ABSTRACT: The diversity of cultural Actinobacteria in two types of Algerian Sahara environments, including saline environments and date palms rhizosphere, was investigated. In this study, a total of 40 strains of actinomycetes was isolated from different soil samples, using a rehydration and centrifugation method. Molecular identification, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, revealed that these isolates were affiliated to six clusters corresponding to eight genera, including Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Actinomadura, Actinocorallia, Micromonospora, Couchioplanes, and Planomonospora. A taxonomic analysis, based on the morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular investigation, of selected strains, which belong to the rare Actinobacteria, was undertaken. Four strains (CG3, A111, A93, and A79) were found to form distinct phyletic lines and represent new actinobacterial taxa. An assessment of antimicrobial proprieties of the 40 obtained actinomycetes strains, showed moderate to strong antimicrobial activities against fungi and bacteria. This study demonstrated the richness of Algerian Sahara with rare Actinobacteria, which can provide novel bioactive metabolites, to solving some of the most challenging problems of the day, such as multi-drug resistance.