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Fermentation Enhanced Biotransformation of Compounds in the Kernel of Chrysophyllum albidum.


ABSTRACT: Chrysophyllum albidum Linn (African star apple) is a fruit with extensive nutritional and medicinal benefits. The fruit and kernel in the seed are both edible. Strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from fermented seeds and assessed for probiotic characteristics. The extracts in both the unfermented and the fermented aqueous extracts from the kernels obtained from the seeds of C. albidum were subjected to analysis using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. This analysis identified the bioactive compounds present as possible substrate(s) for the associated organisms inducing the fermentation and the resultant biotransformed products formed. Three potential probiotic LAB strains identified as Lactococcus raffinolactis (ProbtA1), Lactococcus lactis (ProbtA2a), and Pediococcus pentosaceus (ProbtA2b) were isolated from the fermented C. albidum seeds. All strains were non hemolytic, which indicated their safety, Probt (A1, A2a, and A2b) grew in an acidic environment (pH 3.5) during the 48-h incubation time, and all three strains grew in 1% bile, and exhibited good hydrophobicity and auto-aggregation properties. Mucin binding proteins was not detected in any strain, and bile salt hydrolase was detected in all the strains. l-lactic acid (28.57%), norharman (5.07%), formyl 7E-hexadecenoate (1.73%), and indole (1.51%) were the four major constituents of the fermented kernel of the C. albidum, while 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (C1, 1.27%), 3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-2,3-dihydropyran-4-one (C2, 2.90%), indole (C3, 1.31%), norharman (C4, 3.01%), and methyl petroselinate (C5, 4.33%) were the five major constituents of the unfermented kernels. The isolated LAB are safe for consumption. The fermenting process metabolized C1, C2, and C5, which are possible starter cultures for the growth of probiotics. Fermentation is an essential tool for bioengineering molecules in foods into safe and health beneficial products.

SUBMITTER: Odutayo OE 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC7768532 | BioStudies | 2020-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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