Molecular Recognition of the HPLC Whelk-O1 Selector towards the Conformational Enantiomers of Nevirapine and Oxcarbazepine.
ABSTRACT: The presence of stereogenic elements is a common feature in pharmaceutical compounds, and affording optically pure stereoisomers is a frequent issue in drug design. In this context, the study of the chiral molecular recognition mechanism fundamentally supports the understanding and optimization of chromatographic separations with chiral stationary phases. We investigated, with molecular docking, the interactions between the chiral HPLC selector Whelk-O1 and the stereoisomers of two bioactive compounds, the antiviral Nevirapine and the anticonvulsant Oxcarbazepine, both characterized by two stereolabile conformational enantiomers. The presence of fast-exchange enantiomers and the rate of the interconversion process were studied using low temperature enantioselective HPLC and VT-NMR with Whelk-O1 applied as chiral solvating agent. The values of the energetic barriers of interconversion indicate, for the single enantiomers of both compounds, half-lives sufficiently long enough to allow their separation only at critically sub-ambient temperatures. The chiral selector Whelk-O1 performed as a strongly selective discriminating agent both when applied as a chiral stationary phase (CSP) in HPLC and as CSA in NMR spectroscopy.
Project description:The importance of chirality in drug development is unquestionable, with chiral liquid chromatography (LC) being the most adequate technique for its analysis. Among the various types of chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for LC, brush-type CSPs provide the base for interaction analysis of CSPs and enantiomers, which provide valuable results that can be applied to interaction studies of other CSP types. In order to analyze the influence of aromatic interactions in chiral recognition, we designed a set of ten new brush-type CSPs based on (S)-N-(1-aryl-propyl)-3,5-dinitrobenzamides which differ in the aromatic unit directly linked to the chiral center. Thirty diverse racemates, including several nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and 3-hydroxybenzodiazepine drugs, were used to evaluate the prepared CSPs. Chromatographic analysis showed that the three new CSPs separate enantiomers of a wide range of compounds and their chromatographic behavior is comparable to the most versatile brush-type CSP-Whelk-O1. The critical role of the nonbonding interactions in positioning of the analyte (naproxen) in the cleft of CSP-6, as well as the analysis of interactions that make enantioseparation possible, were elucidated using computational methods. Furthermore, the influence of acetic acid as a mobile phase additive, on this enantiorecognition process was corroborated by calculations.
Project description:Configurationally stable 5-azahelicene (<b>1</b>) was envisaged as a promising scaffold for non-conventional ionic liquids (IL)s. It was prepared, purified, and separated into enantiomers by preparative HPLC on a chiral stationary phase. Enantiomerically pure quaternary salts of <b>1</b> with appropriate counterions were prepared and fully characterized. <i>N</i>-octyl-5-azahelicenium bis triflimidate (<b>2</b>) was tested in very small quantities as a selector in achiral IL media to perform preliminary electrochemical enantiodifferentiation experiments on the antipodes of two different chiral probes. The new organic salt exhibited outstanding enantioselection performance with respect to these probes, thus opening the way to applications in the enantioselective electroanalysis of relevant bioactive molecules.
Project description:Four interesting sequoiatones stereoisomers (1-4) were isolated from a wetland soil-derived fungus Talaromyces flavus by chiral HPLC. On the basis of comprehensive NMR and mass analyses, their planar structures were elucidated as the same as that of sequoiatone B. Among them, 1 and 3 (or 2 and 4) were a pair of enantiomers, and 1 and 2 (or 3 and 4) were a pair of stereoisomers with epimerization at C-12, which indicated that sequoiatione-type metabolites exist as enantiomers rather than as optically pure compounds in some strains. With the quantum chemical ECD calculations, the absolute configurations of C-8 in 1-4 were determined, which is the first report to establish the absolute configuration of C-8 in sequoiatones. However, the absolute configurations of C-12 in sequoiatones are still unsolved.
Project description:A chiral selector of cellulose-2,3-bis(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (CBDMPC) was synthesized by reacting 3,5-dimethylphenyl isocyanate with microcrystalline cellulose dissolved in an ionic liquid of 1-allyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride (AMIMCl). The obtained chiral selector was effectively characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis and 1H NMR. The selector was reacted with 3-aminopropylsilanized silica gel and the CBDMPC bonded chiral stationary phase (CSP) was obtained. Chromatographic evaluation of the prepared CSPs was conducted by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) and baseline separation of three typical fungicides including hexaconazole, metalaxyl and myclobutanil was achieved using n-hexane/isopropanol as the mobile phase with a flow rate 1.0 mL/min. Experimental results also showed that AMIMCl could be recycled easily and reused in the preparation of CSPs as an effective reaction media.
Project description:Daptomycin, a macrocyclic antibiotic, is here used as a new chiral selector in preparation of chiral stationary phase (CSP) in a recently prepared polymer monolithic capillary. The latter is prepared using the copolymerization of the monomers glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) in the presence of daptomycin in water. Under reversed phase conditions (RP), the prepared capillaries were tested for the enantioselective nanoliquid chromatographic separation of fifty of the racemic drugs of different pharmacological groups, such as adrenergic blockers, H1-blockers, NSAIDs, antifungal drugs, and others. Baseline separation was attained for many drugs under RP-HPLC. Daptomycin expands the horizon of chiral selectors in HPLC.
Project description:The enantioselective separations of the chiral oxazaphosphorines (R,S)-ifosfamide (IF), (R,S)-2-N-dechloroethyl-IF (2-DCE-IF) and (R,S)-3-N-dechloroethyl-IF (3-DCE-IF) were achieved on teicoplanin-based chiral stationary phase using isopropanol:methanol (60:40, v/v) as the mobile phase. Computational models of the teicoplanin and teicoplanin aglycon (TAG) chiral selectors were constructed and used in docking experiments to examine the chiral recognition mechanism associated with the observed resolutions. Initial data showed no significant differences between the simulated selector-selectand complexes using teicoplanin and TAG, and the full study was conducted using TAG. The data from the study indicate that hydrophobic interactions arise between the chlorine atom present in the cholorethyl moieties of the oxazaphosphorine molecules and hydrophobic pockets within the TAG basket and that these interactions anchored and positioned the selectands within the selector-selectand complexes. The complexes were stabilized through the formation of a network of hydrogen bond and cation-? interactions, in which the latter involved the phosphorous atom of the phosphoramide moiety and aromatic components of the TAG aglycon basket. The chirality of the oxazaphosphorine molecule determined the number and strength of the stabilizing interactions which resulted in significant differences in the relative mean binding energies between the complexes formed by the (R) and (S) enantiomers of the selectands. These differences were consistent with the observed chromatographic enantioselectivity and suggest a multi-step chrial recognition mechanism involving the tethering of the selectand to the selector followed by conformational adjustments and stabilization of the selectand-selector complex.
Project description:In a recent study, opposite enantiomer elution order was observed for ketoprofen enantiomers on two amylose-phenylcarbamate-based chiral columns with the same chemical composition of the chiral selector but in one case with coated while in the other with an immobilized chiral selector. In the present study, the influence of this uncommon effect on method validation parameters for the determination of minor enantiomeric impurity in dexketoprofen was studied. The validated methods with two alternative elution orders for enantiomers were applied for the evaluation of enantiomeric impurity in six marketed dexketoprofen formulations from various vendors. In most of these formulations except one the content of enantiomeric impurity exceeded 0.1% (<i>w</i>/<i>w</i>).
Project description:Separation of the enantiomers of new chiral alkynes in strategic syntheses and bioorthogonal studies is always problematic. The chiral column high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method in general could not be directly used to resolve such substrates, since the differentiation of the alkyne segment with the other alkane/alkene segment is not significant in the stationary phase, and the alkyne group is not a good UV chromophore. Usually, a pre-column derivatization reaction with a tedious workup procedure is needed. Making use of easily-prepared stable alkyne-cobalt-complexes, we developed a simple and general method by analyzing the in situ generated cobalt-complex of chiral alkynes using chiral column HPLC. This new method is especially suitable for the alkynes without chromophores and other derivable groups.
Project description:Molecular dynamics simulations and NMR spectroscopy were used to compare the binding of two ?-blocker drugs to the chiral molecular micelle poly-(sodium undecyl-(L)-leucine-valine). The molecular micelle is used as a chiral selector in capillary electrophoresis. This study is part of a larger effort to understand the mechanism of chiral recognition in capillary electrophoresis by characterizing the molecular micelle binding of chiral compounds with different geometries and charges. Propranolol and atenolol were chosen because their structures are similar, but their chiral interactions with the molecular micelle are different. Molecular dynamics simulations showed both propranolol enantiomers inserted their aromatic rings into the molecular micelle core and that (S)-propranolol associated more strongly with the molecular micelle than (R)-propranolol. This difference was attributed to stronger molecular micelle hydrogen bonding interactions experienced by (S)-propranolol. Atenolol enantiomers were found to bind near the molecular micelle surface and to have similar molecular micelle binding free energies.
Project description:In the present study, the direct enantiomeric separation of hexythiazox enantiomers on Lux cellulose-1, Lux cellulose-2, Lux cellulose-3, Lux cellulose-4, Lux amylose-1 and Chirapak IC chiral columns were carefully investigated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Acetonitrile/water and methanol/water were used as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL·min-1. The effects of chiral stationary phase, temperature, thermodynamic parameters, mobile phase component and mobile phase ratio on hexythiazox enantiomers separation were fully evaluated. Hexythiazox enantiomers received a baseline separation on the Lux cellulose-3 column with a maximum resolution of Rs = 2.09 (methanol/water) and Rs = 2.74 (acetonitrile/water), respectively. Partial separations were achieved on other five chiral columns. Furthermore, Lux amylose-1 and Chirapak IC had no separation ability for hexythiazox enantiomers when methanol/water was used as mobile phase. Temperature study indicated that the capacity factor (k) and resolution factor (Rs) decreased with column temperature increasing from 10 °C to 40 °C. The enthalpy (?H) and entropy (?S) involved in hexythiazox separation were also calculated and demonstrated the lower temperature contributed to better separation resolution. Moreover, the residue analytical method for hexythiazox enantiomers in the environment (soil and water) and vegetable (cucumber, cabbage and tomato) were also established with reliable accuracy and precision under reverse-phase HPLC condition. Such results provided a baseline separation method for hexythiazox enantiomers under reverse-phase conditions and contributed to an environmental and health risk assessment of hexythiazox at enantiomer level.