Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists liraglutide and semaglutide on cardiovascular and renal outcomes across body mass index categories in type 2 diabetes: Results of the LEADER and SUSTAIN 6 trials.
ABSTRACT: Associations between body mass index (BMI) and the cardiovascular (CV) and kidney efficacy of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are uncertain; therefore, data analysed separately from the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results (LEADER) trial and the Trial to Evaluate Cardiovascular and Other Long-term Outcomes with Semaglutide in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes (SUSTAIN 6) were examined. These international, randomized, placebo-controlled trials investigated liraglutide and semaglutide (both subcutaneous) in patients with T2D and at high risk of CV events. In post hoc analyses, patients were categorized by baseline BMI (<25, ?25-<30, ?30-<35 and ?35?kg/m2 ), and CV and kidney outcomes with GLP-1 RA versus placebo were analysed. All baseline BMI data from LEADER (n = 9331) and SUSTAIN 6 (n = 3290) were included (91% and 92% of patients with overweight or obesity, respectively). In SUSTAIN 6, nominally significant heterogeneity of semaglutide efficacy by baseline BMI was observed for CV death/myocardial infarction/stroke (major adverse CV events, primary outcome of both; Pinteraction =?.02); otherwise, there was no statistical heterogeneity for either GLP-1 RA versus placebo across BMI categories for key CV and kidney outcomes. The lack of statistical heterogeneity from these cardiorenal outcomes implies that liraglutide and semaglutide may be beneficial for many patients and is probable not to depend on their baseline BMI, but further study is needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog treatment for type 2 diabetes (T2D) available in subcutaneous (s.c.) and oral formulations. Two cardiovascular (CV) outcomes trials showed that in subjects with T2D at high risk of CV events there were fewer major adverse CV events (MACE; defined as CV death, non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction) with semaglutide than with placebo (hazard ratio [95% CI]: 0.74 [0.58;0.95] for once-weekly s.c. semaglutide and 0.79 [0.57;1.11] for once-daily oral semaglutide). However, there is little evidence for an effect of semaglutide on MACE in subjects not at high risk of CV events. This post hoc analysis examined CV effects of semaglutide in subjects across a continuum of baseline CV risk. METHODS:Data from the s.c. (SUSTAIN) and oral (PIONEER) semaglutide phase 3a clinical trial programs were combined according to randomized treatment (semaglutide or comparators) and analyzed to assess time to first MACE and its individual components. A CV risk model was developed with independent data from the LEADER trial (liraglutide vs placebo), considering baseline variables common to all datasets. Semaglutide data were analyzed to assess effects of treatment as a function of CV risk predicted using the CV risk prediction model. RESULTS:The CV risk prediction model performed satisfactorily when applied to the semaglutide data set (area under the curve: 0.77). There was a reduced relative and absolute risk of MACE for semaglutide vs comparators across the entire continuum of CV risk. While the relative risk reduction tended to be largest with low CV risk score, the largest absolute risk reduction was for intermediate to high CV risk score. Similar results were seen for relative risk reduction of the individual MACE components and also when only placebo comparator data were included. CONCLUSION:Semaglutide reduced the risk of MACE vs comparators across the continuum of baseline CV risk in a broad T2D population. Trial registrations ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT02054897, NCT01930188, NCT01885208, NCT02128932, NCT02305381, NCT01720446, NCT02207374, NCT02254291, NCT02906930, NCT02863328, NCT02607865, NCT02863419, NCT02827708, NCT02692716, NCT02849080, NCT03021187, NCT03018028, NCT03015220.
Project description:The randomized, double-blind, cardiovascular outcomes trials LEADER (NCT01179048) and SUSTAIN 6 (NCT01720446) showed cardiovascular risk reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with liraglutide and semaglutide, respectively, compared with placebo. This post hoc analysis examined the impact of microvascular disease at baseline on cardiovascular outcomes in these trials, and the efficacy of liraglutide (1.8 mg) and once-weekly semaglutide (0.5-1.0 mg) in patients with and without microvascular disease. In total, 9340 patients from LEADER and 3297 patients from SUSTAIN 6 were included in this analysis; of these, 5761 and 2356 had a history of microvascular disease at baseline and 3835 and 1640 had a history of both microvascular and macrovascular disease, respectively. Patients with microvascular disease were shown to have an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events compared with patients without microvascular disease (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] in LEADER: 1.15 [1.03; 1.29], P =?.0136; SUSTAIN 6: 1.56 [1.14; 2.17], P =?.0064). Liraglutide and semaglutide consistently reduced cardiovascular risk in patients with and without microvascular disease.
Project description:It is unknown if the cardioprotective and renal effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists are consistent across blood pressure (BP) categories in patients with type 2 diabetes and at high risk of cardiovascular events. Using data from the LEADER (9340 patients) and SUSTAIN 6 (3297 patients) trials, we evaluated post hoc the cardiorenal effect of liraglutide and semaglutide on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and nephropathy by baseline BP categories using a Cox proportional hazards model (treatment and subgroup as factors; adjusted for cardiorenal risk factors). Data from the two trials were analysed separately. In the LEADER and SUSTAIN 6 trials, the prevalence of stage 1 hypertension was 30% and 31%, respectively, and of stage 2 hypertension 41% and 43%, respectively. There was no statistical heterogeneity across the BP categories for the effects of liraglutide (P =?.06 for MACE; P =?.14 for nephropathy) or semaglutide (P =?.40 for MACE; P =?.27 for nephropathy) versus placebo. This implies that liraglutide and semaglutide may be beneficial for patients with type 2 diabetes, irrespective of their baseline BP.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Once-weekly semaglutide 1 mg is a novel glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes that has demonstrated significantly greater reductions in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and body weight than the GLP-1 RA once-daily liraglutide 1.2 mg in the SUSTAIN 10 trial. The present analysis aimed to evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness of once-weekly semaglutide 1 mg versus once-daily liraglutide 1.2 mg from a UK healthcare payer perspective. METHODS:Long-term outcomes were projected using the IQVIA CORE Diabetes Model (version 9.0), with baseline characteristics and treatment effects sourced from SUSTAIN 10. Patients were assumed to initiate treatment with GLP-1 RAs and continue treatment until HbA1c exceeded 7.5%, at which point GLP-1 RAs were discontinued and basal insulin was initiated. Pharmacy costs and costs of complications were measured in 2018 pounds sterling (GBP), with future costs and outcomes discounted at 3.5% per annum. Utilities were taken from published sources. RESULTS:In the base-case analysis, once-weekly semaglutide 1 mg was associated with an increase in discounted life expectancy of 0.21 years and discounted quality-adjusted life expectancy of 0.30 quality-adjusted life-years, compared with once-daily liraglutide 1.2 mg. Clinical benefits were achieved at reduced costs, with lifetime cost savings of GBP 140 per patient with semaglutide versus liraglutide, owing to a reduction in diabetes-related complications, in particular cardiovascular disease (mean cost saving of GBP 279 per patient). Therefore, once-weekly semaglutide 1 mg was dominant compared with once-daily liraglutide 1.2 mg. The results of the sensitivity analyses were similar, demonstrating the robustness of the base-case analysis. CONCLUSIONS:Once-weekly semaglutide 1 mg is a cost-effective treatment option versus once-daily liraglutide 1.2 mg, based on the SUSTAIN 10 trial, from a UK healthcare payer perspective.
Project description:Objective: To detail studies investigating the efficacy/safety of semaglutide as a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Data Sources: A literature search in MEDLINE and ClinicalTrials.gov (January 2013 to May 2018) using the terms semaglutide, SUSTAIN, oral, and PIONEER resulted in 10 published articles and 14 ongoing/unpublished articles. Study Selection and Data Extraction: All English language phase 2 and 3 clinical trials evaluating efficacy/safety of semaglutide were included. Data Synthesis: In 9 phase 3, multicenter SUSTAIN trials, the efficacy and safety of semaglutide have been compared with placebo and other pharmacologic therapy for diabetes (PTD). In these trials, semaglutide resulted in lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c; approximately ?1.5%) and weight reductions (approximately ?4.5 kg) as comparable with dulaglutide for HbA1c lowering (approximately ?1.5%). Semaglutide also has cardiovascular (CV) outcomes data that show significant reduction in risk of death from CV causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke (hazard ratio = 0.74; 95% confidence interval = 0.58-0.95). A safety finding that emerged from the CV outcomes trial was an association of semaglutide treatment with an increased risk of retinopathy complications in patients with preexisting diabetic retinopathy. Phase 3 trial data assessing semaglutide oral formulation have shown similar HbA1c (approximately ?1.5% for 14 mg dose) and body weight (approximately ?4.1 kg for 14 mg dose) reductions as compared with placebo. Across these studies, semaglutide was generally well tolerated with the most common adverse event reported as gastrointestinal side effects as seen in all GLP-1 RAs. Conclusions: These results suggest that semaglutide may have a place in therapy as a GLP-1 RA add-on therapy with higher weight loss as compared with other GLP-1 RAs and PTD and CV benefit.
Project description:The discovery of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone with important effects on glycemic control and body weight regulation, led to efforts to extend its half-life and make it therapeutically effective in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The development of short- and then long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) followed. Our article charts the discovery and development of the long-acting GLP-1 analogs liraglutide and, subsequently, semaglutide. We examine the chemistry employed in designing liraglutide and semaglutide, the human and non-human studies used to investigate their cellular targets and pharmacological effects, and ongoing investigations into new applications and formulations of these drugs. Reversible binding to albumin was used for the systemic protraction of liraglutide and semaglutide, with optimal fatty acid and linker combinations identified to maximize albumin binding while maintaining GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) potency. GLP-1RAs mediate their effects via this receptor, which is expressed in the pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, heart, lungs, kidneys, and brain. GLP-1Rs in the pancreas and brain have been shown to account for the respective improvements in glycemic control and body weight that are evident with liraglutide and semaglutide. Both liraglutide and semaglutide also positively affect cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in individuals with T2D, although the precise mechanism is still being explored. Significant weight loss, through an effect to reduce energy intake, led to the approval of liraglutide (3.0 mg) for the treatment of obesity, an indication currently under investigation with semaglutide. Other ongoing investigations with semaglutide include the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NASH) and its use in an oral formulation for the treatment of T2D. In summary, rational design has led to the development of two long-acting GLP-1 analogs, liraglutide and semaglutide, that have made a vast contribution to the management of T2D in terms of improvements in glycemic control, body weight, blood pressure, lipids, beta-cell function, and CV outcomes. Furthermore, the development of an oral formulation for semaglutide may provide individuals with additional benefits in relation to treatment adherence. In addition to T2D, liraglutide is used in the treatment of obesity, while semaglutide is currently under investigation for use in obesity and NASH.
Project description:AIM:Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) and insulin combination therapy is an effective treatment option for type 2 diabetes, but long-term data are lacking. The aim was to assess the long-term efficacy of the GLP-1RA liraglutide in subgroups by insulin use in the LEADER trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS:LEADER assessed cardiovascular (CV) safety and efficacy of liraglutide (1.8 mg) versus placebo (plus standard of care therapy) in 9340 patients with type 2 diabetes and high risk of CV disease, for up to 5 years. We analyzed CV events, metabolic parameters and hypoglycaemia post hoc in three subgroups by baseline insulin use (basal-only insulin, other insulin or no insulin). Insulin was a non-random treatment allocation as part of standard of care therapy. RESULTS:At baseline, 5171 (55%) patients were not receiving insulin, 3159 (34%) were receiving basal-only insulin and 1010 (11%) other insulins. Insulin users had a longer diabetes duration and slightly worse glycaemic control (HbA1c) than the no-insulin subgroup. Liraglutide reduced HbA1c and weight versus placebo in all three subgroups (P <?.001), and severe hypoglycaemia rate in the basal-only insulin subgroup. The need for insulin was less with liraglutide. CV risk reduction with liraglutide was similar to the main trial results in the basal-only and no-insulin subgroups. CONCLUSIONS:In patients on insulin, liraglutide improved glycaemic control, weight and need for insulin versus placebo, for at least 36?months with no increased risk of severe hypoglycaemia, while maintaining CV safety/efficacy, supporting the combination of liraglutide and insulin for management of type 2 diabetes.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Once-weekly semaglutide is a novel glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) that has been associated with greater reductions in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and body weight versus GLP-1 receptor agonists dulaglutide, exenatide extended-release (ER), liraglutide and lixisenatide in the SUSTAIN trial program and a network meta-analysis (NMA). The aim of the present study was to assess the long-term cost-effectiveness of semaglutide versus all available GLP-1 receptor agonists in Denmark, using a clinically orientated treatment approach.<h4>Methods</h4>Outcomes were projected over patient lifetimes using the IQVIA CORE Diabetes Model. Baseline characteristics and treatment effects were sourced from the corresponding SUSTAIN trials and the NMA. Patients were assumed to initiate GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy and subsequently treatment-intensify according to clinical treatment guidelines, with addition of basal insulin and switching to basal-bolus insulin occurring when HbA1c exceeded recommended targets. Patients were assumed to receive a GLP-1 receptor agonist plus basal insulin therapy once HbA1c levels reached 7.5% and a basal-bolus insulin regimen once HbA1c exceeded 8.0%. Costs were captured in 2017 Danish kroner (DKK), with future costs and outcomes discounted at 3% per annum.<h4>Results</h4>Primary analyses indicated that semaglutide 0.5 mg and 1 mg were associated with improvements in quality-adjusted life expectancy of 0.11 and 0.34 quality-adjusted life years, respectively, versus dulaglutide, achieved at cost savings of DKK 289 and DKK 13,416, respectively. Supporting analyses indicated that both doses of semaglutide were either cost-effective or dominant versus exenatide ER, liraglutide 1.2 mg and 1.8 mg and lixisenatide.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Semaglutide represents a cost-effective alternative to other GLP-1 receptor agonist therapies available in Denmark, demonstrating clinical benefits versus dulaglutide, exenatide ER, liraglutide and lixisenatide for the treatment of patients with T2D.<h4>Funding</h4>Novo Nordisk A/S. Plain language summary available for this article.
Project description:Introduction:Since 2008 United State (US) food drug administration mandate, several newer anti-diabetic drugs (ADD) have undergone a mandatory cardiovascular (CV) outcome trial (CVOT) in type diabetes (T2DM) patients with high CV risk. These includes CVOT done with dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitors, sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RAs). Several double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled CVOT have been presented and published in the last decade (2008-2018). Aims and Objectives:We systematically searched the database of PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2018 using specific key words. Subsequently, we pooled the data of different cardiovascular endpoints and made a comparative forest plot using GraphPad software Inc. Prism Version 8, US. Results and Conclusion:Saxagliptin, alogliptin, sitagliptin and linagliptin are CV neutral drugs. Saxagliptin showed a significantly higher hospitalization due to heart failure (HHF). Empagliflozin and canagliflozin have shown a significant reduction in composite of 3-point major cardiac adverse events (3P-MACE). Additionally, empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin significantly reduced the HHF and the composite of CV death or HHF. Moreover, empagliflozin showed significant reduction in CV- and all-cause death in patients with T2DM with established CV disease. While both exendin-backbone-based GLP-1RAs such as lixisenatide and extended-release exenatide were CV neutral; GLP-1-backbone-based GLP-1RAs such as liraglutide, semaglutide and albiglutide shown a significant reduction in the composite of 3-P MACE. Additionally, liraglutide shown a significant reduction in CV- and all-cause death. Moreover, semaglutide reduced non-fatal stroke and albiglutide reduced myocardial infarction, while extended-release exenatide reduced all-cause death; however, P value of significance for these outcomes should be considered nominal.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Based on reported results of three large cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), we aimed to investigate the overall effect of GLP-1 RAs on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and to identify subpopulations exhibiting the greatest cardiovascular (CV) benefit.<h4>Methods</h4>Three CVOTs reporting effects of long-acting GLP-1 RAs were included: LEADER (liraglutide), SUSTAIN-6 (semaglutide), and EXSCEL (exenatide once weekly). In all studies, the primary endpoint was three-point MACE, comprising CV death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke. Overall effect estimates were calculated as hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using the random-effects model; subgroup analyses reported in the original studies were similarly analyzed.<h4>Results</h4>Overall, statistically significant risk reductions in MACE and CV death were observed. Subgroup analysis indicated a significant racial difference with respect to CV benefit (<i>P</i> for interaction <0.001), and more substantial risk reductions were observed in subjects of African origin (relative risk [RR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.99) and in Asians (RR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.09 to 1.32). However, <i>post hoc</i> analysis (Bonferroni method) revealed that only Asians exhibited a significantly greater CV benefit from treatment, compared with white subjects (<i>P</i><0.0001).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Long-acting GLP-1 RAs reduced risks of MACE and CV deaths in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our findings of a particularly effective reduction in CV events with GLP-1 RA in Asian populations merits further exploration and dedicated trials in specific populations.