Efficacy of LAMB against Emerging Azole- and Multidrug-Resistant Candida parapsilosis Isolates in the Galleria mellonella Model.
ABSTRACT: While being the third leading cause of candidemia worldwide, numerous studies have shown severe clonal outbreaks due to fluconazole-resistant (FLCR) Candida parapsilosis isolates associated with fluconazole therapeutic failure (FTF) with enhanced mortality. More recently, multidrug resistant (MDR) C. parapsilosis blood isolates have also been identified that are resistant to both azole and echinocandin drugs. Amphotericin B (AMB) resistance is rarely reported among C. parapsilosis isolates and proper management of bloodstream infections due to FLZR and MDR isolates requires prompt action at the time of outbreak. Therefore, using a well-established Galleria mellonella model, we assessed whether (a) laboratory-based findings on azole or echinocandin (micafungin) resistance in C. parapsilosis lead to therapeutic failure, (b) LAMB could serve as an efficient salvage treatment option, and (c) distinct mutations in ERG11 impact mortality. Our in vivo data confirm fluconazole inefficacy against FLCR C. parapsilosis isolates carrying Y132F, Y132F + K143R, Y132F + G307A, and G307A + G458S in Erg11p, while LAMB proved to be an efficacious accessible option against both FLCR and MDR C. parapsilosis isolates. Moreover, positive correlation of in vitro and in vivo data further highlights the utility of G. melonella as a reliable model to investigate azole and polyene drug efficacy.
Project description:Recombinant Candida albicans CYP51 (CaCYP51) proteins containing 23 single and 5 double amino acid substitutions found in clinical strains and the wild-type enzyme were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni2+-nitrilotriacetic acid agarose chromatography. Catalytic tolerance to azole antifungals was assessed by determination of the concentration causing 50% enzyme inhibition (IC50) using CYP51 reconstitution assays. The greatest increase in the IC50 compared to that of the wild-type enzyme was observed with the five double substitutions Y132F+K143R (15.3-fold), Y132H+K143R (22.1-fold), Y132F+F145L (10.1-fold), G307S+G450E (13-fold), and D278N+G464S (3.3-fold). The single substitutions K143R, D278N, S279F, S405F, G448E, and G450E conferred at least 2-fold increases in the fluconazole IC50, and the Y132F, F145L, Y257H, Y447H, V456I, G464S, R467K, and I471T substitutions conferred increased residual CYP51 activity at high fluconazole concentrations. In vitro testing of select CaCYP51 mutations in C. albicans showed that the Y132F, Y132H, K143R, F145L, S405F, G448E, G450E, G464S, Y132F+K143R, Y132F+F145L, and D278N+G464S substitutions conferred at least a 2-fold increase in the fluconazole MIC. The catalytic tolerance of the purified proteins to voriconazole, itraconazole, and posaconazole was far lower and limited to increased residual activities at high triazole concentrations for certain mutations rather than large increases in IC50 values. Itraconazole was the most effective at inhibiting CaCYP51. However, when tested against CaCYP51 mutant strains, posaconazole seemed to be the most resistant to changes in MIC as a result of CYP51 mutation compared to itraconazole, voriconazole, or fluconazole.
Project description:Clonal expansion of fluconazole resistant (FLZ-R) Candida parapsilosis isolates is increasingly being identified in many countries, while there is no study exploring the antifungal susceptibility pattern, genetic diversity, and clinical information for Iranian C. parapsilosis blood isolates. Candida parapsilosis species complex blood isolates (n = 98) were recovered from nine hospitals located in three major cities, identified by MALDI-TOF MS, and their genetic relatedness was examined by AFLP fingerprinting. Antifungal susceptibility testing followed CLSI-M27-A3 and ERG11, MRR1 and hotspots 1/2 (HS1/2) of FKS1 were sequenced to assess the azole and echinocandin resistance mechanisms, respectively. Ninety-four C. parapsilosis and four Candida orthopsilosis isolates were identified from 90 patients. Only 43 patients received systemic antifungal drugs with fluconazole as the main antifungal used. The overall mortality rate was 46.6% (42/90) and death mostly occurred for those receiving systemic antifungals (25/43) relative to those not treated (17/47). Although, antifungal-resistance was rare, one isolate was multidrug-resistant (FLZ = 16 ?g/ml and micafungin = 8 ?g/ml) and the infected patient showed therapeutic failure to FLZ prophylaxis. Mutations causing azole and echinocandin resistance were not found in the genes studied. AFLP revealed five genotypes (G) and G1 was the main one (59/94; 62.7%). Clinical outcome was significantly associated with city (P = 0.02, ? <0.05) and Mashhad was significantly associated with mortality (P = 0.03, ? <0.05). Overall, we found a low level of antifungal resistance for Iranian C. parapsilosis blood isolates, but the noted MDR strain can potentially become the source of future infections and challenge the antifungal therapy in antifungal-naïve patients. AFLP typing results warrants confirmation using other resolutive typing methods.
Project description:The most prevalent cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI) among non-C. albicans Candida species, Candida parapsilosis, may not only be resistant to azole antifungal agents but also disseminate to vulnerable patients. In this survey of BSIs occurring at a large Italian hospital between May 2014 and May 2019, C. parapsilosis accounted for 28.5% (241/844) of all Candida isolates causing BSI episodes. The majority of episodes (151/844) occurred in medical wards. Across the 5 yearly periods, the rates of azole non-susceptibility were 11.8% (4/34), 17.8% (8/45), 28.6% (12/42), 32.8% (19/58), and 17.7% (11/62), respectively, using the Sensititre YeastOne® method. Among azole non-susceptible isolates (54/241; 22.4%), 49 were available for further investigation. Using the CLSI reference method, all 49 isolates were resistant to fluconazole and, except one (susceptible dose-dependent), to voriconazole. Forty (81.6%) isolates harbored the Erg11p Y132F substitution and nine (18.4%) isolates the Y132F in combination with the Erg11p R398I substitution. According to their genotypes, as defined using a microsatellite analysis based on six short tandem repeat markers, 87.7% of isolates (43/49) grouped in two major clusters (II and III), whereas 4.1% of isolates (2/49) belonged to a separate cluster (I). Interestingly, all the isolates from cluster II harbored the Y132F substitution, and those from cluster III harbored both Y132F and R398I substitutions. Of 56 non-Italian isolates included as controls, two Indian isolates with the Y132F substitution had a genotype clearly differing from that of the isolates from clusters II and I. In conclusion, these findings show the dominance of clonal Y132F isolates in our hospital and suggest detection of the Y132F substitution as helpful tool to prevent transmission among hospitalized patients at risk of BSI.
Project description:Among emerging non-albicans Candida species, Candida parapsilosis is of particular concern as a cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections in neonatal and intensive care unit patients. While fluconazole and echinocandins are considered effective treatments for such infections, recent reports of fluconazole and echinocandin resistance in C. parapsilosis indicate a growing problem. The present study describes a novel mechanism of antifungal resistance in this organism affecting susceptibility to azole and echinocandin antifungals in a clinical isolate obtained from a patient with prosthetic valve endocarditis. Transcriptome analysis indicated differential expression of several genes in the resistant isolate, including upregulation of ergosterol biosynthesis pathway genes ERG2, ERG5, ERG6, ERG11, ERG24, ERG25, and UPC2 Whole-genome sequencing revealed that the resistant isolate possessed an ERG3 mutation resulting in a G111R amino acid substitution. Sterol profiles indicated a reduction in sterol desaturase activity as a result of this mutation. Replacement of both mutant alleles in the resistant isolate with the susceptible isolate's allele restored wild-type susceptibility to all azoles and echinocandins tested. Disruption of ERG3 in the susceptible and resistant isolates resulted in a loss of sterol desaturase activity, high-level azole resistance, and an echinocandin-intermediate to -resistant phenotype. While disruption of ERG3 in C. albicans resulted in azole resistance, echinocandin MICs, while elevated, remained within the susceptible range. This work demonstrates that the G111R substitution in Erg3 is wholly responsible for the altered azole and echinocandin susceptibilities observed in this C. parapsilosis isolate and is the first report of an ERG3 mutation influencing susceptibility to the echinocandins.
Project description:Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast that can cause serious invasive infections. The accurate and rapid assessment of antifungal resistance is important for effective patient management. A novel and highly accurate diagnostic platform was established for the rapid identification of ERG11 mutations conferring azole resistance and FKS1 mutations associated with echinocandin resistance in C. auris Using allele-specific molecular beacons and DNA melting curve analysis following asymmetric PCR, a duplex ERG11 assay and a simplex FKS1 HS1 assay were developed to identify the most prominent resistance-associated mutations (Y132F and K143R in ERG11; S639F in FKS1 HS1) within 2 h. Assays were validated by testing a panel of 94 C. auris clinical isolates in a blind manner. The molecular diagnostic results from the assays were 100% concordant with DNA sequencing results. This platform has the potential to overcome the deficiencies of existing in vitro susceptibility-based assays to identify azole- and/or echinocandin-resistant C. auris, and thus, it holds promise as a surrogate diagnostic method to direct antifungal therapy more effectively.
Project description:We recently observed the emergence of fluconazole-resistant Candida parapsilosis bloodstream isolates harboring a Y132F substitution in Erg11p in South Korea. These Y132F isolates had a higher propensity to cause clonal transmission than other fluconazole-resistant isolates and persisted within hospitals for several years, as revealed by microsatellite typing.
Project description:SCY-078 in vitro activity was determined for 178 isolates of resistant or susceptible Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida lusitaniae, and Candida parapsilosis, including 44 Candida isolates with known genotypic (FKS1 or FKS2 mutations), phenotypic, or clinical resistance to echinocandins. Results were compared to those for anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, fluconazole, and voriconazole. SCY-078 was shown to have excellent activity against both wild-type isolates and echinocandin- and azole-resistant isolates of Candida species.
Project description:The activity of 7 antifungal agents against 3,557 invasive yeasts and molds collected in 29 countries worldwide in 2014 and 2015 was evaluated. Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) published in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M59 document were applied for species with no clinical breakpoints. Echinocandin susceptibility rates were 95.9% to 100.0% for the 5 most common Candida species, except for the rates for Candida parapsilosis to anidulafungin (88.7% susceptible, 100.0% wild type). Rates of fluconazole resistance ranged from 8.0% for Candida glabrata to 0.4% for Candida albicans Seven Candida species displayed 100.0% wild-type amphotericin B MIC results, and Candida dubliniensis and Candida lusitaniae exhibited wild-type echinocandin MIC results. The highest fluconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole MIC values for Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii were 8 ?g/ml, 0.12 ?g/ml, and 0.25 ?g/ml, respectively. Aspergillus fumigatus isolates were 100.0% wild type for caspofungin and amphotericin B, but 3 (0.8%) of these isolates were non-wild type to itraconazole (2 isolates) or voriconazole (1 isolate). Mutations in FKS hot spot (HS) regions were detected among 13/20 Candida isolates displaying echinocandin MICs greater than the ECV (16 of these 20 isolates were C. glabrata). Most isolates carrying mutations in FKS HS regions were resistant to 2 or more echinocandins. Five fluconazole-nonsusceptible C. albicans isolates were submitted to whole-genome sequencing analysis. Gain-of-function, Erg11 heterozygous, and Erg3 homozygous mutations were observed in 1 isolate each. One isolate displayed MDR1 promoter allele alterations associated with azole resistance. Elevated levels of expression of MDR1 or CDR2 were observed in 3 isolates and 1 isolate, respectively. Echinocandin and azole resistance is still uncommon among contemporary fungal isolates; however, mechanisms of resistance to antifungals were observed among Candida spp., showing that resistance can emerge and monitoring is warranted.
Project description:In Candida albicans, the ERG11 gene encodes lanosterol demethylase, the target of the azole antifungals. Mutations in ERG11 that result in an amino acid substitution alter the abilities of the azoles to bind to and inhibit Erg11, resulting in resistance. Although ERG11 mutations have been observed in clinical isolates, the specific contributions of individual ERG11 mutations to azole resistance in C. albicans have not been widely explored. We sequenced ERG11 in 63 fluconazole (FLC)-resistant clinical isolates. Fifty-five isolates carried at least one mutation in ERG11, and we observed 26 distinct positions in which amino acid substitutions occurred. We mapped the 26 distinct variant positions in these alleles to four regions in the predicted structure for Erg11, including its predicted catalytic site, extended fungus-specific external loop, proximal surface, and proximal surface-to-heme region. In total, 31 distinct ERG11 alleles were recovered, with 10 ERG11 alleles containing a single amino acid substitution. We then characterized 19 distinct ERG11 alleles by introducing them into the wild-type azole-susceptible C. albicans SC5314 strain and testing them for susceptibilities to FLC, itraconazole (ITC), and voriconazole (VRC). The strains that were homozygous for the single amino acid substitutions Y132F, K143R, F145L, S405F, D446E, G448E, F449V, G450E, and G464S had a ? 4-fold increase in FLC MIC. The strains that were homozygous for several double amino acid substitutions had decreased azole susceptibilities beyond those conferred by any single amino acid substitution. These findings indicate that mutations in ERG11 are prevalent among azole-resistant clinical isolates and that most mutations result in appreciable changes in FLC and VRC susceptibilities.
Project description:Sensititre YeastOne (SYO) is an affordable alternative to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference method for antifungal susceptibility testing. In this study, the MICs of yeast isolates from 1,214 bloodstream infection episodes, generated by SYO during hospital laboratory activity (January 2005 to December 2013), were reanalyzed using current CLSI clinical breakpoints/epidemiological cutoff values to assign susceptibility (or the wild-type [WT] phenotype) to systemic antifungal agents. Excluding Candida albicans (57.4% of all isolates [n = 1,250]), the most predominant species were Candida parapsilosis complex (20.9%), Candida tropicalis (8.2%), Candida glabrata (6.4%), Candida guilliermondii (1.6%), and Candida krusei (1.3%). Among the non-Candida species (1.9%), 7 were Cryptococcus neoformans and 17 were other species, mainly Rhodotorula species. Over 97% of Candida isolates were susceptible (WT phenotype) to amphotericin B and flucytosine. Rates of susceptibility (WT phenotype) to fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole were 98.7% in C. albicans, 92.3% in the C. parapsilosis complex, 96.1% in C. tropicalis, 92.5% in C. glabrata, 100% in C. guilliermondii, and 100% (excluding fluconazole) in C. krusei. The fluconazole-resistant isolates consisted of 6 C. parapsilosis complex isolates, 3 C. glabrata isolates, 2 C. albicans isolates, 2 C. tropicalis isolates, and 1 Candida lusitaniae isolate. Of the non-Candida isolates, 2 C. neoformans isolates had the non-WT phenotype for susceptibility to fluconazole, whereas Rhodotorula isolates had elevated azole MICs. Overall, 99.7% to 99.8% of Candida isolates were susceptible (WT phenotype) to echinocandins, but 3 isolates were nonsusceptible (either intermediate or resistant) to caspofungin (C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and C. krusei), anidulafungin (C. albicans and C. guilliermondii), and micafungin (C. albicans). However, when the intrinsically resistant non-Candida isolates were included, the rate of echinocandin nonsusceptibility reached 1.8%. In summary, the SYO method proved to be able to detect yeast species showing antifungal resistance or reduced susceptibility.