9,10-Anthraquinones Disubstituted with Linear Alkoxy Groups: Spectroscopy, Electrochemistry, and Peculiarities of Their 2D and 3D Supramolecular Organizations.
ABSTRACT: Spectroscopic, electrochemical, and structural properties of 2,6-dialkoxy-9,10-anthraquinones (Anth-OCn, n = 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12) of increasing alkoxy substituents length were investigated. UV-vis spectroscopy showed a substitution-induced bathochromic shift of the least energetic band from 325 nm in the case of unsubstituted anthraquinone to ca. 350 nm for the studied derivatives. Similarly as unsubstituted anthraquinone, the studied compound showed two reversible one electron reductions to a radical anion and spinless anions, respectively. The first reduction was affected by electron-donating properties of the substituents, its potential being shifted to ca. -1.5 V (vs Fc/Fc+), i.e., by 80 to 95 mV as compared to the case of unsubstituted anthraquinone. This corresponded to a decrease of |EA| from 3.27 to 3.19-3.17 eV. The experimental spectroscopic and electrochemical data were in full agreement with the DFT calculations. The introduction of the alkoxy substituent improved solution processibility of the studied compounds and facilitated the formation of their ordered supramolecular 2D aggregation on HOPG as well as single crystal growth from solutions. Comparative structural investigations carried out on single crystals and monolayers deposited on HOPG revealed two, mutually related, effects of the substituent length on the resulting supramolecular organization. The first one concerns both the 2D organization in the monolayers and 3D molecular arrangement in crystals: increasing substituent length evolution of the structure occurs from herringbone-type to lamellar. The second effect, observed in monolayers of the derivatives with longer substituents, concerns gradual evolution of their lamellar structures with increasing substituent length. This evolution is induced by the structure of the graphite substrate and involves increasing correlation of the molecules orientation (anthraquinone cores as well as alkoxy substituents) with the symmetry of the graphite substrate. As a result, their 2D and 3D structures become dissimilar.
Project description:Assembled structures of dyes have great influence on their coloring function. For example, metal ions added in the dyeing process are known to prevent fading of color. Thus, we have investigated the influence of an addition of copper(II) ion on the surface structure of alkyl-derivatized indigo. Scanning tunneling microscope (STM) analysis revealed that the copper(II) complexes of indigo formed orderly lamellar structures on a HOPG substrate. These lamellar structures of the complexes are found to be more stable than those of alkyl-derivatized indigos alone. Furthermore, 2D chirality was observed.
Project description:The effect of the chain length of the alkyl and alkoxy substituents on the binding characteristics of 1-alkyl-6-alkoxy-quinolinium cations was studied using 4-sulfonatocalixarene (SCX4) and 4-sulfonatocalixarene (SCX6) in neutral aqueous solutions at 298 K. Isothermal calorimetric titrations showed enthalpy-controlled inclusion with 1:1 stoichiometry. The equilibrium constants of complexation were always larger for the confinement in SCX4 than in its SCX6 homologue because the better matching between the host and guest sizes allowed more exothermic interaction. The binding affinity diminished with the lengthening of the aliphatic chain of the guests in the case of the association with SCX4, but insignificant change was found for SCX6 complexes. The most substantial change in the enthalpic and entropic contributions to the driving force of complex production occurred when the alkyl chain was linked to the heterocyclic nitrogen and the number of its carbon atoms varied between 1 and 4. 1H NMR spectra evidenced that in SCX6, the 1-alkyl-6-alkoxy-quinolinium cations could be included within the macrocycle cavity. In the case of SCX4, the quinolinium ring is always inside the host, but the alkyl chain is included within SCX4 only for a short chain length (n up to 4). In contrast, the alkoxy chain displays a very weak interaction with the cavity irrespective of the length. Because of the outward orientation from the host, the lengthening of the alkoxy substituent of the quinolinium moiety barely influenced the thermodynamics of inclusion in SCX4. Distinct linear enthalpy-entropy correlations were found for the encapsulation in SCX4 and SCX6.
Project description:The comparison of experimental and predicted kinetic isotope effects in the ?-cleavage of alkoxy radicals is used here to judge the applicability of statistical rate theories. It is found that the governing rate theory and the statistical versus nonstatistical nature of the cleavage depend on the cleavage barrier and how much energy is imparted to the radical. The latter can then be controlled by changing the size of substituents in the system. With a large alkyl group substituent, the vibrational energy of the alkoxy radical is increased, but this energy is not statistically distributed, leading to a lower isotope effect than predicted by statistical theories. The observed isotope effect can be approximately rationalized using a semistatistical localized RRKM model.
Project description:We report two families of naphthalenediimides (NDIs) symmetrically functionalized with discrete carbon chains comprising up to 55 carbon atoms (Cn-NDI-Cn, n = 39, 44, 50, and 55) and their self-assembly at the 1-phenyloctane/highly oriented pyrolytic graphite interface (1-PO/HOPG interface). The compounds differ by the presence or absence of two or three internal double bonds in the carbon chains (unsaturated and saturated Cn-NDI-Cn, respectively). Combinatorial distributions of geometrical isomers displaying either the E- or Z-configuration at each double bond are obtained for the unsaturated compounds. Analysis of the self-assembled monolayers of equally long unsaturated and saturated Cn-NDI-Cn by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) reveal that all Cn-NDI-Cn tend to form lamellar systems featuring alternating areas of aromatic cores and carbon chains. Extended chain lengths are found to significantly increase disorder in the self-assembled monolayers due to misalignments and enhanced strength of interchain interactions. This phenomenon is antagonized by the local order-inducing effect of the internal double bonds: unsaturated Cn-NDI-Cn give qualitatively more ordered self-assembled monolayers compared to their saturated counterparts. The use of combinatorial distributions of unsaturated Cn-NDI-Cn geometrical isomers does not represent a limitation to achieve local order in the self-assembled monolayers. The self-assembly process operates a combinatorial search and selects the geometrical isomer(s) affording the most thermodynamically stable pattern, highlighting the adaptive character of the system. Finally, the antagonistic interplay between the extended carbon chain lengths and the presence of internal double bonds brings to the discovery of the lamellar "phase C" morphology for unsaturated Cn-NDI-Cn with n ? 50.
Project description:We report STM investigations on a linear oligophenyleneethylene (OPE)-based self-assembling Pd(ii) complex 1 that forms highly-ordered concentration dependent patterns on HOPG. At high concentration, 2D lamellar structures are observed whereas the dilution of the system below a critical concentration leads to the formation of visually attractive rhombitrihexagonal Archimedean tiling arrangements featuring three different kinds of polygons: triangles, hexagons and rhombi. The key participation of the Cl ligands attached to the Pd(ii) centre in multiple C-H···Cl interactions was demonstrated by comparing the patterns of 1 with those of an analogous non-metallic system 2.
Project description:This study was focused on the estimation of the targeted modification of 1,4-DHP core with (1) different alkyl chain lengths at 3,5-ester moieties of 1,4-DHP (C<sub>12</sub>, C<sub>14</sub> and C<sub>16</sub>); (2) N-substituent at position 1 of 1,4-DHP (N-H or N-CH<sub>3</sub>); (3) substituents of pyridinium moieties at positions 2 and 6 of 1,4-DHP (H, 4-CN and 3-Ph); (4) substituent at position 4 of 1,4-DHP (phenyl and napthyl) on physicochemical properties of the entire molecules and on the characteristics of the obtained magnetoliposomes formed by them. It was shown that thermal behavior of the tested 1,4-DHP amphiphiles was related to the alkyl chains length, the elongation of which decreased their transition temperatures. The properties of 1,4-DHP amphiphile monolayers and their polar head areas were determined. The packing parameters of amphiphiles were in the 0.43-0.55 range. It was demonstrated that the structure of 1,4-DHPs affected the physicochemical properties of compounds. "Empty" liposomes and magnetoliposomes were prepared from selected 1,4-DHP amphiphiles. It was shown that the variation of alkyl chains length or the change of substituents at positions 4 of 1,4-DHP did not show a significant influence on properties of liposomes.
Project description:An efficient synthesis of tetrabenzo[<i>a</i>,<i>d</i>,<i>j</i>,<i>m</i>]coronene derivatives having alkyl and alkoxy substituents at the 3, 6, 13, and 16-positions was achieved based on the ruthenium-catalyzed coupling reactions of anthraquinone derivatives with arylboronates via C-H and C-O bond cleavage. The reaction sequence involving the arylation, carbonyl methylenation, and oxidative cyclization effectively provided various tetrabenzo[<i>a</i>,<i>d</i>,<i>j</i>,<i>m</i>]coronenes in short steps from readily available starting materials. Tetrabenzo[<i>a</i>,<i>d</i>,<i>j</i>,<i>m</i>]coronenes possessing two different types of substituents were obtained selectively by sequential chemoselective C-O arylation and C-H arylation. The <sup>1</sup>H NMR spectra of the tetrabenzo[<i>a</i>,<i>d</i>,<i>j</i>,<i>m</i>]coronene product indicated its self-assembling behavior in CDCl<sub>3</sub>.
Project description:Self-assembled monolayers of a ?-expanded oligothiophene macrocycle undergo photoisomerization between their Z,Z and E,E diastereomers at the interface between octanoic acid solutions and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). The switching process proceeds in?situ at the solid-liquid interface and was followed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Upon illumination with light at 365?nm (546?nm), a monolayer of Z,Z-8mer (E,E-8mer) photoisomerizes to the E,E-8mer (Z,Z-8mer) form with changes in 2D hexagonal packing. These findings provide insight towards the design of photoresponsive surfaces with desirable optoelectronic and structural (host-guest) properties.
Project description:Halogen bonding has emerged as a promising tool in two-dimensional (2D) crystal engineering. Since halogen bonds are similar to hydrogen bonds in a number of aspects, the existing knowledge of hydrogen bonded systems can be applied to halogenated systems. Here we evaluate the applicability of a retrosynthetic approach based on topological similarity between hydrogen and halogen bonds to obtain predictable halogen bonded networks. The self-assembly of 1,3-dibromo-5-alkoxybenzene derivatives was studied in analogy with well-explored alkoxy isophthalic acids using a combination of experimental and theoretical tools. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) characterization of the networks formed at the liquid-graphite interface revealed that while the retrosynthetic approach works at the level of small clusters of molecules within the 2D network, the overall structure of the network deviates from the anticipated structure. The monolayers consist of fractured rows of halogen-bonded modules instead of the expected continuous lamellar structure. Each module consists of a discrete number of halogen-bonded molecules. The interactions responsible for the stabilization of halogen bonded dimers are delineated through detailed density functional theory (DFT) calculations coupled with natural bonding orbitals (NBO) and perturbation analysis. A modified force field that includes an extra charged site to imitate the ? hole on the halogen atom was developed and applied to extract total potential energies of the anticipated and observed networks. Plausible reasons for the deviation from the anticipated structure are discussed. Finally, a modified molecular design that allows successful application of the hydrogen bond-halogen bond analogy was tested experimentally.
Project description:The prevailing views of substituent effects in the sandwich configuration of the benzene dimer are flawed. For example, in the polar/pi model of Cozzi and co-workers (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1992, 114, 5729), electron-withdrawing substituents enhance binding in the benzene dimer by withdrawing electron density from the pi-cloud of the substituted ring, reducing the repulsive electrostatic interaction with the nonsubstituted benzene. Conversely, electron-donating substituents donate excess electrons into the pi-system and diminish the pi-stacking interaction. We present computed interaction energies for the sandwich configuration of the benzene dimer and 24 substituted dimers, as well as sandwich complexes of substituted benzenes with perfluorobenzene. While the computed interaction energies correlate well with sigmam values for the substituents, interaction energies for related model systems demonstrate that this trend is independent of the substituted ring. Instead, the observed trends are consistent with direct electrostatic and dispersive interactions of the substituents with the unsubstituted ring.