A pilot radiogenomic study of DIPG reveals distinct subgroups with unique clinical trajectories and therapeutic targets.
ABSTRACT: An adequate understanding of the relationships between radiographic and genomic features in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is essential, especially in the absence of universal biopsy, to further characterize the molecular heterogeneity of this disease and determine which patients are most likely to respond to biologically-driven therapies. Here, a radiogenomics analytic approach was applied to a cohort of 28 patients with DIPG. Tumor size and imaging characteristics from all available serial MRIs were evaluated by a neuro-radiologist, and patients were divided into three radiographic response groups (partial response [PR], stable disease [SD], progressive disease [PD]) based on MRI within 2 months of radiotherapy (RT) completion. Whole genome and RNA sequencing were performed on autopsy tumor specimens. We report several key, therapeutically-relevant findings: (1) Certain radiologic features on first and subsequent post-RT MRIs are associated with worse overall survival, including PD following irradiation as well as present, new, and/or increasing peripheral ring enhancement, necrosis, and diffusion restriction. (2) Upregulation of EMT-related genes and distant tumor spread at autopsy are observed in a subset of DIPG patients who exhibit poorer radiographic response to irradiation and/or higher likelihood of harboring H3F3A mutations, suggesting possible benefit of upfront craniospinal irradiation. (3) Additional genetic aberrations were identified, including DYNC1LI1 mutations in a subgroup of patients with PR on post-RT MRI; further investigation into potential roles in DIPG tumorigenesis and/or treatment sensitivity is necessary. (4) Whereas most DIPG tumors have an immunologically "cold" microenvironment, there appears to be a subset which harbor a more inflammatory genomic profile and/or higher mutational burden, with a trend toward improved overall survival and more favorable radiographic response to irradiation, in whom immunotherapy should be considered. This study has begun elucidating relationships between post-RT radiographic response with DIPG molecular profiles, revealing radiogenomically distinct subgroups with unique clinical trajectories and therapeutic targets.
Project description:Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a universally fatal tumor of the brainstem, most commonly affecting young children. Due to its location, surgical resection is not achievable, but consideration of a biopsy has become standard practice at children's hospitals with the appropriate neurosurgical expertise. While the decision to obtain a biopsy should be directed by the presence of atypical radiographic features that call the diagnosis of DIPG into question or the requirement of biopsy tissue for clinical trial enrollment, once this precious tissue is available its use for research should be considered. The majority of DIPG and diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27M-mutant (DMG) models are autopsy-derived or genetically-engineered, each of which has limitations for translational studies, so the use of biopsy tissue for laboratory model development provides an opportunity to create unique model systems. Here, we present a detailed laboratory protocol for the generation of treatment-naïve biopsy-derived DIPG/DMG models.
Project description:Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive peripheral T-cell neoplasm that occurs only in patients with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. No large study or randomized trial investigating radiotherapy (RT) for ATL has been performed. We retrospectively reviewed 55 courses of RT for 41 consecutive patients with ATL who underwent RT between 2000 and 2016 at our institutions. The results showed that RT for local ATL lesions can achieve symptomatic improvement in 92% of cases. Local remission, either complete remission (CR) or partial response (PR), was achieved in 100% of the patients (CR: 89%, PR: 11%) with ?40 Gy irradiation. CR or PR was achieved in 71% (CR: 29%, PR: 43%) with 30-39 Gy and in 73% (CR: 6.7%, PR: 67%) with ?29 Gy irradiation. The mean total radiation dose in the CR and PR groups differed significantly (38 vs 25 Gy, P = 0.0002). The maximum acute toxicity was Grade 0-2 in all patients, except for one patient experienced Grade 3 radiation dermatitis. In-field relapses occurred in 36% of patients, and the frequency of in-field relapses was 11%, 30% and 71% among those who achieved CR, PR and SD, respectively. All 9 patients who received total skin irradiation experienced cutaneous relapses, with a median of 63 days (range, 7-210 days). Almost all (39 of 41) patients with ATL experienced out-of-field progression after RT. In conclusion, RT was confirmed to be effective and safe for palliative treatment of local ATL lesions.
Project description:The prognosis of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) remains poor, with no drug proven to be effective.Patients with clinically and radiologically confirmed, centrally reviewed DIPG, who had failed standard first-line therapy were eligible for this multicenter phase II trial. The anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody, nimotuzumab (150 mg/m(2)), was administered intravenously once weekly from weeks 1 to 7 and once every 2 weeks from weeks 8 to 18. Response evaluation was based on clinical and MRI assessments. Patients with partial response (PR) or stable disease (SD) were allowed to continue nimotuzumab.Forty-four patients received at least one dose of nimotuzumab (male/female, 20/24; median age, 6.0 years; range, 3.0-17.0 years). All had received prior radiotherapy. Treatment was well tolerated. Eighteen children experienced serious adverse events (SAEs). The majority of SAEs were associated with disease progression. Nineteen patients completed 8 weeks (W8) of treatment: There were 2 PRs, 6 SDs, and 11 progressions. Five patients completed 18 weeks (W18) of treatment: 1 of 2 patients with PR at W8 remained in PR at W18, and 3 of 6 children with SD at W8 maintained SD at W18. Time to progression following initiation of nimotuzumab for the 4 patients with SD or better at W18 was 119, 157, 182 and 335 days, respectively. Median survival time was 3.2 months. Two patients lived 663 and 481 days from the start of nimotuzumab.Modest activity of nimotuzumab in DIPG, which has been shown previously, was confirmed: A small subset of DIPG patients appeared to benefit from anti-EGFR antibody treatment.
Project description:Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a fatal malignancy because of its diffuse infiltrative growth pattern. Translational research suffers from the lack of a representative DIPG animal model. Hence, human E98 glioma cells were stereotactically injected into the pons of nude mice. The E98 DIPG tumors presented a strikingly similar histhopathology to autopsy material of a DIPG patient, including diffuse and perivascular growth, brainstem- and supratentorial invasiveness and leptomeningeal growth. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was effectively employed to image the E98 DIPG tumor. [(18) F] 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18) F]fluorothymidine (FLT) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging was applied to assess the subcutaneous (s.c.) E98 tumor proliferation status but no orthotopic DIPG activity could be visualized. Next, E98 cells were cultured in vitro and engineered to express firefly luciferase and mCherry (E98-Fluc-mCherry). These cultured E98-Fluc-mCherry cells developed focal pontine glioma when injected into the pons directly. However, the diffuse E98 DIPG infiltrative phenotype was restored when cells were injected into the pons immediately after an intermediate s.c. passage. The diffuse E98-Fluc-mCherry model was subsequently used to test escalating doses of irradiation, applying the bioluminescent Fluc signal to monitor tumor recurrence over time. Altogether, we here describe an accurate DIPG mouse model that can be of clinical relevance for testing experimental therapeutics in vivo.
Project description:PURPOSE:Radiotherapy (RT) has long been and remains the only treatment option for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). However, all patients show evidence of disease progression within months of completing RT. No further clinical benefit has been achieved using alternative radiation strategies. Here, we tested the hypothesis that histone demethylase inhibition by GSK-J4 enhances radiation-induced DNA damage, making it a potential radiosensitizer in the treatment of DIPG.Experimental Design: We evaluated the effects of GSK-J4 on genes associated with DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in DIPG cells by RNA sequence, ATAC sequence, and quantitative real-time PCR. Radiation-induced DNA DSB repair was analyzed by immunocytochemistry of DSB markers ?H2AX and 53BP1, DNA-repair assay, and cell-cycle distribution. Clonogenic survival assay was used to determine the effect of GSK-J4 on radiation response of DIPG cells. In vivo response to radiation monotherapy and combination therapy of RT and GSK-J4 was evaluated in patient-derived DIPG xenografts. RESULTS:GSK-J4 significantly reduced the expression of DNA DSB repair genes and DNA accessibility in DIPG cells. GSK-J4 sustained high levels of ?H2AX and 53BP1 in irradiated DIPG cells, thereby inhibiting DNA DSB repair through homologous recombination pathway. GSK-J4 reduced clonogenic survival and enhanced radiation effect in DIPG cells. In vivo studies revealed increased survival of animals treated with combination therapy of RT and GSK-J4 compared with either monotherapy. CONCLUSIONS:Together, these results highlight GSK-J4 as a potential radiosensitizer and provide a rationale for developing combination therapy with radiation in the treatment of DIPG.
Project description:PURPOSE:Stratum 1 of ACNS1123 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01602666), a Children's Oncology Group phase II trial, evaluated efficacy of reduced-dose and volume of radiotherapy (RT) in children and adolescents with localized nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs). The primary objective was to evaluate the impact of reduced RT on progression-free survival (PFS) with a goal of preserving neurocognitive function. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients received six cycles of chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide alternating with ifosfamide and etoposide, as used in the Children's Oncology Group predecessor study (ACNS0122; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00047320). Patients who achieved a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) with or without second-look surgery were eligible for reduced RT, defined as 30.6 Gy whole ventricular field and 54 Gy tumor-bed boost, compared with 36 Gy craniospinal irradiation plus 54 Gy tumor-bed boost used in ACNS0122. RESULTS:A total of 107 eligible patients were enrolled. Median age was 10.98 years (range, 3.68 to 21.63) and 75% were male. Sixty-six of 107 (61.7%) achieved a CR or PR and proceeded to reduced RT. The 3-year PFS and overall survival and standard error values were 87.8% ± 4.04% and 92.4% ± 3.3% compared with 92% and 94.1%, respectively, in ACNS0122. There were 10 recurrences, prompting early study closure; however, after a retrospective central review, only disease in eight of 66 (12.1%) patients eligible for reduced RT subsequently progressed; six patients had distant spinal relapse alone and two had disease with combined local plus distant relapse. Serum and CSF ?-fetoprotein and ?-human chorionic gonadotropin levels were not associated with PFS. CONCLUSION:Patients with localized NGGCT who achieved a CR or PR to chemotherapy and received reduced RT had encouraging PFS similar to patients in ACNS0122 who received full-dose craniospinal irradiation. However, the patterns of failure were distinct, with all patients having treatment failure in the spine.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>DIPG is among the most devastating brain tumors in children, necessitating the development of novel treatment strategies and advanced imaging markers such as perfusion to adequately monitor clinical trials. This study investigated tumor perfusion and 3D segmented tumor volume as predictive markers for outcome in children with newly diagnosed DIPG.<h4>Methods</h4>Imaging data were assessed at baseline, during, and after RT, and every other month thereafter until tumor progression for 35 patients (ages 2-16 years) with newly diagnosed DIPG enrolled in the phase I clinical study, NCT00472017. Patients were treated with conformal RT and vandetanib, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 inhibitor.<h4>Results</h4>Tumor perfusion increased and tumor volume decreased during combined RT and vandetanib therapy. These changes slowly diminished in follow-up scans until tumor progression. However, increased tumor perfusion and decreased tumor volume during combined therapy were associated with longer PFS. Apart from a longer OS for patients who showed elevated tumor perfusion after RT, there was no association for tumor volume and other perfusion variables with OS.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results suggest that tumor perfusion may be a useful predictive marker for the assessment of treatment response and tumor progression in children with DIPG treated with both RT and vandetanib. The assessment of tumor perfusion yields valuable information about tumor microvascular status and its response to therapy, which may help better understand the biology of DIPGs and monitor novel treatment strategies in future clinical trials.
Project description:Abstract H3 K27M-mutant gliomas often manifest as midline gliomas, have a dismal prognosis, and have no effective treatments. ONC201 efficacy has been shown in high-grade glioma preclinical models and durable responses with single agent ONC201 have been reported in adults with recurrent H3 K27M-mutant gliomas. These observations led to a Phase I pediatric clinical trial of ONC201 dosed by body weight. This multi-center, open-label, 3 + 3 dose-escalation and dose-expansion clinical trial (NCT03416530) for H3 K27M-mutant glioma or non-biopsied DIPG has 6 arms: arms A and E determine the RP2D in pediatric post-radiation (recurrent or not-recurrent) H3 K27M-mutant glioma patients with ONC201 administered as an oral capsule as well as a liquid formulation, respectively. Both arms have completed accrual. The study is currently enrolling newly diagnosed DIPG patients to determine the RP2D for ONC201 in combination with radiation (arm B). Dedicated assessment of intratumoral ONC201 concentrations in midline gliomas patients (arm C) and the effects of ONC201 in H3K27M DNA levels in circulating CSF (arm D) are currently enrolling patients. ONC201 as a single agent in patients with progressive H3K27M mutant tumors following irradiation (excluding DIPG/spinal cord tumors) was recently opened (arm F). Once the RP2D is confirmed, there is a dose-expansion cohort to confirm the safety, radiographic efficacy and survival with ONC201. The primary endpoints of arms A, B, and E have been established with the RP2D of 625mg scaled by body weight as a capsule or liquid formulation administered alone or in combination with radiation without incidence of dose-limiting toxicity.
Project description:A shift towards less burdening and more patient friendly treatments for breast cancer is currently ongoing. In low-risk patients with early-stage disease, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an alternative for whole breast irradiation following breast-conserving surgery. MRI-guided single dose ablative APBI has the potential to offer a minimally burdening, non-invasive treatment that could replace current breast-conserving therapy.The ABLATIVE study is a prospective, single arm, multicenter study evaluating preoperative, single dose, ablative radiation treatment in patients with early-stage breast cancer. Patients with core biopsy proven non-lobular invasive breast cancer, (estrogen receptor positive, Her2 negative, maximum tumor size 3.0 cm on diagnostic MRI) and a negative sentinel node biopsy are eligible. Radiotherapy (RT) planning will be performed using a contrast enhanced (CE) planning CT-scan, co-registered with a CE-MRI, both in supine RT position. A total of twenty-five consecutive patients will be treated with a single ablative RT dose of 20 Gy to the tumor and 15 Gy to the tumorbed. Follow-up MRIs are scheduled within 1 week, 2, 4 and 6 months after single-dose RT. Breast-conserving surgery is scheduled at six months following RT. Primary study endpoint is pathological complete response. Secondary study endpoints are the radiological response and toxicity. Furthermore, patients will fill out questionnaires on quality of life and functional status. Cosmetic outcome will be evaluated by the treating radiation oncologist, patient and 'Breast Cancer Conservation Treatment cosmetic results' software. Recurrence and survival rates will be assessed. The patients will be followed up to 10 years after diagnosis. If patients give additional informed consent, a biopsy and a part of the irradiated specimen will be stored at the local Biobank and used for future research on radiotherapy response associated genotyping.The ABLATIVE study evaluates MRI-guided single dose ablative RT in patients with early-stage breast cancer, aiming at a less burdening and non-invasive alternative for current breast-conserving treatment.ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT02316561 . The trial was registrated prospectively on October 10th 2014.
Project description:Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is one of the least understood and most deadly childhood cancers. Historically, there has been a paucity of DIPG specimens for molecular analysis. However, due to the generous participation of DIPG families in programs for postmortem specimen donation, there has been a recent surge in molecular analysis of newly available tumor specimens. Collaborative efforts to share data and tumor specimens have resulted in rapid discoveries in other pediatric brain tumors, such as medulloblastoma, and therefore have the potential to shed light on the biology of DIPG. Given the generous gift of postmortem tissue donation from DIPG patients, there is a need for standardized postmortem specimen accrual to facilitate rapid and effective multi-institutional molecular studies.We developed and implemented an autopsy protocol for rapid procurement, documenting and storing these specimens. Sixteen autopsies were performed throughout the United States and Canada and processed using a standard protocol and inventory method, including specimen imaging, fixation, snap freezing, orthotopic injection, or preservation. This allowed for comparative clinical and biological studies of rare postmortem DIPG tissue specimens, generation of in vivo and in vitro models of DIPG, and detailed records to facilitate collaborative analysis.