Experimental and theoretical rationalization for the base pairing abilities of inosine, guanosine, adenosine, and their corresponding 8-oxo-7,8-dihydropurine, and 8-bromopurine analogues within A-form duplexes of RNA.
ABSTRACT: Inosine is an important RNA modification, furthermore RNA oxidation has gained interest due, in part, to its potential role in the development/progression of disease as well as on its impact on RNA structure and function. In this report we established the base pairing abilities of purine nucleobases G, I, A, as well as their corresponding, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydropurine (common products of oxidation at the C8-position of purines), and 8-bromopurine (as probes to explore conformational changes), derivatives, namely 8-oxoG, 8-oxoI, 8-oxoA, 8-BrG, and 8-BrI. Dodecamers of RNA were obtained using standard phosphoramidite chemistry via solid-phase synthesis, and used as models to establish the impact that each of these nucleobases have on the thermal stability of duplexes, when base pairing to canonical and noncanonical nucleobases. Thermal stabilities were obtained from thermal denaturation transition (Tm ) measurements, via circular dichroism (CD). The results were then rationalized using models of base pairs between two monomers, via density functional theory (DFT), that allowed us to better understand potential contributions from H-bonding patterns arising from distinct conformations. Overall, some of the important results indicate that: (a) an anti-I:syn-A base pair provides thermal stability, due to the absence of the exocyclic amine; (b) 8-oxoG base pairs like U, and does not induce destabilization within the duplex when compared to the pyrimidine ring; (c) a U:G wobble-pair is only stabilized by G; and (d) 8-oxoA displays an inherited base pairing promiscuity in this sequence context. Gaining a better understanding of how this oxidatively generated lesions potentially base pair with other nucleobases will be useful to predict various biological outcomes, as well as in the design of biomaterials and/or nucleotide derivatives with biological potential.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species induced by ionizing radiation and metabolic pathways generate 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (oxoG) and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoadenine (oxoA) as two major forms of oxidative damage. The mutagenicity of oxoG, which promotes G to T transversions, is attributed to the lesion's conformational flexibility that enables Hoogsteen base pairing with dATP in the confines of DNA polymerases. The mutagenesis mechanism of oxoA, which preferentially causes A to C transversions, remains poorly characterized. While structures for oxoA bypass by human DNA polymerases are available, that of prokaryotic DNA polymerases have not been reported. Herein, we report kinetic and structural characterizations of Sulfolobus solfataricus Dpo4 incorporating a nucleotide opposite oxoA. Our kinetic studies show oxoA at the templating position reduces the replication fidelity by ?560-fold. The catalytic efficiency of the oxoA:dGTP insertion is ?300-fold greater than that of the dA:dGTP insertion, highlighting the promutagenic nature of oxoA. The relative efficiency of the oxoA:dGTP misincorporation is ?5-fold greater than that of the oxoG:dATP misincorporation, suggesting the mutagenicity of oxoA is comparable to that of oxoG. In the Dpo4 replicating base pair site, oxoA in the anti-conformation forms a Watson-Crick base pair with an incoming dTTP, while oxoA in the syn-conformation assumes Hoogsteen base pairing with an incoming dGTP, displaying the dual coding potential of the lesion. Within the Dpo4 active site, the oxoA:dGTP base pair adopts a Watson-Crick-like geometry, indicating Dpo4 influences the oxoA:dGTP base pair conformation. Overall, the results reported here provide insights into the miscoding properties of the major oxidative adenine lesion during translesion synthesis.
Project description:Nucleobases within DNA are attacked by reactive oxygen species to produce 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (oxoG) and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoadenine (oxoA) as major oxidative lesions. The high mutagenicity of oxoG is attributed to the lesion's ability to adopt syn-oxoG:anti-dA with Watson-Crick-like geometry. Recent studies have revealed that Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) inserts nucleotide opposite oxoA in an error-prone manner and accommodates syn-oxoA:anti-dGTP with Watson-Crick-like geometry, highlighting a promutagenic nature of oxoA. To gain further insights into the bypass of oxoA by Dpo4, we have conducted kinetic and structural studies of Dpo4 extending oxoA:dT and oxoA:dG by incorporating dATP opposite templating dT. The extension past oxoA:dG was ∼5-fold less efficient than that past oxoA:dT. Structural studies revealed that Dpo4 accommodated dT:dATP base pair past anti-oxoA:dT with little structural distortion. In the Dpo4-oxoA:dG extension structure, oxoA was in an anti conformation and did not form hydrogen bonds with the primer terminus base. Unexpectedely, the dG opposite oxoA exited the primer terminus site and resided in an extrahelical site, where it engaged in minor groove contacts to the two immediate upstream bases. The extrahelical dG conformation appears to be induced by the stabilization of anti-oxoA conformation via bifurcated hydrogen bonds with Arg332. This unprecedented structure suggests that Dpo4 may use Arg332 to sense 8-oxopurines at the primer terminus site and slow the extension from the mismatch by promoting anti conformation of 8-oxopurines.
Project description:Oxidative damage to DNA generates 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (oxoG) and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoadenine (oxoA) as two major lesions. Despite the comparable prevalence of these lesions, the biological effects of oxoA remain poorly characterized. Here we report the discovery of a class of DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) involving oxidized nucleobases. Under oxidative conditions, oxoA, but not oxoG, readily reacts with an opposite base to produce ICLs, highlighting a latent alkylating nature of oxoA. Reactive halogen species, one-electron oxidants, and the myeloperoxidase/H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>/Cl<sup>-</sup> system induce oxoA ICLs, suggesting that oxoA-mediated cross-links may arise endogenously. Nucleobase analog studies suggest C2-oxoA is covalently linked to N2-guanine and N3-adenine for the oxoA-G and oxoA-A ICLs, respectively. The oxoA ICLs presumably form via the oxidative activation of oxoA followed by the nucleophilic attack by an opposite base. Our findings provide insights into oxoA-mediated mutagenesis and contribute towards investigations of oxidative stress-induced ICLs and oxoA-based latent alkylating agents.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species generate the genotoxic 8-oxoguanine (oxoG) and 8-oxoadenine (oxoA) as major oxidative lesions. The mutagenicity of oxoG is attributed to the lesion's ability to evade the geometric discrimination of DNA polymerases by adopting Hoogsteen base pairing with adenine in a Watson-Crick-like geometry. Compared with oxoG, the mutagenesis mechanism of oxoA, which preferentially induces A-to-C mutations, is poorly understood. In the absence of protein contacts, oxoA:G forms a wobble conformation, the formation of which is suppressed in the catalytic site of most DNA polymerases. Interestingly, human DNA polymerase ? (pol?) proficiently incorporates dGTP opposite oxoA, suggesting the nascent oxoA:dGTP overcomes the geometric discrimination of pol?. To gain insights into oxoA-mediated mutagenesis, we determined crystal structures of pol? bypassing oxoA. When paired with dGTP, oxoA adopted a syn-conformation and formed Hoogsteen pairing while in a wobble geometry, which was stabilized by Gln38-mediated minor groove contacts to oxoA:dGTP. Gln38Ala mutation reduced misinsertion efficiency ?55-fold, indicating oxoA:dGTP misincorporation was promoted by minor groove interactions. Also, the efficiency of oxoA:dGTP insertion by the X-family pol? decreased ?380-fold when Asn279-mediated minor groove contact to dGTP was abolished. Overall, these results suggest that, unlike oxoG, oxoA-mediated mutagenesis is greatly induced by minor groove interactions.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species attack DNA to produce 7,8-dihyro-8-oxoguanine (oxoG) and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoadenine (oxoA) as major lesions. The structural basis for the mutagenicity of oxoG, which induces G to T mutations, is well understood. However, the structural basis for the mutagenic potential of oxoA, which induces A to C mutations, remains poorly understood. To gain insight into oxoA-induced mutagenesis, we conducted kinetic studies of human DNA polymerases ? and ? replicating across oxoA and structural studies of pol? incorporating dTTP/dGTP opposite oxoA. While pol? readily bypassed oxoA, it incorporated dGTP opposite oxoA with a catalytic specificity comparable to that of correct insertion, underscoring the promutagenic nature of the major oxidative adenine lesion. Pol? and pol? incorporated dGTP opposite oxoA ?170-fold and ?100-fold more efficiently than that opposite dA, respectively, indicating that the 8-oxo moiety greatly facilitated error-prone replication. Crystal structures of pol? showed that, when paired with an incoming dTTP, the templating oxoA adopted an anti conformation and formed Watson-Crick base pair. When paired with dGTP, oxoA adopted a syn conformation and formed a Hoogsteen base pair with Watson-Crick-like geometry, highlighting the dual-coding potential of oxoA. The templating oxoA was stabilized by Lys280-mediated stacking and hydrogen bonds. Overall, these results provide insight into the mutagenic potential and dual-coding nature of the major oxidative adenine lesion.
Project description:To understand the complex fluorescence properties of astraphloxin (CY3)-labelled oligonucleotides, it is necessary to take into account the redox properties of the nucleobases. In oligonucleotide hybrids, we observed a dependence of the fluorescence intensity on the oxidation potential of the neighbouring base pair. For the series I < A < G < 8-oxoG, the extent of fluorescence quenching follows the trend of decreasing oxidation potentials. In a series of 7 nt hybrids, stacking interactions of CY3 with perfect match and mismatch base pairs were found to stabilise the hybrid by 7-8 kJ/mol. The fluorescence measurements can be explained by complex formation resulting in fluorescence quenching that prevails over the steric effect of a reduced excited state trans-cis isomerisation, which was expected to increase the fluorescence efficiency of the dye when stacking to a base pair. This can be explained by the fact that, in a double strand, base pairing and stacking cause a dramatic change in the oxidation potential of the nucleobases. In single-molecule fluorescence measurements, the oxidation of G to 8-oxoG was observed as a result of photoinduced electron transfer and subsequent chemical reactions. Our results demonstrate that covalently linked CY3 is a potent oxidant towards dsDNA. Sulfonated derivatives should be used instead.
Project description:8-Halogenated guanine (haloG), a major DNA adduct formed by reactive halogen species during inflammation, is a promutagenic lesion that promotes misincorporation of G opposite the lesion by various DNA polymerases. Currently, the structural basis for such misincorporation is unknown. To gain insights into the mechanism of misincorporation across haloG by polymerase, we determined seven x-ray structures of human DNA polymerase ? (pol?) bound to DNA bearing 8-bromoguanine (BrG). We determined two pre-catalytic ternary complex structures of pol? with an incoming nonhydrolyzable dGTP or dCTP analog paired with templating BrG. We also determined five binary complex structures of pol? in complex with DNA containing BrG·C/T at post-insertion and post-extension sites. In the BrG·dGTP ternary structure, BrG adopts syn conformation and forms Hoogsteen base pairing with the incoming dGTP analog. In the BrG·dCTP ternary structure, BrG adopts anti conformation and forms Watson-Crick base pairing with the incoming dCTP analog. In addition, our pol? binary post-extension structures show Hoogsteen BrG·G base pair and Watson-Crick BrG·C base pair. Taken together, the first structures of haloG-containing DNA bound to a protein indicate that both BrG·G and BrG·C base pairs are accommodated in the active site of pol?. Our structures suggest that Hoogsteen-type base pairing between G and C8-modified G could be accommodated in the active site of a DNA polymerase, promoting G to C mutation.
Project description:The highly mutagenic A:oxoG (8-oxoguanine) base pair in DNA most frequently arises by aberrant replication of the primary oxidative lesion C:oxoG. This lesion is particularly insidious because neither of its constituent nucleobases faithfully transmit genetic information from the original C:G base pair. Repair of A:oxoG is initiated by adenine DNA glycosylase, which catalyzes hydrolytic cleavage of the aberrant A nucleobase from the DNA backbone. These enzymes, MutY in bacteria and MUTYH in humans, scrupulously avoid processing of C:oxoG because cleavage of the C residue in C:oxoG would actually promote mutagenic conversion to A:oxoG. Here we analyze the structural basis for rejection of C:oxoG by MutY, using a synthetic crystallography approach to capture the enzyme in the process of inspecting the C:oxoG anti-substrate, with which it ordinarily binds only fleetingly. We find that MutY uses two distinct strategies to avoid presentation of C to the enzyme active site. Firstly, MutY possesses an exo-site that serves as a decoy for C, and secondly, repulsive forces with a key active site residue prevent stable insertion of C into the nucleobase recognition pocket within the enzyme active site.
Project description:A major base lesion resulting from oxidative stress is 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxoG) that has ambiguous coding potential. Error-free DNA synthesis involves 8-oxoG adopting an anti-conformation to base pair with cytosine whereas mutagenic bypass involves 8-oxoG adopting a syn-conformation to base pair with adenine. Left unrepaired the syn-8-oxoG/dAMP base pair results in a G-C to T-A transversion. During base excision repair of this mispair, DNA polymerase (pol) ? is confronted with gap filling opposite 8-oxoG. To determine how pol ? discriminates between anti- and syn-8-oxoG, we introduced a point mutation (R283K) to alter insertion specificity. Kinetic studies demonstrate that this substitution results in an increased fidelity opposite 8-oxoG. Structural studies with R283K pol ? show that the binary DNA complex has 8-oxoG in equilibrium between anti- and syn-forms. Ternary complexes with incoming dCTP resemble the wild-type enzyme, with templating anti-8-oxoG base pairing with incoming cytosine. In contrast to wild-type pol ?, the ternary complex of the R283K mutant with an incoming dATP-analogue and templating 8-oxoG resembles a G-A mismatched structure with 8-oxoG adopting an anti-conformation. These results demonstrate that the incoming nucleotide is unable to induce a syn-8-oxoG conformation without minor groove DNA polymerase interactions that influence templating (anti-/syn-equilibrium) of 8-oxoG while modulating fidelity.
Project description:We used the high resolution and accuracy of the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) to provide detailed information regarding base pairing interactions of selected nucleobases. We searched for base pairs in which nucleobases interact with each other through two or more hydrogen bonds and form more or less planar structures. The investigated compounds were either free forms or derivatives of adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, thymine, uracil and cytosine. We divided our findings into categories including types of pairs, protonation patterns and whether they are formed by free bases or substituted ones. We found base pair types that are exclusive to small molecule crystal structures, some that can be found only in RNA containing crystal structures and many that are native to both environments. With a few exceptions, nucleobase protonation generally followed a standard pattern governed by pKa values. The lengths of hydrogen bonds did not depend on whether the nucleobases forming a base pair were charged or not. The reasons why particular nucleobases formed base pairs in a certain way varied significantly.