Influence of Glyphosate Formulations on the Behavior of Sulfentrazone in Soil in Mixed Applications.
ABSTRACT: The selection of weed biotypes that are resistant to glyphosate has increased the demand for its use mixed with other herbicides, such as sulfentrazone. However, when chemical molecules are mixed, interactions may occur, modifying the behavior of these molecules in the environment, such as the sorption and desorption in soil. In this study, we hypothesized that the presence of glyphosate-formulated products might increase the sorption or decrease the desorption of sulfentrazone, thereby increasing the risk of the contamination of water resources. Therefore, our work aimed to evaluate the sorption, desorption, and leaching of sulfentrazone in the soil in an isolated and mixed application with different glyphosate formulations. The sorption coefficients (Kfs) for the sulfentrazone, sulfentrazone + Roundup Ready, sulfentrazone + Roundup Ultra, and sulfentrazone + Zapp Qi foram were 1.3, 2.1, 2.3, and 1.9, respectively. The desorption coefficients (Kfd) for the sulfentrazone, sulfentrazone + Roundup Ready, sulfentrazone + Roundup Ultra, and sulfentrazone + Zapp Qi foram were 65.7, 125.2, 733.3 and 239.8, respectively. The experiments demonstrated that the sorption and desorption of sulfentrazone in combination with the other formulated glyphosate products are altered, supporting the hypothesis suggested by this work, i.e., that the presence of other molecules is a factor that affects the behavior of herbicides in the soil. This phenomenon altered the vertical mobility of sulfentrazone. Situations involving mixtures of pesticides should be evaluated in order to improve our understanding of the dynamics of these molecules and thus avoid environmental contamination.
Project description:Herbicide use has increased dramatically since 2001, particularly Roundup<sup>®</sup>. Effective in agricultural practice, Roundup<sup>®</sup> adversely affects non-target organisms, including reproductive and endocrine systems. We exposed fruit flies, <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i>, to either Roundup<sup>®</sup> Ready to Use, containing pelargonic acid and glyphosate, or Roundup<sup>®</sup> Super Concentrate, that includes glyphosate and POEA, at sublethal concentrations. Both Roundup<sup>®</sup> formulations reduced ovary volume with fewer mature oocytes, most adversely at the highest concentration tested. Flies exposed within 2 h of eclosion were affected more than at 4 h, suggesting a critical period of increased ovarian sensitivity. These results support multi-species evidence that glyphosate-based herbicides interfere with normal development of the reproductive systems of non-target organisms.
Project description:Herbicides help increase agricultural yields significantly, but they may negatively impact the life of non-target organisms. Modifying the life cycle of primary producers can affect other organisms in the food chain, and consequently in the whole ecosystem. We investigated the effect of common herbicides Roundup® Classic Pro (active substance glyphosate) and Garlon New (triclopyr and fluroxypyr) on aquatic organisms duckweed Lemna minor and green algae Desmodesmus subspicatus, and on the enzymatic activity of soil. We also compared the effects of Roundup® Classic Pro to that of a metabolite of its active substance, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). The results of an algal growth test showed that AMPA has a 1.5× weaker inhibitory effect on the growth of D. subspicatus than the Roundup formula, and the strongest growth inhibition was caused by Garlon New (IC50Roundup = 267.3 µg/L, IC50Garlon = 21.0 µg/L, IC50AMPA = 117.8 mg/L). The results of the duckweed growth inhibition test revealed that Roundup and Garlon New caused 100% growth inhibition of L. minor even at significantly lower concentrations than the ready-to-use concentration. The total chlorophyll content in the fronds was lowest when Garlon New was used. The highest dehydrogenase activity was observed in soil treated with Garlon New, and the lowest in soil treated with Roundup® Classic Pro. The results of this study showed that all three tested substances were ecotoxic to the tested organisms.
Project description:Despite an increasing concern of consequences of using vast amounts of glyphosate-based herbicides in agroecosystems, their potential effects on non-target soil organisms and soil functioning are mostly unknown. It has also been argued that fields in northern latitudes should be under special surveillance as the short active period of decomposers may restrict glyphosate degradation. We investigated the effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide, Roundup, on the abundance of enchytraeids and nematodes, both essential groups in decomposer food webs, and plant litter mass loss and soil availability of mineral N in a two-year agricultural field setting in south-west Finland. Our experiment consisted of (1) non-treated weed plots, (2) plots, where weeds were killed by hoeing, and (3) plots treated with both Roundup and hoeing. We found that killing plants by hoeing had drastic effects on soil fauna and functioning, and apparently, distinguishing these effects from direct glyphosate effects is profoundly important when evaluating glyphosate risks in soils. In contrast, the effects of Roundup on soil fauna and functioning were minor and transient and no glyphosate remains were found in the soil at the end of the experiment. These results suggest that side-effects can be minor and glyphosate degradation effective also in soil under northern climatic conditions.
Project description:The engineering of transgenic crops resistant to the broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate has greatly improved agricultural efficiency worldwide. Glyphosate-based herbicides, such as Roundup, target the shikimate pathway enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase, the functionality of which is absolutely required for the survival of plants. Roundup Ready plants carry the gene coding for a glyphosate-insensitive form of this enzyme, obtained from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4. Once incorporated into the plant genome, the gene product, CP4 EPSP synthase, confers crop resistance to glyphosate. Although widely used, the molecular basis for this glyphosate-resistance has remained obscure. We generated a synthetic gene coding for CP4 EPSP synthase and characterized the enzyme using kinetics and crystallography. The CP4 enzyme has unexpected kinetic and structural properties that render it unique among the known EPSP synthases. Glyphosate binds to the CP4 EPSP synthase in a condensed, noninhibitory conformation. Glyphosate sensitivity can be restored through a single-site mutation in the active site (Ala-100-Gly), allowing glyphosate to bind in its extended, inhibitory conformation.
Project description:Sorption and desorption determine the amount of an herbicide in soil solution. Therefore, knowledge of the sorption and desorption coefficients in different soils is an essential factor to estimate the potential for environmental contamination by herbicides. We evaluated the feasibility of multivariate and linear discriminant analyses to predict the sorption and desorption capacity of a soil for diuron, one of the most used herbicides on sugarcane plantations. The adsorptive capacity in twenty-seven Brazilian soil samples was estimated using the sorption constant (Kfs) and desorption constant (Kfd) obtained by the Freundlich isotherms. The regression model was created from the sorbed and nonsorbed concentrations of diuron in soils. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography was applied to quantify the diuron concentrations. The multivariate analysis separated the soils into four groups considering the similarity of the following attributes: pH, organic matter, clay, and base saturation. The groups showed a similar pattern of sorption and desorption for diuron: Lom-Lclay: low sorption (5.9?±?1.2) and high desorption (10.9?±?0.6); Lclay: low sorption (7.5?±?1.1) and high desorption (11.4?±?1.3); Hom-Hclay: high sorption (11.2?±?1.2) and low desorption (13.8?±?1.2); HpH-Hclay: high sorption (10.1?±?1.1) and medium desorption (11.5?±?1.4). Linear discriminant analysis of these soil attributes was used to classify other soils described in the literature with adsorption capacity. This analysis was able to identify soils with high and low sorption using the pH, organic matter, clay, and base saturation, demonstrating the enormous potential of the technique to group soils with different contamination risks for subterranean waters. Sugarcane crops in northeastern Brazil showed a higher pollution risk through the leaching of diuron. Multivariate analysis revealed significant diuron-related changes in the soil composition of different Brazilian regions; therefore, this statistical analysis can be used to improve understanding of herbicide behavior in soils.
Project description:The wide use of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) has become a matter of concern due to its potential harmful effects on human health, including men fertility. This study sought to investigate, using the pig as a model, the impact of pure glyphosate and its most known commercial formulation, Roundup, on sperm function and survival. With this purpose, fresh commercial semen doses were incubated with different concentrations (0-360 µg/mL) of glyphosate (GLY; exp. 1) or Roundup, at the equivalent GLY concentration (exp. 2), at 38 °C for 3 h. Glyphosate at 360 µg/mL significantly (P?<?0.05) decreased sperm motility, viability, mitochondrial activity and acrosome integrity but had no detrimental effect at lower doses. On the other hand, Roundup did significantly (P?<?0.05) reduce sperm motility at???5 µg/mL GLY-equivalent concentration; mitochondrial activity at???25 µg/mL GLY-equivalent concentration; and sperm viability and acrosome integrity at???100 µg/mL GLY-equivalent concentration as early as 1 h of incubation. In a similar fashion, GLY and Roundup did not inflict any detrimental effect on sperm DNA integrity. Taken together, these data indicate that, while both glyphosate and Roundup exert a negative impact on male gametes, Roundup is more toxic than its main component, glyphosate.
Project description:Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide worldwide and a critical tool for weed control in no-till cropping systems. However, there are concerns about the nontarget impacts of long-term glyphosate use on soil microbial communities. We investigated the impacts of repeated glyphosate treatments on bacterial communities in the soil and rhizosphere of wheat in soils with and without long-term history of glyphosate use. We cycled wheat in the greenhouse using soils from 4 paired fields under no-till (20+-year history of glyphosate) or no history of use. At each cycle, we terminated plants with glyphosate (2× the field rate) or by removing the crowns, and soil and rhizosphere bacterial communities were characterized. Location, cropping history, year, and proximity to the roots had much stronger effects on bacterial communities than did glyphosate, which only explained 2 to 5% of the variation. Less than 1% of all taxa were impacted by glyphosate, more in soils with a long history of use, and more increased than decreased in relative abundance. Glyphosate had minimal impacts on soil and rhizosphere bacteria of wheat, although dying roots after glyphosate application may provide a "greenbridge" favoring some copiotrophic taxa.IMPORTANCE Glyphosate (Roundup) is the most widely used herbicide in the world and the foundation of Roundup Ready soybeans, corn, and the no-till cropping system. However, there have been recent concerns about nontarget impacts of glyphosate on soil microbes. Using next-generation sequencing methods and glyphosate treatments of wheat plants, we described the bacterial communities in the soil and rhizosphere of wheat grown in Pacific Northwest soils across multiple years, different locations, and soils with different histories of glyphosate use. The effects of glyphosate were subtle and much less than those of drivers such as location and cropping systems. Only a small percentage of the bacterial groups were influenced by glyphosate, and most of those were stimulated, probably because of the dying roots. This study provides important information for the future of this important tool for no-till systems and the environmental benefits of reducing soil erosion and fossil fuel inputs.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) are broad-spectrum herbicides that act on the shikimate pathway in bacteria, fungi, and plants. The possible effects of GBHs on human health are the subject of an intense public debate for both its potential carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects, including potential effects on the endocrine system The present pilot study examine whether exposure to GBHs at the dose of glyphosate considered to be "safe" (the US Acceptable Daily Intake - ADI - of 1.75?mg/kg bw/day), starting from in utero life, affect the development and endocrine system across different life stages in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats.<h4>Methods</h4>Glyphosate alone and Roundup Bioflow, a commercial brand of GBHs, were administered in drinking water at 1.75?mg/kg bw/day to F0 dams starting from the gestational day (GD) 6 (in utero) up to postnatal day (PND) 120. After weaning, offspring were randomly distributed in two cohorts: 8?M?+?8F/group animals belonging to the 6-week cohort were sacrificed after puberty at PND 73?±?2; 10?M?+?10F/group animals belonging to the 13-week cohort were sacrificed at adulthood at PND 125?±?2. Effects of glyphosate or Roundup exposure were assessed on developmental landmarks and sexual characteristics of pups.<h4>Results</h4>In pups, anogenital distance (AGD) at PND 4 was statistically significantly increased both in Roundup-treated males and females and in glyphosate-treated males. Age at first estrous (FE) was significantly delayed in the Roundup-exposed group and serum testosterone concentration significantly increased in Roundup-treated female offspring from the 13-week cohort compared to control animals. A statistically significant increase in plasma TSH concentration was observed in glyphosate-treated males compared with control animals as well as a statistically significant decrease in DHT and increase in BDNF in Roundup-treated males. Hormonal status imbalances were more pronounced in Roundup-treated rats after prolonged exposure.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The present pilot study demonstrate that GBHs exposure, from prenatal period to adulthood, induced endocrine effects and altered reproductive developmental parameters in male and female SD rats. In particular, it was associated with androgen-like effects, including a statistically significant increase of AGDs in both males and females, delay of FE and increased testosterone in female.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) are broad-spectrum herbicides that act on the shikimate pathway in bacteria, fungi, and plants. The possible effects of GBHs on human health are the subject of an intense public debate for both its potential carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects, including its effects on microbiome. The present pilot study examines whether exposure to GBHs at doses of glyphosate considered to be "safe" (the US Acceptable Daily Intake - ADI - of 1.75 mg/kg bw/day), starting from in utero, may modify the composition of gut microbiome in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. METHODS:Glyphosate alone and Roundup, a commercial brand of GBHs, were administered in drinking water at doses comparable to the US glyphosate ADI (1.75 mg/kg bw/day) to F0 dams starting from the gestational day (GD) 6 up to postnatal day (PND) 125. Animal feces were collected at multiple time points from both F0 dams and F1 pups. The gut microbiota of 433 fecal samples were profiled at V3-V4 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene and further taxonomically assigned and assessed for diversity analysis. We tested the effect of exposure on overall microbiome diversity using PERMANOVA and on individual taxa by LEfSe analysis. RESULTS:Microbiome profiling revealed that low-dose exposure to Roundup and glyphosate resulted in significant and distinctive changes in overall bacterial composition in F1 pups only. Specifically, at PND31, corresponding to pre-pubertal age in humans, relative abundance for Bacteriodetes (Prevotella) was increased while the Firmicutes (Lactobacillus) was reduced in both Roundup and glyphosate exposed F1 pups compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides initial evidence that exposures to commonly used GBHs, at doses considered safe, are capable of modifying the gut microbiota in early development, particularly before the onset of puberty. These findings warrant future studies on potential health effects of GBHs in early development such as childhood.
Project description:Among the numerous contaminants of soil, glyphosate and paraquat are two of the most widely used herbicides that are commonly detected in the environment. Soil and sediment contaminated with glyphosate, paraquat, and other environmental toxins can be mobilized and redistributed to lawns, vegetable gardens, parks, and water supplies in vulnerable communities at the site of disasters such as hurricanes and flooding. Glyphosate and paraquat bind strongly to soils containing clays, making their bioavailability (bioaccessibility) from these types of soil very low. Because of their affinity for clay-based soils, it is possible that montmorillonite clays could be administered as a therapeutic agent in the diet of animals and humans to decrease short-term exposure and toxicity. In this study, we investigated the sorption mechanisms of glyphosate and paraquat onto active surfaces of calcium montmorillonite (CM) and sodium montmorillonite (SM) clays and derived binding parameters, including capacity, affinity, and enthalpy. Additionally, we used these parameters to predict the reduction in bioavailability under different pH and temperature conditions and to estimate the theoretical dose of clay that could protect against severe paraquat toxicity and lethality. Computational modeling and simulation studies depicted toxin sorption mechanisms at different pH values. Additionally, a toxin-sensitive living organism (Hydra vulgaris) was used to confirm the safety of the clay and its ability to protect against toxicity from glyphosate and paraquat. The high efficacy of CM and SM shown in this study supports the natural binding activity of glyphosate and paraquat to clay-based soils. Following disasters and medical emergencies, montmorillonite clays could be administered by capsules and tablets, or added to food and flavored water, to reduce toxin bioavailability and human and animal exposures.