Molecular identification and mitogenome character of illegally traded tufted deer, Elaphodus cephalophus cephalophus.
ABSTRACT: The total mitogenome of the confiscated material of tufted deer, Elaphodus cephalophus cephalophus was sequenced and annotated. It is 16,351bp in length and contained 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and, 1 control region (CR). Phylogenetic analyses showed the close relationship of Elaphodus and Muntiacus, and monophyletic clades of genera Elaphodus and Muntiacus.
Project description:Great rivers were generally looked at as the geographical barrier to gene flow for many taxonomic groups. The Yangtze River is the third largest river in the world, and flows across South China and into the East China Sea. Up until now, few studies have been carried out to evaluate its effect as a geographical barrier. In this study, we attempted to determine the barrier effect of the Yangtze River on the tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus) using the molecular ecology approach. Using mitochondrial DNA control region (CR) sequences and 13 nuclear microsatellite loci, we explored the genetic structure and gene flow in two adjacent tufted deer populations (Dabashan and Wulingshan populations), which are separated by the Yangtze River. Results indicated that there are high genetic diversity levels in the two populations, but no distinguishable haplotype group or potential genetic cluster was detected which corresponded to specific geographical population. At the same time, high gene flow was observed between Wulingshan and Dabashan populations. The tufted deer populations experienced population decrease from 0.3 to 0.09 Ma BP, then followed by a distinct population increase. A strong signal of recent population decline (T = 4,396 years) was detected in the Wulingshan population by a Markov-Switching Vector Autoregressions(MSVAR) process population demography analysis. The results indicated that the Yangtze River may not act as an effective barrier to gene flow in the tufted deer. Finally, we surmised that the population demography of the tufted deer was likely affected by Pleistocene climate fluctuations and ancient human activities.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Projection neurons of mammalian olfactory bulb (OB), mitral and tufted cells, have dendrites whose morphologies are specifically differentiated for efficient odor information processing. The apical dendrite extends radially and arborizes in single glomerulus where it receives primary input from olfactory sensory neurons that express the same odor receptor. The lateral dendrites extend horizontally in the external plexiform layer and make reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses with granule cells, which moderate mitral/tufted cell activity. The molecular mechanisms regulating dendritic development of mitral/tufted cells is one of the unsolved important problems in the olfactory system. Here, we focused on TrkB receptors to test the hypothesis that neurotrophin-mediate mechanisms contributed to dendritic differentiation of OB mitral/tufted cells.<h4>Principal findings</h4>With immunohistochemical analysis, we found that the TrkB neurotrophin receptor is expressed by both apical and lateral dendrites of mitral/tufted cells and that expression is evident during the early postnatal days when these dendrites exhibit their most robust growth and differentiation. To examine the effect of TrkB activation on mitral/tufted cell dendritic development, we cultured OB neurons. When BDNF or NT4 were introduced into the cultures, there was a significant increase in the number of primary neurites and branching points among the mitral/tufted cells. Moreover, BDNF facilitated filopodial extension along the neurites of mitral/tufted cells.<h4>Significance</h4>In this report, we show for the first time that TrkB activation stimulates the dendritic branching of mitral/tufted cells in developing OB. This suggests that arborization of the apical dendrite in a glomerulus is under the tight regulation of TrkB activation.
Project description:Tufted Puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) populations have experienced dramatic declines since the mid-19th century along the southern portion of the species range, leading citizen groups to petition the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to list the species as endangered in the contiguous US. While there remains no consensus on the mechanisms driving these trends, population decreases in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem suggest climate-related factors, and in particular the indirect influence of sea-surface temperature on puffin prey. Here, we use three species distribution models (SDMs) to evaluate projected shifts in habitat suitable for Tufted Puffin nesting for the year 2050 under two future Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emission scenarios. Ensemble model results indicate warming marine and terrestrial temperatures play a key role in the loss of suitable Tufted Puffin nesting conditions in the California Current under both business-as-usual (RCP 8.5) and moderated (RCP 4.5) carbon emission scenarios, and in particular, that mean summer sea-surface temperatures greater than 15 °C are likely to make habitat unsuitable for breeding. Under both emission scenarios, ensemble model results suggest that more than 92% of currently suitable nesting habitat in the California Current is likely to become unsuitable. Moreover, the models suggest a net loss of greater than 21% of suitable nesting sites throughout the entire North American range of the Tufted Puffin, regardless of emission-reduction strategies. These model results highlight continued Tufted Puffin declines-particularly among southern breeding colonies-and indicate a significant risk of near-term extirpation in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem.
Project description:The black and gold howler monkey (Alouatta caraya) is a neotropical primate threatened by habitat loss and capture for illegal trade in Argentina. Using multilocus microsatellite genotypes from 178?A. caraya individuals sampled from 15 localities in Argentina, we built a genotype reference database (GRDB). Bayesian assignment methods applied to the GRDB allowed us to correctly re-assign 73% of individuals to their true location of origin and 93.3% to their cluster of origin. We used the GRDB to assign 22 confiscated individuals (17 of which were reintroduced), and 3 corpses to both localities and clusters of origin. We assigned with a probability >70% the locality of origin of 14 individuals and the cluster of origin of 21. We found that most of the confiscated individuals were assigned to one cluster (F-Ch-C) and two localities included in the GRDB, suggesting that trafficked A. caraya primarily originated in this area. Our results reveal that only 4 of 17 reintroduced individuals were released in sites corresponding to their cluster of origin. Our findings illustrate the applicability of genotype databases for inferring hotspots of illegal capture and for guiding future reintroduction efforts, both of which are essential elements of species protection and recovery programs.
Project description:The global trade in wildlife has historically contributed to the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. The United States is the world's largest importer of wildlife and wildlife products, yet minimal pathogen surveillance has precluded assessment of the health risks posed by this practice. This report details the findings of a pilot project to establish surveillance methodology for zoonotic agents in confiscated wildlife products. Initial findings from samples collected at several international airports identified parts originating from nonhuman primate (NHP) and rodent species, including baboon, chimpanzee, mangabey, guenon, green monkey, cane rat and rat. Pathogen screening identified retroviruses (simian foamy virus) and/or herpesviruses (cytomegalovirus and lymphocryptovirus) in the NHP samples. These results are the first demonstration that illegal bushmeat importation into the United States could act as a conduit for pathogen spread, and suggest that implementation of disease surveillance of the wildlife trade will help facilitate prevention of disease emergence.
Project description:The tf (tufted) locus is responsible for a classic phenotype of hair loss and regrowth in mice. It is a characteristic of the BTBR strain. Here, we use a combination of positional cloning methods and complementation mapping to identify Itpr3, the inositol triphosphate receptor type 3, as the gene responsible for the tf locus.
Project description:Araucana chickens are known for their rounded, tailless rumps and tufted ears. Inheritance studies have shown that the rumpless (Rp) and ear-tufted (Et) loci each act in an autosomal dominant fashion, segregate independently, and are associated with an increased rate of embryonic mortality. To find genomic regions associated with Rp and Et, we generated genome-wide SNP profiles for a diverse population of 60 Araucana chickens using the 60 K chicken SNP BeadChip. Genome-wide association studies using 40 rumpless and 11 tailed birds showed a strong association with rumpless on Gga 2 (P(raw)?=?2.45×10(-10), P(genome)?=?0.00575), and analysis of genotypes revealed a 2.14 Mb haplotype shared by all rumpless birds. Within this haplotype, a 0.74 Mb critical interval containing two Iroquois homeobox genes, Irx1 and Irx2, was unique to rumpless Araucana chickens. Irx1 and Irx2 are central for developmental prepatterning, but neither gene is known to have a role in mechanisms leading to caudal development. A second genome-wide association analysis using 30 ear-tufted and 28 non-tufted birds revealed an association with tufted on Gga 15 (P(raw)?=?6.61×10(-7), P(genome)?=?0.0981). We identified a 0.58 Mb haplotype common to tufted birds and harboring 7 genes. Because homozygosity for Et is nearly 100% lethal, we employed a heterozygosity mapping approach to prioritize candidate gene selection. A 60 kb region heterozygous in all Araucana chickens contains the complete coding sequence for TBX1 and partial sequence for GNB1L. TBX1 is an important transcriptional regulator of embryonic development and a key genetic determinant of human DiGeorge syndrome. Herein, we describe localization of Rp and Et and identification of positional candidate genes.
Project description:Asymmetries in resource-holding potential between opposing groups frequently determine outcomes of intergroup contests. Since both numerical superiority and high intergroup dominance rank may confer competitive advantages, group members should benefit from assessing the relative strength of rivals prior to engaging in defensive displays. However, differences in individual assessment may emerge when cost-benefit trade-offs differ among group members. We examine the influence of numerical superiority and intergroup dominance relationships on individual participation in intergroup encounters in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) and tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus). Black howlers responded with longer vocal displays during encounters with neighbours with an equal number of resident males, while tufted capuchins increased their participation with increasing relative male group size. Within each species, males and females responded similarly to varying numerical odds, suggesting that despite pay-off asymmetries between males and females, both sexes were similarly influenced by numerical asymmetries in deciding to participate in collective group defence. Whereas the outcome of contests among tufted capuchins was determined by relative male group size, reflected in a pronounced intergroup dominance hierarchy, the absence of dominance relationships among black howler groups may have provoked prolonged vocal displays in order to assess rival groups with matching competitive abilities.
Project description:In rat olfactory bulb slices, external tufted (ET) cells spontaneously generate spike bursts. Only ET cells affiliated with the same glomerulus exhibit significant synchronous activity, suggesting that synchrony results mainly from intraglomerular interactions. The intraglomerular mechanisms underlying their synchrony are unknown. Using dual extracellular and patch-clamp recordings from ET cell pairs of the same glomerulus, we found that the bursting of ET cells is synchronized by several mechanisms. First, ET cell pairs of the same glomerulus receive spontaneous synchronous fast excitatory synaptic input that can also be evoked by olfactory nerve stimulation. Second, they exhibit correlated spontaneous slow excitatory synaptic currents that can also be evoked by stimulation of the external plexiform layer. These slow currents may reflect the repetitive release of glutamate via spillover from the dendritic tufts of other ET or mitral/tufted cells affiliated with the same glomerulus. Third, ET cells exhibit correlated bursts of inhibitory synaptic activity immediately after the synchronous fast excitatory input. These bursts of IPSCs were eliminated by CNQX and may therefore reflect correlated feedback inhibition from periglomerular cells that are driven by ET cell spike bursts. Fourth, in the presence of fast synaptic blockers, ET cell pairs exhibit synchronous slow membrane current oscillations associated with rhythmic spikelets, which were sensitive to the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone. These findings suggest that coordinated synaptic transmission and gap junction coupling synchronize the spontaneous bursting of ET cells of the same glomerulus.
Project description:A slow respiration-related rhythm strongly shapes the activity of the olfactory bulb. This rhythm appears as a slow oscillation that is detectable in the membrane potential, the respiration-related spike discharge of the mitral/tufted cells and the bulbar local field potential. Here, we investigated the rules that govern the manifestation of membrane potential slow oscillations (MPSOs) and respiration-related discharge activities under various afferent input conditions and cellular excitability states.We recorded the intracellular membrane potential signals in the mitral/tufted cells of freely breathing anesthetized rats. We first demonstrated the existence of multiple types of MPSOs, which were influenced by odor stimulation and discharge activity patterns. Complementary studies using changes in the intracellular excitability state and a computational model of the mitral cell demonstrated that slow oscillations in the mitral/tufted cell membrane potential were also modulated by the intracellular excitability state, whereas the respiration-related spike activity primarily reflected the afferent input. Based on our data regarding MPSOs and spike patterns, we found that cells exhibiting an unsynchronized discharge pattern never exhibited an MPSO. In contrast, cells with a respiration-synchronized discharge pattern always exhibited an MPSO. In addition, we demonstrated that the association between spike patterns and MPSO types appeared complex.We propose that both the intracellular excitability state and input strength underlie specific MPSOs, which, in turn, constrain the types of spike patterns exhibited.