Endocytic pathway inhibition attenuates extracellular vesicle-induced reduction of chemosensitivity to bortezomib in multiple myeloma cells.
ABSTRACT: Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, derived from bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been demonstrated as key factors in the progression and drug resistance of multiple myeloma (MM). EV uptake involves a variety of mechanisms which largely depend on the vesicle origin and recipient cell type. The aim of the present study was to identify the mechanisms involved in the uptake of BMSC-derived small EVs (sEVs) by MM cells, and to evaluate the anti-MM effect of targeting this process. Methods: Human BMSC-derived sEVs were identified by transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and western blot. The effects of chemical inhibitors and shRNA-mediated knockdown of endocytosis-associated genes on sEV uptake and cell apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. The anti-MM effect of blocking sEV uptake was evaluated in vitro and in a xenograft MM mouse model. Results: sEVs derived from BMSC were taken up by MM cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and subsequently promoted MM cell cycling and reduced their chemosensitivity to bortezomib. Chemical endocytosis inhibitors targeting heparin sulphate proteoglycans, actin, tyrosine kinase, dynamin-2, sodium/proton exchangers, or phosphoinositide 3-kinases significantly reduced MM cell internalization of BMSC-derived sEVs. Moreover, shRNA-mediated knockdown of endocytosis-associated proteins, including caveolin-1, flotillin-1, clathrin heavy chain, and dynamin-2 in MM cells suppressed sEV uptake. Furthermore, an endocytosis inhibitor targeting dynamin-2 preferentially suppressed the uptake of sEV by primary MM cells ex vivo and enhanced the anti-MM effects of bortezomib in vitro and in a mouse model. Conclusion: Clathrin- and caveolin-dependent endocytosis and macropinocytosis are the predominant routes of sEV-mediated communication between BMSCs and MM cells, and inhibiting endocytosis attenuates sEV-induced reduction of chemosensitivity to bortezomib, and thus enhances its anti-MM properties.
Project description:Components of the microenvironment such as bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are well known to support multiple myeloma (MM) disease progression and resistance to chemotherapy including the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. However, functional distinctions between BMSCs in MM patients and those in disease-free marrow are not completely understood. We and other investigators have recently reported that NF-kappaB activity in primary MM cells is largely resistant to the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, and that further enhancement of NF-kappaB by BMSCs is similarly resistant to bortezomib and may mediate resistance to this therapy. The mediating factor(s) of this bortezomib-resistant NF-kappaB activity is induced by BMSCs is not currently understood.Here we report that BMSCs specifically derived from MM patients are capable of further activating bortezomib-resistant NF-kappaB activity in MM cells. This induced activity is mediated by soluble proteinaceous factors secreted by MM BMSCs. Among the multiple factors evaluated, interleukin-8 was secreted by BMSCs from MM patients at significantly higher levels compared to those from non-MM sources, and we found that IL-8 contributes to BMSC-induced NF-kappaB activity.BMSCs from MM patients uniquely enhance constitutive NF-kappaB activity in MM cells via a proteinaceous secreted factor in part in conjunction with IL-8. Since NF-kappaB is known to potentiate MM cell survival and confer resistance to drugs including bortezomib, further identification of the NF-kappaB activating factors produced specifically by MM-derived BMSCs may provide a novel biomarker and/or drug target for the treatment of this commonly fatal disease.
Project description:Pregnancy is a unique situation, in which placenta-derived small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) may communicate with maternal and foetal tissues. While relevant to homoeostatic and pathological functions, the mechanisms underlying sEV entry and cargo handling in target cells remain largely unknown. Using fluorescently or luminescently labelled sEVs, derived from primary human placental trophoblasts or from a placental cell line, we interrogated the endocytic pathways used by these sEVs to enter relevant target cells, including the neighbouring primary placental fibroblasts and human uterine microvascular endothelial cells. We found that trophoblastic sEVs can enter target cells, where they retain biological activity. Importantly, using a broad series of pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA-dependent silencing approaches, we showed that trophoblastic sEVs enter target cells using macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathways, but not caveolin-dependent endocytosis. Tracking their intracellular course, we localized the sEVs to early endosomes, late endosomes, and lysosomes. Finally, we used coimmunoprecipitation to demonstrate the association of the sEV microRNA (miRNA) with the P-body proteins AGO2 and GW182. Together, our data systematically detail endocytic pathways used by placental sEVs to enter relevant fibroblastic and endothelial target cells, and provide support for "endocytic escape" of sEV miRNA to P-bodies, a key site for cytoplasmic RNA regulation.
Project description:Cancer-derived small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) induce stromal cells to become permissive for tumor growth. However, it is unclear whether this induction solely occurs through transfer of vesicular cargo into recipient cells. Here we show that cancer-derived sEVs can stimulate endothelial cell migration and tube formation independently of uptake. These responses were mediated by the 189 amino acid isoform of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on the surface of sEVs. Unlike other common VEGF isoforms, VEGF189 preferentially localized to sEVs through its high affinity for heparin. Interaction of VEGF189 with the surface of sEVs profoundly increased ligand half-life and reduced its recognition by the therapeutic VEGF antibody bevacizumab. sEV-associated VEGF (sEV-VEGF) stimulated tumor xenograft growth but was not neutralized by bevacizumab. Furthermore, high levels of sEV-VEGF were associated with disease progression in bevacizumab-treated cancer patients, raising the possibility that resistance to bevacizumab might stem in part from elevated levels of sEV-VEGF.
Project description:Growth of multiple myeloma cells is controlled by various factors derived from host bone marrow microenvironments. Interaction between multiple myeloma cells and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) plays an important role in the expression of adhesive molecules and secretion of growth factors involved in multiple myeloma (MM) cell growth, survival, and resistance to anticancer drugs. Recently, the possibility of developing novel anti-cancer therapeutic strategies targeting both MM cells and MM cell-BMSC interactions has been discussed. Here we present data showing that curcumin, a major constituent of turmeric compounds extracted from the rhizomes of the plant Curcuma longa, effectively reduced the growth of MM cells and BMSCs. Upon treatment with curcumin, IL-6/sIL-6R-induced STAT3 and Erk phosphorylation was dramatically reduced in the co-cultured cells. In addition, curcumin inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and VEGF, factors that are associated with the progression of multiple myeloma, from both MM cells and BMSCs. In a combination treatment with curcumin and bortezomib, IL-6/sIL-6R-induced STAT3 and Erk phosphorylation was effectively inhibited. Moreover, this combination treatment synergistically inhibited the growth of MM cells co-cultured with BMSCs as compared to controls. Taken together, these results indicate that curcumin potentiates the therapeutic efficacy of bortezomib in MM suggesting this combination therapy to be of value in the clinical management of MM.
Project description:Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) such as exosomes are nanocarriers of proteins, RNAs and DNAs. Isolation of pure sEV populations remains challenging, with reports of protein and lipoprotein contaminants in the isolates. Cellular uptake - a cornerstone for understanding exosome and sEV function - is frequently examined using lipophilic dyes such as PKH67 or CellMask to label the vesicles. In this study, we investigated whether contaminants can confound the outcomes from sEV and exosomes uptake experiments. sEVs were isolated from blood plasma of fasted or non-fasted rats as well as from serum-supplemented or serum-free conditioned cell culture medium using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Eluent fractions were characterized using nanoparticle tracking, protein and triglyceride assays and immunoassays. SEC fractions were labelled with different lipophilic dyes and cellular uptake was quantified using endothelial cells or primary cardiomyocytes. We report co-isolation of sEVs with apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. Cellular dye transfer did not correspond to sEV content of the SEC fractions, but was severely affected by lipoprotein and protein content. Overnight fasting of rats decreased lipoprotein content and also decreased dye transfer, while late, sEV-poor/protein-rich fractions demonstrated even greater dye transfer. The potential for dye transfer to occur in the complete absence of sEVs was clearly shown by experiments using staining of sEV-depleted serum or pure protein sample. In conclusion, proteins and lipoproteins can make a substantial contribution to transfer of lipophilic dyes to recipient cells. Considering the likelihood of contamination of sEV and exosome isolates, lipophilic dye staining experiments should be carefully controlled, and conclusions interpreted with caution.
Project description:The study of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and the exosomes they secrete is considered promising for cancer therapy. However, little is known about the effect of donor age on BMSCs. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of BMSC exosomes derived from donors of different ages using an in vivo model of hypoxic bone marrow in multiple myeloma (MM). We found that donor age was strongly related to senescent changes in BMSCs. Exosomes derived from young BMSCs significantly inhibited MM-induced angiogenesis in Matrigel plugs. The exosomal microRNA (miRNA) expression profile was different between young and older BMSCs, despite similarities in the size and quantity of exosomes. Of note was the observation that the antiangiogenic effect of older BMSCs was enhanced by direct transfection of miR-340 that was preferentially expressed in exosomes derived from young BMSCs. We found that miR-340 inhibited angiogenesis via the hepatocyte growth factor/c-MET (HGF/c-MET) signaling pathway in endothelial cells. Our data provide new insights into exosome-based cancer therapy by modification of BMSC-derived exosomes.
Project description:Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), playing a crucial role in the intercellular communication in physiological as well as pathological processes. Here, we aimed to study whether the melanoma-derived sEV-mediated communication could adapt to microenvironmental stresses. We compared B16F1 cell-derived sEVs released under normal and stress conditions, including cytostatic, heat and oxidative stress. The miRNome and proteome showed substantial differences across the sEV groups and bioinformatics analysis of the obtained data by the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis also revealed significant functional differences. The in silico predicted functional alterations of sEVs were validated by in vitro assays. For instance, melanoma-derived sEVs elicited by oxidative stress increased Ki-67 expression of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); cytostatic stress-resulted sEVs facilitated melanoma cell migration; all sEV groups supported microtissue generation of MSC-B16F1 co-cultures in a 3D tumour matrix model. Based on this study, we concluded that (i) molecular patterns of tumour-derived sEVs, dictated by the microenvironmental conditions, resulted in specific response patterns in the recipient cells; (ii) in silico analyses could be useful tools to predict different stress responses; (iii) alteration of the sEV-mediated communication of tumour cells might be a therapy-induced host response, with a potential influence on treatment efficacy.
Project description:Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) interact with multiple myeloma (MM) cells in the bone marrow and create a permissive microenvironment for MM cell proliferation and survival. In this study, we investigated the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from BMSCs derived from patients with MM (MM-BMSCs). EV-encapsulated miR-10a expression was high while intracellular miR-10a was low in MM-BMSCs. We therefore hypothesized that miR-10a was packaged into EVs that were actively released into the extracellular space. Inhibition of EV release resulted in accumulation of intracellular miR-10a, inhibition of cell proliferation, and induction of apoptosis in MM-BMSCs. In contrast, proliferation and apoptosis of BMSCs derived from healthy individuals were unaffected by inhibition of EV release. Furthermore, miR-10a derived from MM-BMSCs was transferred into MM cells via EVs and enhanced their proliferation. These results suggest that inhibition of EV release induced apoptosis in MM-BMSCs and inhibited MM cell proliferation, indicating a possible role for MM-BMSC-targeted therapy.
Project description:Activated osteoclasts release large amounts of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) during bone remodeling. However, little is known about whether osteoclast-derived sEVs affect surrounding cells. In this study, osteoclasts were generated by stimulating bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) with macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear actor ?B ligand (RANKL). We performed microarray analysis of sEV-microRNAs (miRNAs)s secreted from osteoclast at different stages and identified four miRNAs that were highly expressed in mature osteoclast-derived sEVs. One of these miRNAs, miR-324, significantly induced osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of primary mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) <i>in vitro</i> by targeting <i>ARHGAP1</i>, a negative regulator of osteogenic differentiation. We next fabricated an sEV-modified scaffold by coating decalcified bone matrix (DBM) with osteoclast-derived sEVs, and the pro-osteogenic regeneration activities of the sEV-modified scaffold were validated in a mouse calvarial defect model. Notably, miR-324-enriched sEV-modified scaffold showed the highest capacity on bone regeneration, whereas inhibition of miR-324 in sEVs abrogated these effects. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-324-contained sEVs released from mature osteoclast play an essential role in the regulation of osteogenic differentiation and potentially bridge the coupling between osteoclasts and MSCs.
Project description:Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) are important mediators of cell-cell communication with respect to diverse physiological processes. To further understand their physiological roles, understanding blood sEV homoeostasis in a quantitative manner is desired. In this study, we propose novel kinetic approaches to estimate the secretion and clearance of mouse plasma-derived sEVs (MP-sEVs) based on the hypothesis that blood sEV concentrations are determined by a balance between the secretion and clearance of sEVs. Using our specific and sensitive sEV labelling technology, we succeeded in analysing MP-sEV clearance from the blood after intravenous administration into mice. This revealed the rapid disappearance of MP-sEVs with a half-life of approximately 7 min. Moreover, the plasma sEV secretion rate, which is presently impossible to directly evaluate, was calculated as 18 ?g/min in mice based on pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis. Next, macrophage-depleted mice were prepared as a model of disrupted sEV homoeostasis with retarded sEV clearance. MP-sEV concentrations were increased in macrophage-depleted mice, which probably reflected a shift in the balance of secretion and clearance. Moreover, the increased MP-sEV concentration in macrophage-depleted mice was successfully simulated using calculated clearance rate constant, secretion rate constant and volume of distribution, suggesting the validity of our PK approaches. These results demonstrate that blood sEV concentration homoeostasis can be explained by the dynamics of rapid secretion/clearance.