Recurrent NR3C1 Aberrations at First Diagnosis Relate to Steroid Resistance in Pediatric T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Patients.
ABSTRACT: The glucocorticoid receptor NR3C1 is essential for steroid-induced apoptosis, and deletions of this gene have been recurrently identified at disease relapse for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. Here, we demonstrate that recurrent NR3C1 inactivating aberrations-including deletions, missense, and nonsense mutations-are identified in 7% of pediatric T-cell ALL patients at diagnosis. These aberrations are frequently present in early thymic progenitor-ALL patients and relate to steroid resistance. Functional modeling of NR3C1 aberrations in pre-B ALL and T-cell ALL cell lines demonstrate that aberrations decreasing NR3C1 expression are important contributors to steroid resistance at disease diagnosis. Relative NR3C1 messenger RNA expression in primary diagnostic patient samples, however, does not correlate with steroid response.
Project description:AIM:To study whether the glucocorticoid receptor (GR/NR3C1) gene haplotypes influence the steroid therapy outcome in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS:We sequenced all coding exons and flanking intronic sequences of the NR3C1 gene in 181 IBD patients, determined the single nucleotide polymorphisms, and predicted the NR3C1 haplotypes. Furthermore, we investigated whether certain NR3C1 haplotypes are significantly associated with steroid therapy outcomes. RESULTS:We detected 13 NR3C1 variants, which led to the formation of 17 different haplotypes with a certainty of > 95% in 173 individuals. The three most commonly occurring haplotypes were included in the association analysis of the influence of haplotype on steroid therapy outcome or IBD activity. None of the NR3C1 haplotypes showed statistically significant association with glucocorticoid therapy success. CONCLUSION:NR3C1 haplotypes are not related to steroid therapy outcome.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Because of the distinct clinical presentation of early and advanced stage ovarian cancer, we aim to clarify whether these disease entities are solely separated by time of diagnosis or whether they arise from distinct molecular events. METHODS: Sixteen early and sixteen advanced stage ovarian carcinomas, matched for histological subtype and differentiation grade, were included. Genomic aberrations were compared for each early and advanced stage ovarian cancer by array comparative genomic hybridization. To study how the aberrations correlate to the clinical characteristics of the tumors we clustered tumors based on the genomic aberrations. RESULTS: The genomic aberration patterns in advanced stage cancer equalled those in early stage, but were more frequent in advanced stage (p = 0.012). Unsupervised clustering based on genomic aberrations yielded two clusters that significantly discriminated early from advanced stage (p = 0.001), and that did differ significantly in survival (p = 0.002). These clusters however did give a more accurate prognosis than histological subtype or differentiation grade. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that advanced stage ovarian cancer either progresses from early stage or from a common precursor lesion but that they do not arise from distinct carcinogenic molecular events. Furthermore, we show that array comparative genomic hybridization has the potential to identify clinically distinct patients.
Project description:Glucocorticoid (GC) resistance is the major obscule in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) for both patients and clinicans with unclear mechanism. A hypotheis for this resistance is the mutations or polymorphisms present in the nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (NR3C1) gene that encodes receptors for steroid hormones. This study aimed to investigate the association between NR3C1 gene polymorphisms and GC effectiveness in PV patients. 94 PV patients (64 GC-sensitive and 30 GC-resistant) and 100 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this case-control study. The genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in BCL1, Arg23Lys, Asn363Ser 1548 t-insert, and le747Met, together with tag-SNP sites of the NR3C1 gene were evaluated. No significant differences were observed in genotypic and allelic frequencies of the 16 SNPs between PV patients and healthy volunteers. However, SNPs rs 11745958?C/T (OR: 8.95) and rs17209237 A/G (OR: 4.07) may be associated with an increased risk of GC resistance, while rs 33388?A/T (OR: 0.45) and rs7701443 A/G (OR: 0.51) may indicate a decreased risk of GC resistance in PV patients. NR3C1 gene variation may be associated with GC resistance in PV patients. More extensive genetic analyses and mechanistic analysis are required for further exploration.
Project description:High levels of methylation in the GR gene (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1; NR3C1) have been associated with depression and cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to investigate whether NR3C1 methylation status was associated with the long-term prognosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) considering depression and cardiovascular status at the early phase of ACS. A total of 969 patients with recent ACS were recruited at a tertiary university hospital in Korea. Baseline evaluations were made from 2007 to 2012, including DSM-IV depressive disorder, NR3C1 methylation, and various demographic and clinical characteristics such as cardiovascular risk markers. Over a 5~12 year follow-up after the index ACS, time to major adverse cardiac event (MACE) was investigated using Cox regression models. Higher NR3C1 methylation status was associated with depression and several cardiovascular risk markers at baseline. NR3C1 hypermethylation predicted worse long-term prognosis of ACS only in the presence of depressive disorder with significant synergistic interaction terms and independent of potential confounding factors. Synergistic effects of depressive disorder and NR3C1 hypermethylation on long-term cardiac outcomes in ACS were found. NR3C1 methylation status represents a candidate prognostic biomarker for ACS in combination with a diagnosis of depressive disorder. Further research is needed to ascertain the generalisability of these findings.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Copy number aberrations frequently occur during the development of many cancers. Such events affect dosage of involved genes and may cause further genomic instability and progression of cancer. In this survey, canine SNP microarrays were used to study 117 canine mammary tumours from 69 dogs.<h4>Results</h4>We found a high occurrence of copy number aberrations in canine mammary tumours, losses being more frequent than gains. Increased frequency of aberrations and loss of heterozygosity were positively correlated with increased malignancy in terms of histopathological diagnosis. One of the most highly recurrently amplified regions harbored the MYC gene. PTEN was located to a frequently lost region and also homozygously deleted in five tumours. Thus, deregulation of these genes due to copy number aberrations appears to be an important event in canine mammary tumour development. Other potential contributors to canine mammary tumour pathogenesis are COL9A3, INPP5A, CYP2E1 and RB1. The present study also shows that a more detailed analysis of chromosomal aberrations associated with histopathological parameters may aid in identifying specific genes associated with canine mammary tumour progression.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The high frequency of copy number aberrations is a prominent feature of canine mammary tumours as seen in other canine and human cancers. Our findings share several features with corresponding studies in human breast tumours and strengthen the dog as a suitable model organism for this disease.
Project description:Waldenström's macroglobulinemia is a disease of mature B cells, the genetic basis of which is poorly understood. Few recurrent chromosomal abnormalities have been reported, and their prognostic value is not known. We conducted a prospective cytogenetic study of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia and examined the prognostic value of chromosomal aberrations in an international randomized trial. The main aberrations were 6q deletions (30%), trisomy 18 (15%), 13q deletions (13%), 17p (TP53) deletions (8%), trisomy 4 (8%), and 11q (ATM) deletions (7%). There was a significant association between trisomy of chromosome 4 and trisomy of chromosome 18. Translocations involving the IGH genes were rare (<5%). Deletion of 6q and 11q, and trisomy 4, were significantly associated with adverse clinical and biological parameters. Patients with TP53 deletion had short progression-free survival and short disease-free survival. Although rare (<5%), trisomy 12 was associated with short progression-free survival. In conclusion, the cytogenetic profile of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia appears to differ from that of other B-cell lymphomas. Chromosomal abnormalities may help with diagnosis and prognostication, in conjunction with other clinical and biological characteristics.
Project description:The disruption of key epigenetic processes during critical periods of brain development can increase an individual's vulnerability to psychopathology later in life. For instance, DNA methylation in the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) in adulthood is known to be associated with early-life adversities and has been suggested to mediate the development of stress-related disorders. However, the association between NR3C1 methylation and the emergence of internalizing symptoms in childhood and adolescence has not been studied extensively. In the present report, we used saliva DNA from a cohort of Swedish adolescents (13-14 years old; N?=?1149) to measure NR3C1 methylation in the exon 1F region. Internalizing psychopathological symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC). We found that NR3C1 hypermethylation was cross-sectionally associated with high score for internalizing symptoms in the whole group as well as among the female participants. In addition, an analysis of social environmental stressors revealed that reports of bullied or lacking friends were significantly associated with NR3C1 hypermethylation. This cross-sectional association of NR3C1 exon 1F hypermethylation with internalizing psychopathology in adolescents, as well as with bullying and lack of friends are novel results in this field. Longitudinal studies are needed to address whether NR3C1 methylation mediates the link between social stressors and psychopathology in adolescence.
Project description:Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are an important player in disease modeling and regenerative medicine. Nonetheless, multiple studies uncovered their inherent genetic instability upon prolonged culturing, where specific chromosomal aberrations provide cells with a growth advantage. These positively selected modifications have dramatic effects on multiple cellular characteristics. Epigenetic aberrations also possess the potential of changing gene expression and altering cellular functions. In the current study we assessed the landscape of DNA methylation aberrations during prolonged culturing of hPSCs, and defined a set of genes which are recurrently hypermethylated and silenced. We further focused on one of these genes, testis-specific Y-encoded like protein 5 (TSPYL5), and demonstrated that when silenced, differentiation-related genes and tumor-suppressor genes are downregulated, while pluripotency- and growth promoting genes are upregulated. This process is similar to the hypermethylation-mediated inactivation of certain genes during tumor development. Our analysis highlights the existence and importance of recurrent epigenetic aberrations in hPSCs during prolonged culturing.
Project description:<h4>What is already known about this subject</h4>In vitro lymphocyte steroid sensitivity has been suggested as a useful tool to predict in vivo response to glucocorticoid treatment in different inflammatory chronic diseases. A correlation between genetic polymorphisms and clinical response to glucocorticoids has been demonstrated in these patients.<h4>What this study adds</h4>The BclI polymorphism in the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) gene is associated with higher methylprednisolone potency in vitro. The combined evaluation of the in vitro sensitivity to methylprednisolone and BclI polymorphism could represent an aid for physicians to adjust therapy a priori. AIM To evaluate the association between the in vitro sensitivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to methylprednisolone (MP) and the presence of genetic polymorphisms involved in glucocorticoid (GC) response.<h4>Methods</h4>In vitro MP inhibition of the proliferation of lymphocytes stimulated with concanavalin A was determined. Non linear regression of dose-response data was performed computing the MP concentration required to reduce proliferation to 50% (IC(50) ). The maximum inhibition achievable at the highest MP concentration (I(max) ) was also calculated. Moreover, the Taqman technique was used to analyze the BclI polymorphism in the NR3C1 gene and the Leu155His polymorphism in the NALP1 gene.<h4>Results</h4>A significant association between the BclI mutated genotype and an increased in vitro sensitivity to GCs was observed.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The a priori evaluation of the BclI polymorphism, associated with a lymphocyte proliferation assay, could represent a useful diagnostic tool for the optimization of steroid treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Because of the distinct clinical presentation of early and advanced stage ovarian cancer, we aim to clarify whether these disease entities are solely separated by time of diagnosis or whether they arise from distinct molecular events. METHODS: Sixteen early and sixteen advanced stage ovarian carcinomas, matched for histological subtype and differentiation grade, were included. Genomic aberrations were compared for each early and advanced stage ovarian cancer by array comparative genomic hybridization. To study how the aberrations correlate to the clinical characteristics of the tumors we clustered tumors based on the genomic aberrations. RESULTS: The genomic aberration patterns in advanced stage cancer equalled those in early stage, but were more frequent in advanced stage (p = 0.012). Unsupervised clustering based on genomic aberrations yielded two clusters that significantly discriminated early from advanced stage (p = 0.001), and that did differ significantly in survival (p = 0.002). These clusters however did give a more accurate prognosis than histological subtype or differentiation grade. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that advanced stage ovarian cancer either progresses from early stage or from a common precursor lesion but that they do not arise from distinct carcinogenic molecular events. Furthermore, we show that array comparative genomic hybridization has the potential to identify clinically distinct patients. Sixteen early and sixteen advanced stage ovarian carcinomas