Moistube irrigation (MTI) discharge under variable evaporative demand.
ABSTRACT: We investigated the conceptual capability of Moistube irrigation (MTI) to discharge under zero applied positive pressure and under varied climatic conditions by inducing an artificial evaporative demand (Ed) or negative pressure around Moistube tubing. This study was premised on the null hypothesis that an artificially induced Ed or negative pressure does not impact MTI discharge. Moistube tubing was enclosed in a 1 m long PVC conduit. A 20 l water reservoir placed on an electronic balance provided a continuous supply of water whilst a three-speed hot air blower facilitated the radiative factor and advection process. The procedure was conducted under varied climatic conditions with three air velocity (ua) treatments namely; 1.2 m.s-1, 2.5 m.s-1, and 3.0 m.s-1 and the experiment run times were 159 h, 134 h and 10 h, respectively. The average temperature (Tave) and relative humidity (RH) data for ua = 1.2 m.s-1 were 53°C and 7.31%, whilst for ua = 2.5 m.s-1, Tave was 56°C and RH = 7.19%, and for ua = 3.0 m.s-1, Tave was 63°C and RH = 6.16%. The experimental data was input into the four variable Penman-Monteith method to compute the evaporative demand (Ed). For each Ed, the instantaneous mass flow rate ([Formula: see text]) was recorded using an electronic balance and subsequently converted to volumetric flow rates. For each of the air velocities, the respective Ed values obtained were 0.16, 0.31 and 0.36 mm.d-1. The Bowen ratios (r) were well below 1 (r < 1), which suggested a sufficient supply of moisture to evaporate. For Ed = 0.16 mm.d-1 the vapour pressure deficit (VPD) was 113.08 mbars, whilst for Ed = 0.31 mm.d-1 and for Ed = 0.36 mm.d-1 the VPD were 129.93 mbars and 150.14 mbars, respectively. The recorded discharges (q) at normalised time (t*) = 1 h for Ed = 0.16 mm.d-1 was 7.67*10-3 l.hr-1.m-1 length, whilst for Ed = 0.31 mm.d-1 q = 14.5*10-3 l.hr-1.m-1 length, and for Ed = 0.36 mm.d-1 q = 20.8*10-3 l.hr-1.m-1 length. The imposed negative pressure causes an exponential increase in Moistube™ discharge, thus disproving the null hypothesis. The higher the evaporative demand the higher the discharge. This phenomenon allows MTI to be used for deficit irrigation purposes and allows irrigators to capitalize on realistic soil matric potential irrigation scheduling approach.
Project description:The role that serum uric acid (UA) plays in the pathophysiological development of erectile dysfunction (ED) is controversial. We aimed to screen the factors related with ED, and to examine the association between serum UA and ED. Our data were derived from a cross-sectional Survey on Prevalence in East China for Metabolic Diseases and Risk Factors study in 2014-2015. Questionnaire of International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-5 was used for assessment of ED. Data were collected in three general communities respectively. A total of 1365 men were enrolled with an overall mean age 55.5?±?10.8 years (range: 20-83 years). The prevalence of ED was 62.4% (51.4% standardized) in the population. Males with ED were older, and more prone to have a higher follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin, glycated hemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose levels and lower free androgen index (FAI), UA levels, and more likely to have diabetes and elevated blood pressure compared with those without ED. Age and UA were independent influencing factors for ED. Besides, UA was positively correlated with FAI after adjustment for age. In conclusion, our study demonstrated the protective role that UA might play in development of ED.
Project description:Although atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) has been widely recognized as the evaporative driving force for water transport, the potential to reduce plant water consumption and improve water productivity by regulating VPD is highly uncertain. To bridge this gap, water transport in combination with plant productivity was examined in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants grown under contrasting VPD gradients. The driving force for water transport was substantially reduced in low-VPD treatment, which consequently decreased water loss rate and moderated plant water stress: leaf desiccation, hydraulic limitation and excessive negative water potential were prevented by maintaining water balance. Alleviation in water stress by reducing VPD sustained stomatal function and photosynthesis, with concomitant improvements in biomass and fruit production. From physiological perspectives, suppression of the driving force and water flow rate substantially reduced cumulative transpiration by 19.9%. In accordance with physiological principles, irrigation water use efficiency as criterions of biomass and fruit yield in low-VPD treatment was significantly increased by 36.8% and 39.1%, respectively. The reduction in irrigation was counterbalanced by input of fogging water to some extent. Net water saving can be increased by enabling greater planting densities and improving the evaporative efficiency of the mechanical system.
Project description:The emergency department (ED) is an inherently high-risk setting. Our objective is to identify the factors associated with the combined poor outcome of either death or an ICU admission shortly after ED discharge in older adults.We conducted chart review of 600 ED visit records among adults older than 65 years that resulted in discharge from any of 13 hospitals within an integrated health system in 2009 to 2010. We randomly chose 300 patients who experienced the combined outcome within 7 days of discharge and matched case patients to controls who did not experience the outcome. Two emergency physicians blinded to the outcome reviewed the records and identified whether a number of characteristics were present. Predictors of the outcome were identified with conditional logistic regression.Of 1,442,594 ED visits to Kaiser Permanente Southern California in 2009 to 2010, 300 unique cases and 300 unique control records were randomly abstracted. Characteristics associated with the combined poor outcome included cognitive impairment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19 to 3.56), disposition plan change (AOR 2.71; 95% CI 1.50 to 4.89), systolic blood pressure less than 120 mm Hg (AOR 1.48; 95% CI 1.00 to 2.20), and pulse rate greater than 90 beats/min (AOR 1.66; 95% CI 1.02 to 2.71).We found that older patients discharged from the ED with a change in disposition from "admit" to "discharge," cognitive impairment, systolic blood pressure less than 120 mm Hg, and pulse rate greater than 90 beats/min were at increased risk of death or ICU admission shortly after discharge. Increased awareness of these high-risk characteristics may improve ED disposition decisionmaking.
Project description:Insufficient water resources restrict wheat production in the North China Plain, so it is urgent and essential to improve the border irrigation performance and water use efficiency. This study developed a predesigned varied-discharge irrigation scheme in the closed-ended border. Field treatments, including continuous-discharge (CD), increased-discharge (ID) and decreased-discharge (DD) border irrigation tests, were conducted to evaluate the irrigation performance of the proposed varied-discharge scheme. The DD border irrigation treatment had great application efficiency (AE), distribution uniformity (DU) and requirement efficiency (RE), and its comprehensive evaluation indicator (Y) was also significantly higher than other treatments. DD treatment achieved the average AE, DU, RE and Y values of 91.4%, 95.5%, 99.5% and 95.4%, respectively. Furthermore, the hydraulic simulation model WinSRFR was used to optimize the scheme of predesigned varied-discharge border irrigation, and sensitivity analyses of infiltration parameters, roughness coefficient, slope and inflow rate were carried out. The results indicate that the predesigned varied-discharge border irrigation scheme can improve the irrigation performance, and the DD border irrigation scheme has more satisfactory robustness than that of the ID border irrigation scheme.
Project description:Persistently elevated blood pressure (BP) is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease development, making effective hypertension management an issue of considerable public health importance. Hypertension is particularly prominent among African Americans, who have higher disease prevalence and consistently lower BP control than Whites and Hispanics. Emergency departments (ED) have limited resources for chronic disease management, especially for under-served patients dependent upon the ED for primary care, and are not equipped to conduct follow-up. Kiosk-based patient education has been found to be effective in primary care settings, but little research has been done on the effectiveness of interactive patient education modules as ED enhanced discharge for an under-served urban minority population.Achieving Blood Pressure Control Through Enhanced Discharge (AchieveBP) is a behavioral RCT patient education intervention for patients with a history of hypertension who have uncontrolled BP at ED discharge. The project will recruit up to 200 eligible participants at the ED, primarily African-American, who will be asked to return to a nearby clinical research center for seven, thirty and ninety day visits, with a 180 day follow-up. Consenting participants will be randomized to either an attention-control or kiosk-based interactive patient education intervention. To control for potential medication effects, all participants will be prescribed similar, evidenced-based anti-hypertensive regimens and have their prescription filled onsite at the ED and during visits to the clinic. The primary target endpoint will be success in achieving BP control assessed at 180 days follow-up post-ED discharge. The secondary aim will be to assess the relationship between patient activation and self-care management.The AchieveBP trial will determine whether using interactive patient education delivered through health information technology as ED enhanced discharge with subsequent education sessions at a clinic is an effective strategy for achieving short-term patient management of BP. The project is innovative in that it uses the ED as an initial point of service for kiosk-based health education designed to increase BP self-management. It is anticipated findings from this translational research could also be used as a resource for patient education and follow-up with hypertensive patients in primary care settings.ClinicalTrials.gov.NCT02069015. Registered February 19, 2014.
Project description:The Marangoni contraction of sessile drops of a binary mixture of a volatile and a nonvolatile liquid has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. The origin of the contraction is the locally inhomogeneous evaporation rate of sessile drops. This leads to surface tension gradients and thus to a Marangoni flow. Simulations show that the interplay of Marangoni flow, capillary flow, diffusive transport, and evaporative losses can establish a quasistationary drop profile with an apparent nonzero contact angle even if both liquid components individually wet the substrate completely. Experiments with different solvents, initial mass fractions, and gaseous environments reveal a previously unknown universal power-law relation between the apparent contact angle and the relative undersaturation of the ambient atmosphere: ?<sub>app</sub> ? (RH<sub>eq</sub> - RH)<sup>1/3</sup>. This experimentally observed power law is in quantitative agreement with simulation results. The exponent can also be inferred from a scaling analysis of the hydrodynamic-evaporative evolution equations of a binary mixture of liquids with different volatilities.
Project description:Aerosol-cloud interaction contributes to the largest uncertainties in the estimation and interpretation of the Earth's changing energy budget. The present study explores experimentally the impacts of water condensation-evaporation events, mimicking processes occurring in atmospheric clouds, on the molecular composition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the photooxidation of methacrolein. A range of on- and off-line mass spectrometry techniques were used to obtain a detailed chemical characterization of SOA formed in control experiments in dry conditions, in triphasic experiments simulating gas-particle-cloud droplet interactions (starting from dry conditions and from 60% relative humidity (RH)), and in bulk aqueous-phase experiments. We observed that cloud events trigger fast SOA formation accompanied by evaporative losses. These evaporative losses decreased SOA concentration in the simulation chamber by 25-32% upon RH increase, while aqueous SOA was found to be metastable and slowly evaporated after cloud dissipation. In the simulation chamber, SOA composition measured with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, did not change during cloud events compared with high RH conditions (RH > 80%). In all experiments, off-line mass spectrometry techniques emphasize the critical role of 2-methylglyceric acid as a major product of isoprene chemistry, as an important contributor to the total SOA mass (15-20%) and as a key building block of oligomers found in the particulate phase. Interestingly, the comparison between the series of oligomers obtained from experiments performed under different conditions show a markedly different reactivity. In particular, long reaction times at high RH seem to create the conditions for aqueous-phase processing to occur in a more efficient manner than during two relatively short cloud events.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Asthma is a chronic disease affecting 30 million people in Europe under 45y. Poor control of Asthma is the main cause of emergency-department (ED) access, becoming the strongest determinant of the economic burden of asthma management. OBJECTIVE:To examine the characteristics of adult patients admitted to ED for acute asthma attack, focusing on previous diagnosis of asthma (DA) and current therapy. METHODS:During a one-year period, a structured questionnaire, assessing asthma diagnosis and management, was administered to all patients admitted for asthma attack, to the ED of a South-Italy town. Only patients with subsequently confirmed asthma were enrolled. The data on oxygen saturation (Sat.O2), heart and respiratory-rate, severity code ED-admission, hospitalization or discharge, had been obtained. RESULTS:Two hundred one patients (mean 50.3ys), were enrolled. One hundred eighteen had a DA, made 17.5 ± 5.88 years before, and 35.6% had a specialist-examination in the last year. 53.3% of DA-patients used a self-medication before ED access with short-acting-beta-2-agonist and oral-corticosteroids, although none had a written-asthma-action-plan (WAAP). Almost all DA-patients were on regular therapy: inhaled-corticosteroids (ICS) in 61%, associated with LABA in 85%. 16.7% of DA-patients had previous DA-access. The overall hospitalization-rate was 39%, higher in DA compared to unknown asthmatic patients (UA)(p = 0.017). Significant risk factors for hospitalization were Sat-O2 ≤ 94% breathing ambient air (OR9.91, p < 0.001), inability-to-complete a sentence (OR9.42,p < 0.001) and the age (OR1.02,p = 0.049). CONCLUSION:Despite the asthma guidelines-recommendation, up to 40% of patients received the asthma diagnosis in ED, only 61% of DA-patients were taking ICS. It is disappointing that DA-patients did not have a WAAP, which could explain the poor patient-self-medication at ED admission.
Project description:Many cities globally are seeking strategies to counter the consequences of both a hotter and drier climate. While urban heat mitigation strategies have been shown to have beneficial effects on health, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions, their implications for water conservation have not been widely examined. Here we use a suite of satellite-supported regional climate simulations in California to show that broad implementation of cool roofs, a heat mitigation strategy, not only results in significant cooling, but can also meaningfully decrease outdoor water consumption by reducing evaporative and irrigation water demands. Irrigation water consumption across the major metropolitan areas is reduced by up to 9% and irrigation water savings per capita range from 1.8 to 15.4 gallons per day across 18 counties examined. Total water savings are found to be the highest in Los Angeles county, reaching about 83 million gallons per day. Cool roofs are a valuable solution for addressing the adaptation and mitigation challenges faced by multiple sectors in California.
Project description:High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) is a widely used biomarker to identify ischemic chest pain in the Emergency Department (ED), but the clinical impact on emergency coronary artery bypass grafting (eCABG) remains undetermined. We aimed to evaluate the clinical impact of hs-cTnI measured at the ED by comparing outcomes of eCABG in patients with non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) which comprises unstable angina (UA) and non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). From January 2012 to March 2016, 242 patients undergoing eCABG were grouped according to serum hs-cTnI level in the ED. The primary endpoint was major cardiovascular cerebral event (MACCE) defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization, and stroke. The incidence of each MACCE composite, in addition to postoperative complications such as acute kidney injury, reoperation, atrial fibrillation, and hospital stay duration were also compared. Patients were divided into two groups: UA [<0.04?ng/mL, n?=?102] and NSTEMI [?0.04?ng/mL, n?=?140]. The incidence of MACCE did not differ between the two groups. Postoperative acute kidney injury was more frequent in the NSTEMI group after adjusting for confounding factors (6.9% vs. 23.6%; odds ratio, 2.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-6.99; p-value?=?0.032). In-hospital stay was also longer in the NSTEMI group (9.0 days vs. 15.4 days, p-value?=?0.008). ECABG for UA and NSTEMI patients showed comparable outcomes, but hs-cTnI elevation at the ED may be associated with immediate postoperative complications.