Predictive value of tumor mutation burden (TMB) with targeted next-generation sequencing in immunocheckpoint inhibitors for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
ABSTRACT: Background: To evaluate the clinical predictive value of tumor mutation burden (TMB) for immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Method: As of 15 February 2020, PubMed, PMC and EMBASE databases as well as the American society of clinical oncology (ASCO) and European society of medical oncology (ESMO) databases were searched. The Mantel-Haenszel or inverse variance weighted fixed-effects model (I2 ? 50%) or random-effects model (I2 > 50%) were used to evaluate OR and its 95% CI of objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) , as well as HR and its 95% CI of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In addition, we did publication bias, heterogeneity analysis, sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis. And quality of the studies included and the level of evidence for outcome measures were evaluated. Results: 14 studies involving 2872 patients were included. The ORR (OR 3.52, 95%CI 2.32-5.35, p < 0.00001), DCR (OR 3.26, 95%CI 1.91-5.55, p < 0.0001), PFS (HR 0.81, 95%CI 0.74-0.89, p < 0.00001) and OS (HR 0.83, 95%CI 0.74-0.94, p = 0.002) of ICI therapy in the high TMB group were all superior to those in the low TMB group. Conclusions: TMB is a promising biomarker, which can predict the efficacy of ICI therapy in advanced NSCLC patients, included ORR, DCR, PFS and OS.
Project description:This meta-analysis used the database including PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, CNKI, Chinese-Cqvip, and Wanfang for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to investigate the clinical effectiveness for combining cetuximab treatment with chemotherapy for treating metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). A total of 12 RCTs involved 7,108 patients with mCRC were included. The patients received chemotherapy with (3,521 cases) or without cetuximab (3,587 cases). Outcomes were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), disease control rate (DCR), overall response rate (ORR), odd ratio (OR), and risk ratio (HR). Our results showed that the chemotherapy alone group has shorter OS, PFS, and ORR than the chemotherapy plus cetuximab group, with significant differences (PFS:HR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.72–0.82, P < 0.00001; OS:HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.79–0.99, P = 0.03; ORR:OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.30–2.47; P = 0.0003). Results of subgroup analysis showed that cetuximab treatment prolonged PFS and OS in KRAS wild-type patients, with statistically significant differences (PFS:HR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.65–0.95, P = 0.01; OS:HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.74–0.98, P = 0.02). Combining cetuximab with chemotherapy, the PFS and OS of wild-type KRAS patients and the ORR of all patients were significantly improved.
Project description:Tumor mutational burden (TMB) is a genomic biomarker that predicts favorable responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Here, we set out to assess the predictive value of TMB on long-term survival outcomes in patients undergoing ICIs. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL and clinicaltrials.gov from inception to 6 August 2019. We included retrospective studies or clinical trials of ICIs that reported hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival (OS) and/or progression-free survival (PFS) according to TMB. Data on 5712 patients from 26 studies were included. Among patients who received ICIs, high TMB groups showed better OS (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.67) and PFS (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.67) compared to low TMB groups. In patients with high TMB, those who received ICIs had a better OS (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.95) and PFS (HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.47 to 0.92) compared to those who received chemotherapy alone, while in patients with low TMB, such ICI benefits of OS or PFS were not statistically significant. In conclusion, TMB may be an effective biomarker to predict survival in patients undergoing ICI treatment. The role of TMB in identifying patient groups who may benefit from ICIs should be determined in future randomized controlled trials.
Project description:The relation between tumor mutation burden (TMB) and outcome of cancer patients receiving immunotherapy has been reported. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic role of TMB in cancer patients receiving immunotherapy. Databases including Embase, PubMed, and the Cochrane library were systematically searched to identify potentially eligible studies until Sep 2018 without language limitation. Studies assessing high versus low TMB in predicting survival of various cancer patients were selected. The pooled analyses were conducted using hazard ratio (HR) of high versus low TMB for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), and the odds ratio (OR) for overall response rate (ORR). The primary endpoint was OS. Secondary outcomes were PFS and ORR. A total of 45 studies consisting of 103078 cancer patients were included. The combined results showed that high TMB was associated with better OS (HR = 0.40; 95% confidence interval (CI):0.30-0.53; p< .00001), PFS (HR = 0.37; 95% CI: 0.26-0.53; p< .00001) and ORR (OR = 4.62; 95%CI: 2.90-7.34; p< .0001) when treated with immunotherapy. In studying patients with high TMB, these patients had improved OS (HR = 0.69; 95%CI: 0.47-1.03; p= .07) when comparing immunotherapy to chemotherapy. Subgroup analyses suggested that the prognostic role of TMB was independent of cancer types and TMB detection methods (all p< .05). Our findings suggest that high TMB is associated with better survival in cancer patients receiving immunotherapy. For cancer patients with high TMB, immunotherapy could be considered.
Project description:Survival outcomes in extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES SCLC) are dismal, with median overall survival (OS) less than 12 months. The combination of PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) with first-line platinum-etoposide chemotherapy has been recently evaluated in randomized clinical trials. We performed a systematic literature review through PubMed and conference proceedings. Randomized trials evaluating chemotherapy +/- PD-1/PD-L1 ICIs were included in the meta-analysis. Efficacy (OS), activity [progression-free survival (PFS) and objective response rate (ORR)] outcomes and toxicities were analyzed. For selected endpoints, we focused on patients' subgroups (OS) and on landmark analyses (OS, PFS). Four randomized trials were identified; globally, 1553 patients were randomized to receive chemotherapy +/- PD-1/PD-L1 ICIs. Adding a PD-1/PD-L1 ICI to chemotherapy led to a significant benefit in OS [hazard ratio (HR) 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-0.85, p < 0.00001), PFS [HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.68-0.84, p < 0.00001] and ORR [odds ratio 1.28, 95% CI 1.04-1.57, p = 0.02]. No unexpected toxicity emerged. At 12, 18, 24 months for OS, and at 12, 18 months for PFS, experimental arms retained significant improvement in event-free rates, with absolute gain of approximately 10% compared with standard treatment. Albeit the magnitude of the benefit is less impacting compared to other settings of immunotherapy, the addition of PD-1/PD-L1 ICIs to chemotherapy in ES SCLC provided significant improvements in survival outcomes with the known toxicity profile. Biomarkers predicting which patients are suitable to derive long-term benefits are eagerly awaited.
Project description:Background The prognosis of patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is poor. Adding an immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) to chemotherapy may exert a synergistic effect and improve survival outcomes. However, for treatment-naive extensive-stage SCLC patients, the efficacy of immunotherapy in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy remains controversial. Objective To evaluate the benefits and risks of the combination of immunotherapy and chemotherapy and to assess the comparative effectiveness of different first-line treatment strategies for extensive-stage SCLC. Methods PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched for randomized clinical trials studying different immunotherapeutics for patients with previously untreated extensive-stage SCLC up to Feb 16, 2020. The primary outcomes were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), and the secondary outcomes were objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), and adverse events. Results We identified 141 published records, and 4 studies (comprising 2202 patients) were included in the analysis. Immunotherapy (including ipilimumab, atezolizumab, and durvalumab) plus chemotherapy was associated with better OS (hazard ratio (HR) 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75–0.93; risk ratio (RR) 0.90, 95% CI 0.81–1.00) and PFS (HR: 0.81, 95% CI 0.74–0.88; RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93–0.99) than placebo plus chemotherapy. The addition of immunotherapy to chemotherapy showed similar improvement in ORR, DCR, and adverse events versus placebo plus chemotherapy. On the surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) analysis, the anti-PD-L1 agent, atezolizumab, had the highest likelihood of achieving improved OS (93.4%) and PFS (95.0%). Conclusion In the first-line setting, combining immunotherapy with chemotherapy is better than standard chemotherapy in terms of OS and PFS. Across the eligible studies, PD-L1 inhibitors might be preferred. Further explorations of more ICIs in the first-line treatment for extensive-stage SCLC patients should be needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:High tumor mutational burden (TMB-H) is correlated with enhanced objective response rate (ORR) and progression-free survival (PFS) for certain cancers receiving immunotherapy. This study aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of toripalimab, a humanized programmed death-1 (PD-1) antibody, in advanced gastric cancer (AGC), and the predictive survival benefit of TMB and PD-L1. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We reported on the AGC cohort of phase Ib/II trial evaluating the safety and activity of toripalimab in patients with AGC, oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In cohort 1, 58 chemo-refractory AGC patients received toripalimab (3?mg/kg d1, Q2W) as a monotherapy. In cohort 2, 18 chemotherapy-naive AGC patients received toripalimab (360?mg d1, Q3W) with oxaliplatin 130?mg/m2 qd, d1, capecitabine 1000?mg/m2 b.i.d., d1-d14, Q3W as first-line treatment. Primary end point was ORR. Biomarkers such as PD-L1 and TMB were evaluated for correlation with clinical efficacy. RESULTS:In cohort 1, the ORR was 12.1% and the disease control rate (DCR) was 39.7%. Median PFS was 1.9?months and median OS was 4.8?months. The TMB-H group showed significant superior OS than the TMB-L group [14.6 versus 4.0?months, HR?=?0.48 (96% CI 0.24-0.96), P?=?0.038], while PD-L1 overexpression did not correlate with significant survival benefit. A 77.6% of patients experienced at least one treatment-related adverse event (TRAE), and 22.4% of patients experienced a grade 3 or higher TRAE. In cohort 2, the ORR was 66.7% and the DCR was 88.9%. A 94.4% of patients experienced at least one TRAE and 38.9% of patients experienced grade 3 or higher TRAEs. CONCLUSIONS:Toripalimab has demonstrated a manageable safety profile and promising antitumor activity in AGC patients, especially in combination with XELOX. High TMB may be a predictive marker for OS of AGC patients receiving toripalimab as a single agent. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02915432.
Project description:The value of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) combination therapy for patients with lung cancer remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis using PubMed, Embase, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases to identify eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that might provide a reference for clinical practice. The selection criteria were defined according to the population, intervention, comparison, outcome and study design (PICOS) framework. In all, 12 RCTs with 5,989 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Our results showed that ICI combination therapy was significantly associated with the improvement of overall response rate (ORR) (RR =1.44 [95% CI 1.19, 1.74], P=0.0002), progression-free survival (PFS) (HR =0.67 [95% CI 0.59, 0.77], P<0.00001), and OS (HR =0.81 [95% CI 0.70, 0.95], P=0.008) in lung cancer. In subgroup analyses, combination ICI therapy significantly prolonged OS in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients (HR =0.80 [95% CI 0.73, 0.88], P<0.00001) but not in SCLC (HR =0.94 [95% CI 0.82, 1.08], P=0.40) patients. Data suggested that PD-1 inhibitors had higher efficacy and safety profiles than PD-L1 and CTLA-4 inhibitors in combination ICI therapy for lung cancer patients. Furthermore, tolerability analysis revealed higher incidences of grade ?3 AEs, fatigue, and increased transaminases from combination ICI therapy. In conclusion, our meta-analysis indicated that combination ICI therapy should be considered in clinical practice and future study designs for NSCLC patients. However, the current data do not support the large-scale clinical application of combination ICI therapy in SCLC patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sintilimab blocks the interaction between programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligands. The safety and efficacy of sintilimab combined with oxaliplatin/capecitabine (CapeOx) as first-line treatment were evaluated in patients with gastric (G)/gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma in a phase Ib clinical trial. METHODS:Patients with locally advanced or metastatic G/GEJ adenocarcinoma without previous systemic treatment were enrolled as one cohort of a multi-cohort study. Sintilimab was administered at a dose of 200?mg intravenously (IV) in combination with CapeOx (1000?mg/m2 capecitabine orally, bid, D1-14 and 130?mg/m2 oxaliplatin IV, D1) every 21?days for up to 6?cycles. After combination treatment, patients continued to receive sintilimab (200?mg) at 3 weekly intervals as maintenance therapy until progressive disease (PD), unacceptable toxicity, withdrawal of informed consent, or for up to 24?months. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored to assess safety in terms of their frequency, intensity and causality. The efficacy endpoints included the objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Tumor mutation burden (TMB) was evaluated for its association with clinical response. RESULTS:A total of 20 patients were enrolled and received sintilimab plus CapeOx. All patients reported treatment-related AEs (TRAEs). Grade 3-4 TRAEs were found in 11 (55.0%) patients. Seventeen patients obtained partial response and the ORR was 85.0% (95% CI: 62.1-96.8%). Three (15.0%) had stable disease and DCR was 100.0% (95% CI: 83.2-100.0%). As data cutoff of May 1, 2019, the median follow-up was 7.8?months. The median PFS was 7.5?months (95% CI: 6.2-9.4) and median OS had not been reached. The OS rates at 6?months and 12?months were 100.0 and 68.0%. No association was observed between TMB and efficacy. CONCLUSIONS:Sintilimab combined with CapeOx as first-line treatment demonstrated acceptable safety and promising efficacy. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02937116 . Registered 8 October 2016.
Project description:Brain metastases are one of the leading causes of death from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The use of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) to treat brain metastases remains controversial. Thus, we performed a pooled analysis of published data to evaluate the efficacy of EGFR-TKIs in NSCLC patients with brain metastases, particularly for tumors with activating EGFR mutations.Several data sources were searched, including PubMed, Web of Science, and ASCO Annual Meetings databases. The end points were intracranial overall response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and adverse events. The pooled ORR, DCR, PFS, and OS with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated employing fixed- or random-effect models, depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies.Sixteen published studies were included in this analysis, with a total of 464 enrolled patients. The EGFR mutational status was unknown for 362 (unselected group), and 102 had activating EGFR mutations. The pooled intracranial ORR and DCR were 51.8% (95% CI: 45.8%-57.8%) and 75.7% (95% CI: 70.3%-80.5%), respectively. A higher ORR was observed in the EGFR mutation group than in the unselected group (85.0% vs 45.1%); a similar trend was observed for the DCR (94.6% vs 71.3%). The pooled median PFS and OS were 7.4 months (95% CI, 4.9-9.9) and 11.9 months (95% CI, 7.7-16.2), respectively, with longer PFS (12.3 months vs 5.9 months) and OS (16.2 months vs 10.3 months) in the EGFR mutation group than in the unselected group.This pooled analysis strongly suggests that EGFR-TKIs are an effective treatment for NSCLC patients with brain metastases, particularly in those patients harboring EGFR mutations. Larger prospective randomized clinical trials are warranted to confirm our conclusion and identify the most appropriate treatment model.
Project description:PURPOSE:This study aimed to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of dendritic cells-cytokine-induced killer (DC-CIK) cells immunotherapy in treating pancreatic cancer (PC) patients. METHODS:Data were collected from published articles of clinical trials. Databases including Web of Science, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Wanfang, and CNKI were searched. The main outcome measures in this research included the overall response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), patients' quality of life (QoL), immune function, and adverse events. Comparative analysis was conducted between DC-CIK immunotherapy and chemotherapy (combined therapy) and chemotherapy alone. RESULTS:This analysis covered 14 trials with 1,088 PC patients involved. The combined therapy showed advantages over chemotherapy alone in ORR (odds ratio [OR] =1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.20-2.38, P=0.003), DCR (OR =2.33, 95% CI =1.63-3.33, P<0.00001), OS (1-year OS, OR =3.61, 95% CI =2.41-5.40, P<0.00001; 3-year OS, OR =2.65, 95% CI =1.56-4.50, P=0.0003) and patients' QoL (P<0.01) with statistical significance. After immunotherapy, lymphocyte subsets' percentages of CD3+ (P<0.00001), CD4+ (P=0.01), CD3+CD56+ (P<0.00001), and cytokine levels of IFN-? (P<0.00001) were significantly increased, and the percentages of CD4+CD25+CD127low (P<0.00001) and levels of IL-4 (P<0.0001) were significantly decreased, whereas analysis on CD8+ (P=0.59) and CD4+/CD8+ ratio (P=0.64) did not show a significant difference. CONCLUSION:The combination of DC-CIK immunotherapy and chemotherapy is effective for PC treatment, indicated by prolonging the PC patients' survival time, which benefit from reconstructed immune function of patients.