The mitochondrial genome of an ectoparasitoid wasp, Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Braconinae).
ABSTRACT: In this study, we sequenced the mitogenome of Habrobracon hebetor, and obtained almost complete mitogenome of it. The mitogenome contains 14,629 bp which consists of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 20 transfer RNA genes (trnI and trnM are absent), and 2 ribosomal RNA genes (GenBank accession no. MT558946). Gene rearrangement events occurred in this species, five tRNA genes with changes in positions or/and directions are found. All of 13 PCGs started with ATN. Eight PCGs used the typical stop codon 'TAA', five PCGs terminated with incomplete stop codons (T). Phylogenetic analyses within the Cyclostomes were performed based on mitochondrial PCGs.
Project description:Neuropeptides are a group of signal molecules that regulate many physiological and behavioral processes by binding to corresponding receptors, most of which are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Using bioinformatic methods, we screened genomic and transcriptomic data of the ectoparasitoid wasp, <i>Habrobracon hebetor</i>, and annotated 34 neuropeptide candidate precursor genes and 44 neuropeptide receptor candidate genes. The candidate neuropeptide genes were found to encode all known insect neuropeptides except allatotropin, neuropeptide F, pigment dispersing factor, and CCHamides. When compared with the endoparasitic wasp <i>Pteromalus puparum</i> and the ectoparasitic wasp <i>Nasonia vitripennis</i>, trissin and FMRFamide were found only in <i>H. hebetor</i>. A similar result held for the neuropeptide receptor genes, for the receptors were found in <i>H. hebetor</i> except the receptors of CCHamides and neuroparsin. Furthermore, we compared and analyzed the differences in neuropeptides in eight Braconidae wasps and identified natalisin in <i>H. hebetor, Diachasma alloeum, Fopius arisanus</i> and <i>Microplitis demolitor</i>, but not in the other wasps. We also analyzed the transcriptome data and qRT-PCR data from different developmental stages and tissues to reveal the expression patterns of the neuropeptides and their receptors. In this study, we revealed composition of neuropeptides and neuropeptide receptors in <i>H. hebetor</i>, which may contribute to future neurobiological studies.
Project description:We determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of <i>Habrobracon hebetor</i> (Say). The complete mitogenome sequence of <i>H. hebetor</i> was observed to be a circular molecule 15,708 bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes (PCG), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes (GenBank accession no. MN842279). This nucleotide composition is biased toward adenine and thymine (85.2% A + T). The A + T-rich region is found between <i>trnM</i> and <i>trnQ</i>, and this entire region was 864 bp long.
Project description:Bracon admotus Papp, 2000, and three species of the genus Habrobracon Ashmead, 1895, Habrobracon concolorans (Marshall, 1900), Habrobracon hebetor (Say, 1836) and Habrobracon pillerianae Fischer, 1980, were obtained from the larvae of Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) feeding on Daphne gnidium Linnaeus, 1753 (Thymelaeaceae) in the natural reserve of Migliarino-San Rossore-Massaciuccoli (Pisa-Central Italy). Bracon admotus, Habrobracon concolorans and Habrobracon pillerianae were found for the first time to be associated with Lobesia botrana, while Habrobracon hebetor was reared for the first time from the larvae of Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière, 1867) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Phycitinae) that was found on the same host plant. Bracon admotus and Habrobracon pillerianae are new to the fauna of Italy and Western Europe. A key is proposed for the determination of Habrobracon species reared from Lobesia botrana and related Palaearctic species of this genus. Habrobracon lineatellae Fisher, 1968 is considered as a valid species.
Project description:Consumers are increasingly demanding pesticide-free grain/legumes and processed foods. Additionally, there are more restrictions, or complete loss, of insecticides labelled for use in managing stored grain insects in post-harvest ecosystems. Suppression of post-harvest pests using parasitic wasps is a more sustainable alternative than chemical pesticides. Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Pteromalus cerealellae Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are two important parasitoids that limit economically important pests of stored products. Host searching ability and reproductive performances of H. hebetor and P. cerealellae depend on a wide range of factors, such as host species, commodities, and environmental conditions. Further, use of entomopathogens can complement the ability of parasitoids to regulate pest populations. This review provides information on aspects of H. hebetor and P. cerealellae biology and successful regulation of post-harvest pest populations.
Project description:The antibiosis effect of gallic acid on Spodoptera litura F. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its parasitoid evaluated by feeding six days old larvae on artificial diet incorporated with different concentrations (5 ppm, 25 ppm, 125 ppm, 625 ppm, 3125 ppm) of the phenolic compound revealed higher concentration (LC<sub>50</sub>) of gallic acid had a negative impact on the survival and physiology of S. litura and its parasitoid Bracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera:Braconidae). The mortality of S. litura larvae was increased whereas adult emergence declined with increasing concentration of gallic acid. The developmental period was delayed significantly and all the nutritional indices were reduced significantly with increase in concentration. Higher concentration (LC<sub>50</sub>) of gallic acid adversely affected egg hatching, larval mortality, adult emergence and total development period of B. hebetor. At lower concentration (LC<sub>30</sub>) the effect on B. hebetor adults and larvae was non-significant with respect to control. Gene expression for the enzymes viz., Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase, Peroxidase, Esterases and Glutathione S transferases increased while the total hemocyte count of S. litura larvae decreased with treatment. Our findings suggest that gallic acid even at lower concentration (LC<sub>30</sub>) can impair the growth of S. litura larvae without causing any significant harm to its parasitoid B. hebetor and has immense potential to be used as biopesticides.
Project description:Despite its wide distribution in the Indo-Pacific region and its popularity as an aquarium species, genetic studies on <i>Lysmata debelius</i> remain very limited. In this study, we obtained and characterized the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of <i>L. debelius</i>. Results showed that the mitogenome was 16,757 bp in length and consisted of 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes. Fourteen genes were light-strand encoded and 23 genes were heavy-strand encoded. The A + T content of the heavy strand was 67.16%. All PCGs had ATN as the start codon. Eight PCGs terminated with a complete stop codon of TAN, and five PCGs (ND3, ND5, ND4, Cox2, and Cytb) had an incomplete stop codon. The phylogeny of 42 shrimp species showed that all three <i>Lysmata</i> species were clustered together. The newly described mitogenome should provide valuable data for phylogenetic analysis of Hippolytidae.
Project description:Abstract Mitochondria are important organelles with independent genetic material of eukaryotic organisms. In this study, we sequenced and analyzed the complete mitogenome of a small cyprinid fish, Microphysogobioelongatus (Yao & Yang, 1977). The mitogenome of M.elongatus is a typical circular molecule of 16,612 bp in length containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a 930 bp control region. The base composition of the M.elongatus mitogenome is 30.8% A, 26.1% T, 16.7% G, and 26.4% C. All PCGs used the standard ATG start codon with the exception of COI. Six PCGs terminate with complete stop codons, whereas seven PCGs (ND2, COII, ATPase 6, COIII, ND3, ND4, and Cyt b) terminate with incomplete (T or TA) stop codons. All tRNA genes exhibited typical cloverleaf secondary structures with the exception of tRNASer(AGY), for which the dihydrouridine arm forms a simple loop. The phylogenetic analysis divided the subfamily Gobioninae in three clades with relatively robust support, and that Microphysogobio is not a monophyletic group. The complete mitogenome of M.elongatus provides a valuable resource for future studies about molecular phylogeny and/or population genetics of Microphysogobio.
Project description:The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of a Satirid species <i>Coenonympha amaryllis</i> was assembled and annotated. The mitogenome is a DNA molecule of 15125 bp, and consists of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs, 2 rRNAs, and 1 A-T rich region. The nucleotide composition biases toward A and T is 79.4% of the entirety, which is a typical structure of Lepidopterans. All PCGs started with ATN, except <i>cox1</i>, which started with CGA, 8 PCGs stop with TAN and 5 genes exhibited incomplete stop codon. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Satyrinae is a monophyletic group and <i>Coenonympha</i> (<i>C. amaryllis</i>) as sister of the genus <i>Triphysa</i> (<i>T. phryne</i>).
Project description:We report the complete mitogenome of <i>Hydrophis cyanocinctus</i>, which is 17,750?bp in size and includes 13 protein-coding (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 2 control regions. PCGs, with 13 genes, is 11,427?bp in length. All PCGs use ATN as the typical start codon except COX1 with GTG; the TAG was found as the stop codon in ND1 and ND2, the AGA was found as the stop codon in COI and ND6, the TAA was found as the stop codon in ATP8, ATP6, ND4L, ND5 and Cytb; while other 3 PCGs stop with a single T. Phylogeny reconstructed using the Bayesian inference (BI) method with 13 PCGs indicates the presence of <i>H. cyanocinctus</i> at the root of Laticaudinae.