COVID-Well: Evaluation of the Implementation of Supported Wellbeing Centres for Hospital Employees during the COVID-19 Pandemic.
ABSTRACT: Supported Wellbeing Centres have been set up in UK hospital trusts in an effort to mitigate the psychological impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers, although the extent to which these are utilised and the barriers and facilitators to access are not known. The aim of the study was to determine facility usage and gather insight into employee wellbeing and the views of employees towards this provision. The study included (i) 17-week service use monitoring, (ii) employee online survey with measures of wellbeing, job stressfulness, presenteeism, turnover intentions, job satisfaction, and work engagement, as well as barriers and facilitators to accessing the Wellbeing Centres. Over 17 weeks, 14,934 facility visits were recorded across two sites (peak attendance in single week n = 2605). Facilities were highly valued, but the service model was resource intensive with 134 wellbeing buddies supporting the centres in pairs. 819 hospital employees completed an online survey (88% female; 37.7% working in COVID-19 high risk areas; 52.4% frontline workers; 55.2% had accessed a wellbeing centre). There was moderate-to-high job stress (62.9%), low wellbeing (26.1%), presenteeism (68%), and intentions to leave (31.6%). Wellbeing was higher in those that accessed a wellbeing centre. Work engagement and job satisfaction were high. Healthcare organisations are urged to mobilise access to high-quality rest spaces and psychological first aid, but this should be localised and diversified. Strategies to address presenteeism and staff retention should be prioritised, and the high dedication of healthcare workers should be recognised.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Working through a depressive illness can improve mental health but also carries risks and costs from reduced concentration, fatigue, and poor on-the-job performance. However, evidence-based recommendations for managing work attendance decisions, which benefit individuals and employers, are lacking. Therefore, this study has compared the costs and health outcomes of short-term absenteeism versus working while ill ("presenteeism") amongst employed Australians reporting lifetime major depression. METHODS:Cohort simulation using state-transition Markov models simulated movement of a hypothetical cohort of workers, reporting lifetime major depression, between health states over one- and five-years according to probabilities derived from a quality epidemiological data source and existing clinical literature. Model outcomes were health service and employment-related costs, and quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs), captured for absenteeism relative to presenteeism, and stratified by occupation (blue versus white-collar). RESULTS:Per employee with depression, absenteeism produced higher mean costs than presenteeism over one- and five-years ($42,573/5-years for absenteeism, $37,791/5-years for presenteeism). However, overlapping confidence intervals rendered differences non-significant. Employment-related costs (lost productive time, job turnover), and antidepressant medication and service use costs of absenteeism and presenteeism were significantly higher for white-collar workers. Health outcomes differed for absenteeism versus presenteeism amongst white-collar workers only. CONCLUSIONS:Costs and health outcomes for absenteeism and presenteeism were not significantly different; service use costs excepted. Significant variation by occupation type was identified. These findings provide the first occupation-specific cost evidence which can be used by clinicians, employees, and employers to review their management of depression-related work attendance, and may suggest encouraging employees to continue working is warranted.
Project description:An extremely useful theoretical approach to understanding the nature of work, health, and wellbeing is the job demand-control (JDC) model and the job demand-control-support (JDCS) model. In order for professional workers in the nongovernmental organization (NGO) sector to do their job, it is necessary for them to have a feeling of wellbeing. Despite this, in Europe, studies regarding the effects of the JDCS model in relation to workers' wellbeing have not been carried out. This study is expected to fill this important gap in research by analyzing the relationship of wellbeing with work demands, work control, and social support. In order to corroborate the proposed hypotheses, an analysis of these constructs in employees in European nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) was developed and, using structural equation models, these relationships were tested. The results confirm the main hypothesis of the job demand-control-support (JDCS) model and the causal relationship among physical and psychological demands, work control, and support from supervisors and colleagues with the level of employee wellbeing.
Project description:This study examines whether the relationship between the employees' perceived job autonomy may be prone to the contextual influence of supervisor support and presenteeism climate in explaining the attendance behaviors of presenteeism-the employees' decision to attend work despite being ill or not feeling well. Does work context play a role on presenteeism climate and the specific act of presenteeism? This study includes 213 health care employees (e.g., nurses, doctors) working in one private hospital in Lebanon. We used the ordinary least squared (OLS) regressions path analytical framework and bootstrapping methods to estimate the hypothesized moderated-mediation models. Our findings indicate that healthcare job resources (job autonomy) is correlated with the presenteeism climate and the occurrence of presenteeism attendance behaviors. We also found that this relationship is mediated by presenteeism climate and that supervisor support moderates the observed indirect relationship. This study extends the organizational attendance research domain to presenteeism climate by explaining for both doctors and nurses how contextual variables explains the relationship between jobs resources and presenteeism attendance behaviors. Supervisor support plays an important role in encouraging task autonomy and thus allowing employees increase their perception of empowerment to manage their actions at work. Overall, healthcare managers should ensure that employees understand their roles and duties and have an up-to-date, clearly defined role (e.g., job description) so that they can meet their organizations' goals.
Project description:Objective:Worksite wellness programs (WWP) may positively impact employee health, medical expenditures, absenteeism, and presenteeism. However, there has been little research to assess the benefits of WWP in small businesses. The purpose of this study is to prospectively evaluate changes in health, absenteeism, and presenteeism for employees who participated in a WWP. Methods:We conducted an observational, 3-year cohort study of 5766 employees from 314 businesses of differing sizes. We followed two cohorts of employees, who completed at least two annual health risk assessments (HRA) between May 2010 and December 2014. Changes from baseline to the first and second follow-up periods were assessed for chronic and non-chronic health conditions, absenteeism, and presenteeism. Results:Small business employees were more likely to participate in the WWP than were employees from large businesses. Changes in chronic and non-chronic health conditions varied by size of business, with small business employees showing improvements in stress, overall health, depression, smoking status, vegetable and fruit consumption, and physical activity, and in their perceptions of job health culture. In contrast, large business employees experienced improvements in stress, vegetable consumption, and alcohol use. No changes in absenteeism or presenteeism were observed. Conclusions:Small businesses achieve higher employee participation rates and more health improvements when compared to employees from large employers. Findings suggest that small businesses may gain the most from a WWP.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To examine the prevalence of aggression in healthcare and its association with employees' turnover intentions, health and engagement, as well as how these effects differ based on aggression source (patients vs colleagues), employee characteristics (race, gender and occupation) and organisational response to the aggression. DESIGN:Multilevel moderated regression analysis of 2010 National Health Service (NHS) survey. SETTING:147 acute NHS trusts in England. PARTICIPANTS:36?850 participants across three occupational groups (14% medical/dental, 61% nursing/midwifery, 25% allied health professionals or scientific and technical staff). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Employee turnover intentions, health and work engagement. RESULTS:Both forms of aggression (from patients and colleagues) have significant and substantial effects on turnover intentions, health and work engagement; however, for all three outcome variables, the effect of aggression from colleagues is more than twice the size of the effect of aggression from patients. Organisational response was found to buffer the negative effects of aggression from patients for turnover intentions and the negative effects of aggression from patients and colleagues for employee health. The results also demonstrated that nurses/midwives, women and Black employees are more likely to experience aggression; however, no clear patterns emerged on how aggression differentially impacts employees of different races, genders and occupations with respect to the outcome variables. CONCLUSIONS:Although aggression from patients and colleagues both have negative effects on healthcare employees' turnover intentions, health and work engagement, these negative effects are worse when it is aggression from colleagues. Having an effective organisational response can help ameliorate the negative effects of aggression on employees' health; however, it may not always buffer negative effects on turnover intentions and work engagement. Future research should examine other approaches, as well as how organisational responses and resources may need to differ based on aggression source.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Presenteeism is a behavior in which an employee is physically present at work with reduced performance due to illness or other reasons. Hospital doctors and nurses are more inclined to exhibit presenteeism than other professional groups, resulting in diminished staff health, reduced team productivity and potentially higher indirect presenteeism-related medical costs than absenteeism. Robust presenteeism intervention programs and productivity costing studies are available in the manufacturing and business sectors but not the healthcare sector. This systematic review aims to 1) identify instruments measuring presenteeism and its exposures and outcomes; 2) appraise the related workplace theoretical frameworks; and 3) evaluate the association between presenteeism, its exposures and outcomes, and the financial costs of presenteeism as well as interventions designed to alleviate presenteeism amongst hospital doctors and nurses. METHODS:A systematic search was carried out in ten electronic databases from 1998 to 2017 and screened by two reviewers. Quality assessment was carried out using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) tool. Publications meeting predefined assessment criteria were selected for data extraction. RESULTS:A total of 275 unique English publications were identified, 38 were selected for quality assessment, and 24 were retained for data extraction. Seventeen publications reported on presenteeism exposures and outcomes, four on financial costing, one on intervention program and two on economic evaluations. Eight (39%) utilized a theoretical framework, where the Job-Demands Resources (JD-R) framework was the most commonly used model. Most assessed work stressors and resources were positively and negatively associated with presenteeism respectively. Contradictory and limited comparability on findings across studies may be attributed to variability of selected scales for measuring both presenteeism and its exposures/outcomes constructs. CONCLUSION:The heterogeneity of published research and limited quality of measurement tools yielded no conclusive evidence on the association of presenteeism with hypothesized exposures, economic costs, or interventions amongst hospital healthcare workers. This review will aid researchers in developing a standardized multi-dimensional presenteeism exposures and productivity instrument to facilitate future cohort studies in search of potential cost-effective work-place intervention targets to reduce healthcare worker presenteeism and maintain a sustainable workforce.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Chronic diseases are a leading contributor to work disability and job loss in Europe. Recent EU policies aim to improve job retention among chronically ill employees. Disability and occupational health researchers argue that this requires a coordinated and pro-active approach at the workplace by occupational health professionals, line managers (LMs) and human resource managers (HRM). Little is known about the perspectives of LMs an HRM on what is needed to facilitate job retention among chronically ill employees. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore and compare the perspectives of Dutch LMs and HRM on this issue. METHODS: Concept mapping methodology was used to elicit and map statements (ideas) from 10 LMs and 17 HRM about what is needed to ensure continued employment for chronically ill employees. Study participants were recruited through a higher education and an occupational health services organization. RESULTS: Participants generated 35 statements. Each group (LMs and HRM) sorted these statements into six thematic clusters. LMs and HRM identified four similar clusters: LMs and HRM must be knowledgeable about the impact of chronic disease on the employee; employees must accept responsibility for work retention; work adaptations must be implemented; and clear company policy. Thematic clusters identified only by LMs were: good manager/employee cooperation and knowledge transfer within the company. Unique clusters identified by HRM were: company culture and organizational support. CONCLUSIONS: There were both similarities and differences between the views of LMs and HRM on what may facilitate job retention for chronically ill employees. LMs perceived manager/employee cooperation as the most important mechanism for enabling continued employment for these employees. HRM perceived organizational policy and culture as the most important mechanism. The findings provide information about topics that occupational health researchers and planners should address in developing job retention programs for chronically ill workers.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Sickness absence (SA) among healthcare workers is associated with occupational and non-occupational risk factors and impacts employee health, healthcare delivery and patient health. At the same time, healthcare is one of the employment sectors with the highest rates of work-related ill health in the UK. Musculoskeletal (MSK) and mental health (MH) issues are leading causes of SA, but there is a lack of research on how certain MSK/MH conditions impact on SA duration. The study aim is to determine differences in SA duration by MH and MSK disorders in healthcare employees. METHODS:Survival analyses were used to estimate SA duration due to MSK and MH problems over 6?years, and Cox's proportional hazards models to determine the HRs of returning to work, using a bespoke Scottish health board database with over 53 000 SA events. SA duration and time to return-to-work (RTW) were estimated for employees by age, gender, job and health conditions. RESULTS:MSK and MH conditions accounted for 27% and 6% of all SA events and 23.7% and 19.5% of all days lost, respectively. Average SA duration was 43.5 days for MSK and 53.9 days for MH conditions. For MSK conditions, employees with low back or neck pain had the fastest RTW (median P50: 7 days), whereas employees absent due to depression took the longest (P50: 54 days). The most influential sociodemographic variables affecting RTW were age, gender and job category. CONCLUSIONS:Using a unique and rich database, we found significant differences in SA duration by presenting condition in healthcare workers. MH conditions, and depression specifically, accounted for the most working days' absence. Significant variations in duration were also observed for MSK conditions. Our findings can inform public health practitioners and healthcare managers of the most significant factors impacting MSK-related and MH-related SA to develop and implement tailored and targeted workplace interventions.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:We assessed job satisfaction, work commitment and intention to leave among pharmacists working in different healthcare settings in Saudi Arabia. DESIGN:This was a cross-sectional study utilising a previously validated questionnaire. SETTING:We surveyed the workforce at different healthcare settings in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. PARTICIPANTS:The participants were pharmacists licensed by the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties. OUTCOME MEASURES:We examined job satisfaction, work commitment and intention to leave. RESULTS:In total, 325 out of 515 pharmacists completed the questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 63%. Over half of them were women (57.8%), 78.2% were Saudi Arabian nationals and 61.8% were married. The majority (88.1%) worked between 36 and 44 hours per week; 96.6% were full-time employees, and 63.4% were government employees working in public hospitals or primary healthcare centres. Although most of the pharmacists were satisfied (satisfied and slightly satisfied) with their current job (39.1% and 24.6%, respectively), about two-thirds (61.9%) had the intention to leave. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the most important predictors of pharmacists' intentions to leave were related to job satisfaction and work commitment (OR=0.923; 95% CI 0.899 to 0.947; p<0.001 and OR=1.044; 95% CI 1.014 to 1.08; p=0.004, respectively), whereas respondents' demographic characteristics had no effect. CONCLUSIONS:Although the pharmacists surveyed were satisfied and committed to their current job, they had the intention to leave. Further research is recommended to clarify why pharmacists in Saudi Arabia have the intention to leave their pharmacy practice job.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To examine variations in manager reactions and support for people with depression and to investigate how these reactions are related to (1) absenteeism and (2) presenteeism due to depression among employees with self-reported depression across 15 diverse countries.<h4>Design</h4>Secondary data analysis of cross-sectional survey data.<h4>Setting</h4>15 countries, diverse in geographical region and gross domestic product (GDP): Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Spain, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey and the USA.<h4>Participants</h4>16?018 employees and managers (approximately 1000 per country).<h4>Primary and secondary outcome measures</h4>We assessed level of absenteeism as measured by number of days taken off work because of depression and presenteeism score.<h4>Results</h4>On average, living in a country with a greater prevalence of managers saying that they avoided talking to the employee about depression was associated with employees with depression taking more days off work (B 4.13, 95%?CI 1.68 to 6.57). On average, living in a country with a higher GDP was marginally associated with employees with depression taking more days off of work (p=0.09). On average, living in a country with a greater prevalence of managers actively offering help to employees with depression was associated with higher levels of presenteeism (B 7.08, 95%?CI 6.59 to 7.58). Higher country GDP was associated with greater presenteeism among employees with depression (B 3.09, 95%?CI 2.31 to 3.88).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Manager reactions were at least as important as country financial resources. When controlling for country GDP, working in an environment where managers felt comfortable to offer help and support to the employee rather than avoid them was independently associated with less absenteeism and more presenteeism.