Fibrillar pharmacology of functionalized nanocellulose.
ABSTRACT: Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) are linear organic nanomaterials derived from an abundant naturally occurring biopolymer resource. Strategic modification of the primary and secondary hydroxyl groups on the CNC introduces amine and iodine group substitution, respectively. The amine groups (0.285 mmol of amine per gram of functionalized CNC (fCNC)) are further reacted with radiometal loaded-chelates or fluorescent dyes as tracers to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of the fCNC in vivo. In this way, these nanoscale macromolecules can be covalently functionalized and yield water-soluble and biocompatible fibrillar nanoplatforms for gene, drug and radionuclide delivery in vivo. Transmission electron microscopy of fCNC reveals a length of 162.4?±?16.3 nm, diameter of 11.2?±?1.52 nm and aspect ratio of 16.4?±?1.94 per particle (mean?±?SEM) and is confirmed using atomic force microscopy. Size exclusion chromatography of macromolecular fCNC describes a fibrillar molecular behavior as evidenced by retention times typical of late eluting small molecules and functionalized carbon nanotubes. In vivo, greater than 50% of intravenously injected radiolabeled fCNC is excreted in the urine within 1 h post administration and is consistent with the pharmacological profile observed for other rigid, high aspect ratio macromolecules. Tissue distribution of fCNC shows accumulation in kidneys, liver, and spleen (14.6?±?6.0; 6.1?±?2.6; and 7.7?±?1.4% of the injected activity per gram of tissue, respectively) at 72 h post-administration. Confocal fluorescence microscopy reveals cell-specific accumulation in these target tissue sinks. In summary, our findings suggest that functionalized nanocellulose can be used as a potential drug delivery platform for the kidneys.
Project description:We decorated HS-functionalized cellulose nanocrystallite (CNC) films with monodisperse Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) to form a novel nanocomposite catalyst AuNPs@HS-CNC. The uniform, fine AuNPs were made by the reduction of HAuCl4 solution with thiol (HS-) group-functionalized CNC films. The AuNPs@HS-CNC nanocomposites were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), TEM, ATR-IR and solid-state NMR. Characterizations suggested that the size of the AuNPs was about 2-3 nm and they were evenly distributed onto the surface of CNC films. Furthermore, the unique nanocomposite Au@HS-CNC catalyst displayed high catalytic efficiency in promoting three-component coupling of an aldehyde, an alkyne, and an amine (A(3)-coupling) either in water or without solvent. Most importantly, the catalyst could be used repetitively more than 11 times without significant deactivation. Our strategy also promotes the use of naturally renewable cellulose to prepare reusable nanocomposite catalysts for organic synthesis.
Project description:Covalently functionalized gold nanoparticles influence capillary electrophoresis separations of neurotransmitters in a concentration- and surface-chemistry-dependent manner. Gold nanoparticles with either primarily covalently functionalized carboxylic acid (Au@COOH) or amine (Au@NH(2)) surface groups are characterized using extinction spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and zeta potential measurements. The impact of the presence of nanoparticles and their surface chemistry is investigated, and at least three nanoparticle-specific mechanisms are found to effect separations. First, the degree of nanoparticle-nanoparticle interactions is quantified using a new parameter termed the critical nanoparticle concentration (CNC). CNC is defined as the lowest concentration of nanoparticles that induces predominant nanoparticle aggregation under specific buffer conditions and is determined using dual-wavelength photodiode array detection. Once the CNC has been exceeded, reproducible separations are no longer observed. Second, nanoparticle-analyte interactions are dictated by electrostatic interactions which depend on the pK(a) of the analyte and surface charge of the nanoparticle. Finally, nanoparticle-capillary interactions occur in a surface-chemistry-dependent manner. Run buffer viscosity is influenced by the formation of a nanoparticle steady-state pseudostationary phase along the capillary wall. Despite differences in buffer viscosity leading to changes in neurotransmitter mobilities, no significant changes in electroosmotic flow were observed. As a result of these three nanoparticle-specific interactions, Au@NH(2) nanoparticles increase the mobility of the neurotransmitters while a smaller opposite effect is observed for Au@COOH nanoparticles. Understanding nanoparticle behavior in the presence of an electric field will have significant impacts in separation science where nanoparticles can serve to improve either the mobility or detection sensitivity of target molecules.
Project description:Ultrasmall gold nanoparticles (diameter about 2?nm) were surface-functionalized with cysteine-carrying precision macromolecules. These consisted of sequence-defined oligo(amidoamine)s (OAAs) with either two or six cysteine molecules for binding to the gold surface and either with or without a PEG chain (3400?Da). They were characterized by <sup>1</sup> H?NMR spectroscopy, <sup>1</sup> H?NMR diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The number of precision macromolecules per nanoparticle was determined after fluorescent labeling by UV spectroscopy and also by quantitative <sup>1</sup> H?NMR spectroscopy. Each nanoparticle carried between 40 and 100 OAA ligands, depending on the number of cysteine units per OAA. The footprint of each ligand was about 0.074?nm<sup>2</sup> per cysteine molecule. OAAs are well suited to stabilize ultrasmall gold nanoparticles by selective surface conjugation and can be used to selectively cover their surface. The presence of the PEG chain considerably increased the hydrodynamic diameter of both dissolved macromolecules and macromolecule-conjugated gold nanoparticles.
Project description:In this study, we intended to evaluate the performance of olefin-based drilling fluids after addition of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) derivatives. For this purpose, firstly, cellulose nanocrystals, produced from sulfuric acid hydrolysis of cotton fibers, were functionalized with poly(<i>N</i>-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) chains via free radicals. The samples were then characterized via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), confocal microscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential measurements in water. The FTIR and NMR spectra exhibited the characteristic signals of CNC and PNIPAM groups, indicating successful grafting. As expected, X-ray diffractograms showed that the crystallinity of CNCs reduces after chemical modification. TGA revealed that the surface-functionalized CNCs present higher thermal stability than pure CNCs. The confocal microscopy, zeta potential, and DLS results were consistent with the behavior of cellulose nanocrystals decorated by a shell of PNIPAM chains. The fluids with a small amount of modified CNCs presented a much lower volume of filtrate after high-temperature and high-pressure (HTHP) filtration tests than the corresponding standard fluid, indicating the applicability of the environmentally friendly particles for olefin-based drilling fluids.
Project description:We report an approach to the fabrication and selective functionalization of amine-reactive polymer multilayers on the surfaces of 3-D polyurethane-based microwell cell culture arrays. "Reactive" layer-by-layer assembly of multilayers using branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI) and the azlactone-functionalized polymer poly(2-vinyl-4,4'-dimethylazlactone) (PVDMA) yielded film-coated microwell arrays that could be chemically functionalized postfabrication by treatment with different amine-functionalized macromolecules or small molecule primary amines. Treatment of film-coated arrays with the small molecule amine d-glucamine resulted in microwell surfaces that resisted the adhesion and proliferation of mammalian fibroblast cells in vitro. These and other experiments demonstrated that it was possible to functionalize different structural features of these arrays in a spatially resolved manner to create dual-functionalized substrates (e.g., to create arrays having either (i) azlactone-functionalized wells, with regions between the wells functionalized with glucamine or (ii) substrates with spatially resolved regions of two different cationic polymers). In particular, spatial control over glucamine functionalization yielded 3-D substrates that could be used to confine cell attachment and growth to microwells for periods of up to 28 days and support the 3-D culture of arrays of cuboidal cell clusters. These approaches to dual functionalization could prove useful for the long-term culture and maintenance of cell types for which the presentation of specific and chemically well-defined 3-D culture environments is required for control over cell growth, differentiation, and other important behaviors. More generally, our approach provides methods for the straightforward chemical functionalization of otherwise unreactive topographically patterned substrates that could prove to be useful in a range of other fundamental and applied contexts.
Project description:Pleural and peritoneal mesotheliomas (MMs) are chemoresistant tumors with no effective therapeutic strategies. The authors first injected multifunctional, acid-prepared mesoporous spheres (APMS), microparticles functionalized with tetraethylene glycol oligomers, intraperitoneally into rodents. Biodistribution of APMS was observed in major organs, peritoneal lavage fluid (PLF), and urine of normal mice and rats. After verification of increased mesothelin in human mesotheliomas injected into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, APMS were then functionalized with an antibody to mesothelin (APMS-MB) or bovine serum albumin (BSA), a nonspecific protein control, and tumor targeting was evaluated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and multifluorescence confocal microscopy. Some APMS were initially cleared via the urine over a 24 hr period, and small amounts were observed in liver, spleen, and kidneys at 24 hr and 6 days. Targeting with APMS-MB increased APMS uptake in mesenteric tumors at 6 days. Approximately 10% to 12% of the initially injected amount was observed in both spheroid and mesenteric MM at this time point. The data suggest that localized delivery of APMS-MB into the peritoneal cavity after encapsulation of drugs, DNA, or macromolecules is a novel therapeutic approach for MM and other tumors (ovarian and pancreatic) that overexpress mesothelin.
Project description:The gelation properties and mode of self-assembly of six asymmetrical hexaether triphenylene derivatives mono-functionalized with carboxylic and primary amine groups were investigated. The presence of a carboxylic and amine group attached to the triphenylene core generated stable, thermo- and pH-sensitive supramolecular ?-organogels with a reversible response to both stimuli. In order to understand the gelation process, we studied the effect of the spacer length and found a different gelation scope for the acid and basic derivatives that accounts for a different supramolecular self-assembly. The presence of the basic group on the amino derivatives was used to guide and catalyze the templated <i>in situ</i> sol-gel polymerization of TEOS and allowed us, under controlled hydrolytic conditions, to prepare an entangled fibrillar network of silica nanotubes.
Project description:One essential requirement for more sensitive gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents is to slow the molecular tumbling of the gadolinium(III) ion, which increases the gadolinium's relaxivity (i.e., its ability to speed up the NMR relaxation of nearby water molecules). One route to this is through conjugation to high-molecular-weight polymers such as dendrimers. In this work, amine-functionalized TREN-bis(1,2-HOPO)-TAM-ethylamine and TREN-bis(1-Me-3,2-HOPO)-TAM-ethylamine ligands have been synthesized and attached to biocompatible 40 kDa esteramide (EA)- and poly-l-lysine (PLL)-based dendrimers capable of binding up to eight gadolinium complexes. These conjugates have T(1) relaxivities of up to 38.14 ± 0.02 mM(-1) s(-1) per gadolinium at 37 °C, corresponding to relaxivities of up to 228 mM(-1) s(-1) per dendrimer molecule. This relaxivity expressed on a "per Gd" basis is several times that of the small-molecule complexes and an order of magnitude higher than that of current commercial agents. Because of their high performance and low toxicity, these macromolecules may constitute an attractive complement to currently available gadolinium(III)-based contrast agents.
Project description:Classical molecular dynamics simulations of polyacrylamide (PAM) adsorption on cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) in a vacuum and a water environment are carried out to interpret the mechanism of the polymer interactions with CNC. The structural behavior of PAM is studied in terms of the radius of gyration, atom-atom radial distribution functions, and number of hydrogen bonds. The structural and dynamical characteristics of the polymer adsorption are investigated. It is established that in water the polymer macromolecules are mainly adsorbed in the form of a coil onto the CNC facets. It is found out that water and PAM sorption on CNC is a competitive process, and water weakens the interaction between the polymer and CNC.
Project description:Outstanding optical and mechanical properties can be obtained from hierarchical assemblies of nanoparticles. Herein, the formation of helically ordered, chiral nematic films obtained from aqueous suspensions of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were studied as a function of the initial suspension state. Specifically, nanoparticle organization and the structural colors displayed by the resultant dry films were investigated as a function of the anisotropic volume fraction (AVF), which depended on the initial CNC concentration and equilibration time. The development of structural color and the extent of macroscopic stratification were studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy as well as UV-vis spectroscopy. Overall, suspensions above the critical threshold required for formation of liquid crystals resulted in CNC films assembled with longer ranged order, more homogeneous pitches along the cross sections, and narrower specific absorption bands. This effect was more pronounced for the suspensions that were closer to equilibrium prior to drying. Thus, we show that high AVF and more extensive phase separation in CNC suspensions resulted in large, long-range ordered chiral nematic domains in dried films. Additionally, the average CNC aspect ratio and size distribution in the two separated phases were measured and correlated to the formation of structured domains in the dried assemblies.