
Project description:There were no systematic researches about autophagy-related long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) signatures to predict the survival of patients with colon adenocarcinoma. It was necessary to set up corresponding autophagy-related lncRNA signatures. The expression profiles of lncRNAs which contained 480 colon adenocarcinoma samples were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The coexpression network of lncRNAs and autophagy-related genes was utilized to select autophagy-related lncRNAs. The lncRNAs were further screened using univariate Cox regression. In addition, Lasso regression and multivariate Cox regression were used to develop an autophagy-related lncRNA signature. A risk score based on the signature was established, and Cox regression was used to test whether it was an independent prognostic factor. The functional enrichment of autophagy-related lncRNAs was visualized using Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Ten prognostic autophagy-related lncRNAs (AC027307.2, AC068580.3, AL138756.1, CD27-AS1, EIF3J-DT, LINC01011, LINC01063, LINC02381, AC073896.3, and SNHG16) were identified to be significantly different, which made up an autophagy-related lncRNA signature. The signature divided patients with colon adenocarcinoma into the low-risk group and the high-risk group. A risk score based on the signature was a significantly independent factor for the patients with colon adenocarcinoma (HR = 1.088, 95%CI = 1.057 - 1.120; P < 0.001). Additionally, the ten lncRNAs were significantly enriched in autophagy process, metabolism, and tumor classical pathways. In conclusion, the ten autophagy-related lncRNAs and their signature might be molecular biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the patients with colon adenocarcinoma.
Project description:Autophagy-related long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) disorders are related to the occurrence and development of breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to explore whether autophagy-related lncRNA can predict the prognosis of breast cancer patients. The autophagy-related lncRNAs prognostic signature was constructed by Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) Cox regression. We identified five autophagy-related lncRNAs (MAPT-AS1, LINC01871, AL122010.1, AC090912.1, AC061992.1) associated with prognostic value, and they were used to construct an autophagy-related lncRNA prognostic signature (ALPS) model. ALPS model offered an independent prognostic value (HR = 1.664, 1.381-2.006), where this risk score of the model was significantly related to the TNM stage, ER, PR and HER2 status in breast cancer patients. Nomogram could be utilized to predict survival for patients with breast cancer. Principal component analysis and Sankey Diagram results indicated that the distribution of five lncRNAs from the ALPS model tends to be low-risk. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that the high-risk group was enriched in autophagy and cancer-related pathways, and the low-risk group was enriched in regulatory immune-related pathways. These results indicated that the ALPS model composed of five autophagy-related lncRNAs could predict the prognosis of breast cancer patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Osteosarcoma is a frequent bone malignancy in children and young adults. Despite the availability of some prognostic biomarkers, most of them fail to accurately predict prognosis in osteosarcoma patients. In this study, we used bioinformatics tools and machine learning algorithms to establish an autophagy-related long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) signature to predict the prognosis of osteosarcoma patients.<h4>Methods</h4>We obtained expression and clinical data from osteosarcoma patients in the Therapeutically Applicable Research to Generate Effective Treatments (TARGET) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases. We acquired an autophagy gene list from the Human Autophagy Database (HADb) and identified autophagy-related lncRNAs by co-expression analyses. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses of the autophagy-related lncRNAs were conducted. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to assess the prognostic value of the autophagy-related lncRNA signature and validate the relationship between the signature and osteosarcoma patient survival in an independent cohort. We also investigated the relationship between the signature and immune cell infiltration.<h4>Results</h4>We initially identified 69 autophagy-related lncRNAs, 13 of which were significant predictors of overall survival in osteosarcoma patients. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed that the 13 autophagy-related lncRNAs could stratify patients based on their outcomes. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses confirmed the superior prognostic value of the lncRNA signature compared to clinically used prognostic biomarkers. Importantly, the autophagy-related lncRNA signature predicted patient prognosis independently of clinicopathological characteristics. Furthermore, we found that the expression levels of the autophagy-related lncRNA signature were significantly associated with the infiltration levels of different immune cell subsets, including T cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The autophagy-related lncRNA signature established here is an independent and robust predictor of osteosarcoma patient survival. Our findings also suggest that the expression of these 13 autophagy-related lncRNAs may promote osteosarcoma progression by regulating immune cell infiltration in the tumor microenvironment.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Metastasis and recurrence are the main causes of death from cervical cancer (CC), thus it is important to identify more effective biomarkers to improve its prognosis. The purpose of our research was to determine the potential role of autophagy-related long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in CC and to construct an autophagy-related lncRNA signature for survival of CC.<h4>Methods</h4>The lncRNAs in CC were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, and autophagy-related lncRNAs were identified through the co-expression of lncRNA genes and autophagy genes. Several autophagy-related lncRNAs with prognostic value (AC012306.2, AL109976.1, ATP2A1-AS1, ILF3-DT, Z83851.2, STARD7-AS1, AC099343.2, AC008771.1, DBH-AS1, and AC097468.3) were identified using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses and a prognostic signature was established. The signature effect was detected by univariate Cox regression analysis [hazard ratio (HR) =1.665; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.331-2.082; P<0.001] and multivariate Cox regression analysis (HR =1.738; 95% CI: 1.359-2.223; P<0.001). A nomogram was drawn by risk score and clinical features.<h4>Results</h4>The prognostic signature could predict the survival of CC by survival-receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve [area under the curve (AUC) =0.810]. A nomogram was drawn by risk score and clinical features, and its c-index and calibration curve demonstrated that the prognostic signature could independently predict the prognosis of CC (P<0.001). Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) confirmed that the genes were significantly enriched in cancer- and autophagy-related pathways (P<0.05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>This 10 autophagy-related lncRNA signature has prognostic potential for CC. More important roles in the CC biology of these lncRNAs may be identified with further study.
Project description:Background:The prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is still challenging to evaluate or predict. Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to play an important role in tumorigenesis and prognosis, however, few lncRNAs have been identified in CRC progression. We aimed to establish a lncRNA signature to improve prognosis prediction of CRC. Methods:In the present study, we profiled lncRNA expression with a lncRNA-mining approach in two CRC data sets from Gene Expression Ominus (GEO) (GSE39582, N?=?557 and GSE17538, N?=?200). LncRNAs were analyzed to determine a prognostic signature by Cox regression and Robust likelihood-based survival model. We identified seven lncRNAs that significantly associated with the disease free survival (DFS) in the training group. A risk score formula was constructed to evaluate the performance of this lncRNA panel. Results:A seven-lncRNA signature was established to predict prognosis of CRC patients. The prognostic value of this signature was verified in the training group, internal validation group and external validation cohort, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis suggested a powerful discrimination ability of the seven-gene signature. Finally, Cox regression analyzed this signature as an independent influencing factor and subsequent pathway or network analysis implicated a potential mechanism of these lncRNAs. Conclusions:In summary, the seven-lncRNA signature we identified can effectively classify patients. This risk score model could serve as an independent biomarker to predict prognosis of CRC patients.
Project description:Increasing evidence suggests long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are frequently aberrantly expressed in cancers, however, few related lncRNA signatures have been established for prediction of cancer prognosis. We aimed to develop a lncRNA signature to improve prognosis prediction of colorectal cancer (CRC). Using a lncRNA-mining approach, we performed lncRNA expression profiling in large CRC cohorts from Gene Expression Ominus (GEO), including GSE39582 test series(N=436), internal validation series (N=117); and two independent validation series GSE14333 (N=197) and GSE17536(N=145). We established a set of six lncRNAs that were significantly correlated with the disease free survival (DFS) in the test series. Based on this six-lncRNA signature, the test series patients could be classified into high-risk and low-risk subgroups with significantly different DFS (HR=2.670; P<0.0001). The prognostic value of this six-lncRNA signature was confirmed in the internal validation series and another two independent CRC sets. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) analysis suggested that risk score positively correlated with several cancer metastasis related pathways. Functional experiments demonstrated three dysregulated lncRNAs, AK123657, BX648207 and BX649059 were required for efficient invasion and proliferation suppression in CRC cell lines. Our results might provide an efficient classification tool for clinical prognosis evaluation of CRC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4> Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) associated with immunological function have increasingly been found to act as effective prognostic biomarkers of the overall survival (OS) of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. We sought to identify a signature of immune-related lncRNAs that offered value as a tool for the prospective prognostic evaluation of patients with stage II–III CRC. <h4>Methods</h4> The clinical and gene expression data of CRC patients in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases was obtained and separated into a training cohort composed of 202 samples, a test cohort of 124 samples from the GSE72970 dataset, and a validation cohort of 91 samples from the GSE143985 dataset. <h4>Results</h4> We firstly evaluated intratumoral immune cell infiltration by conducting a Single-sample gene set enrichment analyses (ssGSEA) analysis to separate patient tumors into those with low immune cell infiltration and those with high immune cell infiltration. We then compared lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles between these two tumor types, leading us to focus on eight lncRNAs identified within the resultant mRNA-lncRNA co-expression network. Multivariate Cox regression models were then utilized to detect an immune-associated lncRNA signature that offered value for prognostic model construction. Functional analyses revealed this lncRNA signature to be associated with key immunological pathways including the JAK-STAT signaling, T cell receptor signaling, and Rap1 signaling pathways. <h4>Conclusions</h4> Together, our results suggest that our immune-related 4 lncRNA signature can reliably predict stage II–III CRC patient prognosis, thereby guiding efforts to better understand this disease and to effectively treat it.
Project description:Abnormal metabolism, including abnormal fatty acid metabolism, is an emerging hallmark of cancer. The current study sought to investigate the potential prognostic value of fatty acid metabolism-related long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in colorectal cancer (CRC). To this end, we obtained the gene expression data and clinical data of patients with CRC from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Through gene set variation analysis (GSVA), we found that the fatty acid metabolism pathway was related to the clinical stage and prognosis of patients with CRC. After screening differentially expressed RNAs, we constructed a fatty acid metabolism-related competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network based on the miRTarBase, miRDB, TargetScan, and StarBase databases. Next, eight fatty acid metabolism-related lncRNAs included in the ceRNA network were identified to build a prognostic signature with Cox and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression analyses, and a nomogram was established based on the lncRNA signature and clinical variables. The signature and nomogram were further validated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, Cox regression analysis, calibration plots, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, decision curve analysis (DCA). Besides, the TCGA internal and the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) external cohorts were applied to successfully validate the robustness of the signature and nomogram. Finally, <i>in vitro</i> assays showed that knockdown of prognostic lncRNA TSPEAR-AS2 decreased the triglyceride (TG) content and the expressions of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) in CRC cells, which indicated the important role of lncRNA TSPEAR-AS2 in modulating fatty acid metabolism of CRC. The result of Oil Red O staining showed that the lipid content in lncRNA TSPEAR-AS2 high expression group was higher than that in lncRNA TSPEAR-AS2 low expression group. Our study may provide helpful information for fatty acid metabolism targeting therapies in CRC.