Predictive value of baseline 18F-FDG PET/CT and interim treatment response for the prognosis of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma receiving R-CHOP chemotherapy.
ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of baseline 18F-FDG PET/CT quantitative parameters and interim treatment response, and to assess whether the combination of these could improve the predictive efficacy in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) receiving R-CHOP chemotherapy. PET/CT images and clinical data of 64 patients with DLBCL who had undergone 18F-FDG PET/CT scan before and after 3 or 4 cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. The quantitative parameters including standardized uptake value (SUV), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum diameter of the maximum lesion (Dmax) were measured on baseline PET/CT images. Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the influence of baseline PET/CT parameters, clinical indicators and interim treatment response on prognosis. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier method. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to estimate the predictive efficacy of the combination of baseline PET/CT parameters and interim treatment response. Ann Arbor stage, International Prognostic Index (IPI), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), necrosis, MTVmax, TLGmax, Dmax and interim treatment response showed association with 2-year progression-free survival (PFS, P<0.05). LDH, necrosis, MTVmax, MTVsum, TLGmax, TLGsum, Dmax and interim treatment response showed association with 2-year overall survival (OS, P<0.05). Ann Arbor stage, Dmax and interim treatment response were found to be independent predictors of 2-year PFS (P<0.05), while Dmax and interim treatment response were found to be independent predictors of 2-year OS (P<0.05). The PFS and OS curves of Dmax <5.7 cm group and Dmax ?5.7 cm group, complete response (CR) group and non-CR group were significantly different, respectively (P<0.05). The baseline 18F-FDG PET/CT parameters and interim treatment response have important prognostic values in DLBCL patients who received R-CHOP chemotherapy. Combined application of Dmax and interim treatment response improved the predictive efficacy of 2-year PFS. It may be helpful to identify patients who are at high-risk of relapse and to guide early clinical intervention of these patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVE::To examine the prognostic value of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and fluorothymidine (FLT) interim positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). METHODS::44 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL underwent both fluorine 18 FDG (18F-FDG) and 18F-FLT PET/CT scans at baseline and after two cycles of a rituximab-containing chemotherapy regimen. Maximum standard uptake values (SUVmax) and changes in SUV (?SUV) were calculated for both tracers for the predominant lesion of each patient, for prediction of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS::The median follow-up period was 71 months. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the best ?SUV cut-off values for FDG (?SUVFDG) and FLT (?SUVFLT) were 79 and 76%, respectively. A ?SUVFLT cut-off of 76% had the highest significance for prediction of PFS (p = 0.003) and OS (p = 0009), with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 80.0, 85.7, and 81.8% respectively in response assessment. CONCLUSION::Interim FLT PET/CT had higher specificity and accuracy than standard FDG PET/CT-based interpretation. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE::This study demonstrated that interim FLT PET/CT had higher accuracy than standardized FDG-based interpretation for therapeutic response assessment in DLBCL. FLT had the advantage of potentially reducing false positive of interim FDG PET/CT.
Project description:18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT is useful for staging and evaluating treatment response in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A five-point scale model using the mediastinal blood pool (MBP) and liver as references is a recommended method for interpreting treatment response. We evaluated the variability in standardized uptake values (SUVs) of the MBP, liver, and myocardium during chemotherapy in patients with DLBCL.We analyzed 60 patients with DLBCL who received rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) treatment and underwent baseline, interim, and final FDG PET/CT scans. The FDG uptakes of lymphoma lesions, MBP, liver, and myocardium were assessed, and changes in the MBP and liver SUV and possible associated factors were evaluated.The SUV of the liver did not change significantly during the chemotherapy. However, the SUVmean of MBP showed a significant change though the difference was small (p?=?0.019). SUVmean of MBP and liver at baseline and interim scans was significantly lower in patients with advanced Ann Arbor stage on diagnosis. The SUVmean of the MBP and liver was negatively correlated with the volumetric index of lymphoma lesions in baseline scans (r?=?-0.547, p?<?0.001; r?=?-0.502, p?<?0.001). Positive myocardial FDG uptake was more frequently observed in interim and final scans than in the baseline scan, but there was no significant association between the MBP and liver uptake and myocardial uptake.The SUV of the liver was not significantly changed during R-CHOP chemotherapy in patients with DLBCL, whereas the MBP SUV of the interim scan decreased slightly. However, the SUV of the reference organs may be affected by tumor burden, and this should be considered when assessing follow-up scans. Although myocardial FDG uptake was more frequently observed after R-CHOP chemotherapy, it did not affect the SUV of the MBP and liver.
Project description:In the era of rituximab, the International Prognostic Index (IPI) has been inefficient in initial risk stratification for patients with R-CHOP-treated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). To estimate the predictive values of PET/CT quantitative parameters and three prognostic models consisting of baseline and interim parameters for three-year progression-free survival (PFS), we conducted an analysis of 85 patients in China with DLBCL underwent baseline and interim PET/CT scans and treated at the Department of Hematology of Peking University Third Hospital from November 2012 to November 2017. The PET/CT parameters, viz. the baseline and interim values of standardized uptake value (SUVmax ), total metabolic tumor volume (TMTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and their rates of change, were analyzed by a receiver operating characteristics curve, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and log-rank test. Besides, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI) was also included in the multivariate Cox hazards model. Owing to the strong correlation between TMTV and TLG at baseline and interim (Pearson's correlation coefficient, r = 0.823, P-value = 0.000, and 0.988, P-value = 0.000, respectively), only TLG was included in the multivariate Cox hazards model, where TLG0 > 1036.61 g and %ΔSUVmax < 86.02% showed predictive value independently (HR = 10.42, 95% CI 2.35-46.30, P = 0.002, and HR = 4.86, 95% CI 1.27-18.54, P = 0.021, respectively). Replacing TLG in the equation, TMTV0 and TMTV1 both showed significantly predictive abilities like TLG (HR = 8.22, 95% CI 1.86-32.24, P = 0.005, and HR = 2.96, 95% CI 1.16-7.54, P = 0.023, respectively). After dichotomy, NCCN-IPI also gave a significant performance (P = 0.035 and P = 0.010, respectively, in TLG and TMTV models). The baseline variables, that is, TMTV0 , TLG0 and dichotomized NCCN-IPI, and the interim variables TMTV1 and %ΔSUVmax , presented independent prognostic value for PFS. In prognostic model 2 (TLG0 + %ΔSUVmax ), the group with TLG0 > 1036.61 g and %ΔSUVmax < 86.02% recognized 19 (82.6%) of the relapse or progression events, which showed the best screening ability among three models consisting of baseline and interim PET/CT parameters.
Project description:The aim of this study was to analyze the prognostic value of the interim PET (iPET)-computed tomography (CT) (iPET-CT) after two cycles of immunochemotherapy with the R-CHOP protocol in patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with a curative intent in combination with the neoplastic cell origin defined by Hans's immunohistochemstry algorithm followed in a reference center for cancer treatment in Brazil.We prospectively evaluated 147 DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP-21 to assess the value of the International Prognostic Index, iPET-CT, and cell of origin by immunohistochemistry as prognostic markers in the rituximab era. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET-CT was performed after two cycles (iPET-CT) and at the end of treatment in 111 patients. Lymphoma cases were categorized into germinal center (GC) and nongerminal center subtypes by immunohistochemistry according to Hans's algorithm.The median age of GC-DLBCL patients (52.7 years) was lower than that of nongerminal center-DLBCL patients (59.4 years) (P=0.021); in addition, it was lower in patients with negative iPET-CT findings (52.7 years) versus positive findings (59.4 years) (P=0.031). The overall survival at 48 months was 100% for iPET-CT-negative GC-DLBCL patients and 61.2% for iPET-CT-positive GC-DLBCL patients (P=0.002). Progression-free survival at 30 months was 100% for iPET-CT-negative GC-DLBCL patients and 60.3% for iPET-CT-positive GC-DLBCL patients (P=0.001).We conclude that iPET-CT associated with cell origin identified a very good prognostic group in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP. Video Abstract: http://links.lww.com/NMC/A59.
Project description:Although <sup>18</sup> F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (<sup>18</sup> F-FDG PET) is commonly used for initial staging and therapeutic response evaluation in aggressive lymphomas, its prognostic utility for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is controversial. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated the correlations of interim PET (iPET) and end-of-treatment PET (ePET) response with survival outcomes in 89 consecutive advanced MCL patients treated with frontline R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone). iPET positivity was strongly associated with inferior five-year overall survival (OS) [hazard ratio (HR) 7·84, P < 0·0001] and poor five-year progression-free survival (PFS) (HR 3·34, P < 0·0001). OS and PFS were more favourable in the order early metabolic responder (iPET<sup>neg</sup> ? ePET<sup>neg</sup> ), delayed responder (iPET<sup>pos</sup> ? ePET<sup>neg</sup> ), loss-metabolic responder (iPET<sup>neg</sup> ? ePET<sup>pos</sup> ), and never-metabolic responder (iPET<sup>pos</sup> ? ePET<sup>pos</sup> ). In the autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT)-fit subgroup, OS was more favourable in the order early metabolic responders, delayed metabolic responders, and non-metabolic responders, with a marginal trend toward statistical significance (HR 3·41, P = 0·051), and PFS was significantly superior in early metabolic responders (HR 4·43, P = 0·002). In a group that was ineligible for auto-HSCT, OS and PFS were significantly superior in early metabolic responders. Our results suggested that iPET is of prognostic value and an independent predictor of survival in MCL patients receiving frontline R-CHOP. Therefore, prospective clinical trials of iPET-guided treatment strategies for these patients are warranted.
Project description:The response evaluation criteria in lymphoma (RECIL) classification for lymphoma treatment response assessment was introduced in 2017, but it has not yet been compared to the established Lugano classification. Also, the value of the provisional "minor response" (MiR) category of RECIL is unclear. In 54 patients with FDG-avid non-Hodgkin lymphomas (41 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) and 13 follicular lymphomas), [<sup>18</sup>F]FDG-PET/CT-based response according to RECIL and Lugano was determined at interim and end-of-treatment (EOT) restaging. Rates of agreement and Cohen's kappa (?) coefficients were calculated. The relationship between RECIL and Lugano responses and 2-year complete remission (CR) status of DLBCL patients was determined. At interim restaging, MiR was observed in 14.8%, and at EOT, in 5.6% of patients. When MiR was recoded as partial remission, agreement between RECIL and Lugano was 83.3% at interim restaging (? = 0.69), and 90.7% at EOT (? = 0.79). 85.4%, of DLBCL patients with responding disease at interim restaging according to both RECIL and Lugano achieved 2-year CR status; whereas, at EOT, 82.9% of patients with responding disease according to Lugano, and 85.4% of patients with responding disease according to RECIL, achieved 2-year CR status. Thus, RECIL and Lugano classifications show comparable performance for treatment response assessment, and a similar association with 2-year CR status in FDG-avid lymphomas.
Project description:Approximately 60% of patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (DLBCL) are curable with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemoimmunotherapy. Epratuzumab (E) is an unlabeled anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody with efficacy in relapsed DLBCL. This phase 2 trial tested the safety and efficacy of combining E with R-CHOP (ER-CHOP) in untreated DLBCL. A secondary aim was to assess the efficacy of interim positron emission tomography (PET) to predict outcome in DLBCL. Standard R-CHOP with the addition of E 360 mg/m(2) intravenously was administered for 6 cycles. A total of 107 patients were enrolled in the study. Toxicity was similar to standard R-CHOP. Overall response rate in the 81 eligible patients was 96% (74% CR/CRu) by computed tomography scan and 88% by PET. By intention to treat analysis, at a median follow-up of 43 months, the event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) at 3 years in all 107 patients were 70% and 80%, respectively. Interim PET was not associated with EFS or OS. Comparison with a cohort of 215 patients who were treated with R-CHOP showed an improved EFS in the ER-CHOP patients. ER-CHOP is well tolerated and results appear promising as a combination therapy. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00301821.
Project description:Response to primary treatment in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is highly predictive of long-term outcome. We evaluated the value of computed tomography (CT) findings relative to positron emission tomography (PET) findings, after the completion of chemotherapy. We retrospectively reviewed records from 491 patients with DLBCL at M. D. Anderson in 2001-2007; 22 patients were excluded for uncertain pathology and 169 for having received consolidative radiation, leaving 300 patients for the present analysis (median age, 61 years; 53% men, 47% women; 27% stage I-II, 73% stage III-IV; 73% completed 6-8 cycles of doxorubicin-based therapy). Factors associated with outcome on univariate analysis were response according to PET/CT and CT (p < 0.0001 for overall survival [OS], disease-specific survival [DSS] and progression-free survival [PFS]); number of chemotherapy cycles received (p < 0.0001 OS, p < 0.0001 DSS, p < 0.002 PFS); the combined presence of Ki-67 > 50%, PET SUV ? 13 and bulky (> 5 cm) disease (p = 0.005 OS, p = 0.001 DSS, p = 0.001 PFS); and International Prognostic Index (IPI) score (p = 0.004 OS, p = 0.005 DSS, p = 0.004 PFS). On multivariate analysis, PET/CT-negative, CT residual mass (> 2 cm) significantly influenced OS, DSS and PFS (p < 0.0001). The presence of a residual mass >2 cm on CT, coupled with negative findings on PET/CT, has prognostic value in DLBCL.
Project description:PURPOSE:Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) represents the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Most relapses occur in the first 2 years after diagnosis. Early response assessment with 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) may facilitate early change of treatment, thereby preventing ineffective treatment and unnecessary side effects. We aimed to assess the predictive value of visually-assessed interim 18F-FDG PET on progression-free survival (PFS) or event-free survival (EFS) in DLBCL patients treated with first-line immuno-chemotherapy regimens. METHODS:For this systematic review and meta-analysis Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched until July 11, 2017. Prospective and retrospective studies investigating qualitative interim PET response assessment without treatment adaptation based on the interim PET result were eligible. The primary outcome was two-year PFS or EFS. Prognostic and diagnostic measures were extracted and analysed with pooled hazard ratios and Hierarchical Summary Receiver Operator Characteristic Curves, respectively. Meta-regression was used to study covariate effects. RESULTS:The pooled hazard ratio for 18 studies comprising 2,255 patients was 3.13 (95%CI 2.52-3.89) with a 95% prediction interval of 1.68-5.83. In 19 studies with 2,366 patients, the negative predictive value for progression generally exceeded 80% (64-95), but sensitivity (33-87), specificity (49-94), and positive predictive values (20-74) ranged widely. CONCLUSIONS:These findings showed that interim 18F-FDG PET has predictive value in DLBCL patients. However, (subgroup) analyses were limited by lack of information and small sample sizes. Some diagnostic test characteristics were not satisfactory, especially the positive predictive value should be improved, before a successful risk stratified treatment approach can be implemented in clinical practice.