Complete mitochondrial genome of natural diploid loaches Misgurnus anguillicaudatus from the Taihu Lake.
ABSTRACT: Misgurnus anguillicaudatus is a highly valued, aquaculture-relevant food fish in East Asian countries. Because of overfishing and environmental pollution, the number of wild Taihu loach has been sharply decreased in these years. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Taihu loach was obtained by PCR. The genome is 16,646?bp in length, including 2 ribosomal RNA genes. Thirteen proteins-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region, the gene composition and order of which was similar to most reported from other vertebrates. Sequence analysis showed that the overall base composition is 29.8% for A, 28.2% for T, 25.7% for C, and 16.3% for G. The phylogenetic tree showed that Misgurnus family got together for one branch, which includes Taihu M. anguillicaudatus, and the other loaches had their own branches. Also the mitochondrial genome sequence of M. anguillicaudatus were aligned by BLAST, compared with Cobitinae the sequence similarity could reach?>94%, and the similarity to Misgurnus was?>99%.
Project description:Misgurnus anguillicaudatus has several natural ploidy types. To investigate whether nuclear polyploidy have an impact on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of five distinct ploidy M. anguillicaudatus (natural diploid, triploid, tetraploid, pentaploid and hexaploid), which were collected in central China, were sequenced and analyzed. The five mitogenomes share the same gene arrangement and have similar gene size, base composition and codon usage pattern. The most variable regions of the mitogenome were the protein-coding genes, especially the ND4L (5.39% mutation rate). Most variations occurred in tetraploids. The phylogenetic tree showed that the tetraploid M. anguillicaudatus separated early from other ploidy loaches. Meanwhile, the mitogenomes from pentaploids, and hexaploids have the closest phylogenetic relations, but far from that of tetraploids, implying that pentaploids and hexaploids could not be formed from tetraploids, possibly from the diploids and triploids. The genus Misgurnus species were divided into two divergent inter-genus clades, and the five ploidy M. anguillicaudatus were monophyletic, which support the hypotheses about the mitochondrial introgression in loach species.
Project description:Hybrid triploid loaches (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) were generated from natural tetraploid and diploid loaches. We studied the gonads of parents and offspring from direct and reciprocal crosses through histological and transcriptome analyses. The triploid offspring had inferior ability to form sperm and egg cells compared with diploid forms. After sequencing the transcriptomes, 655,109,158 clean reads were obtained, and 62,821 unigenes and 178,962 transcripts were assembled. Of these unigenes, 23,189 were annotated in the GO database, 18,525 in the KEGG database and 24,661 in the KOG database. 36 fertility-related genes were found to be differentially expressed between the direct cross (2n × 4n) progenies and their parents, while 53 fertility-related genes between the reciprocal cross (4n × 2n) progenies and their parents. Following protein-protein interaction network analyses, 54 differentially expressed genes, including PLCB4, cyp17a1 and Pla2g4d, were mined, yielding candidate genes involved in the poor fertility of hybrid triploid loaches. This is the first report of transcriptomes of gonads of hybrid triploid loaches and their parents, offering a substantial contribution to sequence resources for this species and providing a deep insight into the molecular mechanism controlling the fertility of hybrid triploid fish.
Project description:Reconstruction and annotation of transcripts, particularly for a species without reference genome, plays a critical role in gene discovery, investigation of genomic signatures, and genome annotation in the pre-genomic era. This study generated 33,330 full-length transcripts of diploid M. anguillicaudatus using PacBio SMRT Sequencing. A total of 6,918 gene families were identified with two or more isoforms, and 26,683 complete ORFs with an average length of 1,497?bp were detected. Totally, 1,208 high-confidence lncRNAs were identified, and most of these appeared to be precursor transcripts of miRNAs or snoRNAs. Phylogenetic tree of the Misgurnus species was inferred based on the 1,905 single copy orthologous genes. The tetraploid and diploid M. anguillicaudatus grouped into a clade, and M. bipartitus showed a closer relationship with the M. anguillicaudatus. The overall evolutionary rates of tetraploid M. anguillicaudatus were significantly higher than those of other Misgurnus species. Meanwhile, 28 positively selected genes were identified in M. anguillicaudatus clade. These positively selected genes may play critical roles in the adaptation to various habitat environments for M. anguillicaudatus. This study could facilitate further exploration of the genomic signatures of M. anguillicaudatus and provide potential insights into unveiling the evolutionary history of tetraploid loach.
Project description:The geographic distribution of three Misgurnus species, M. anguillicaudatus, M. bipartitus, and M. mohoity, displays a specific pattern in China, coincident with temperature zones. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptomes of these three species and used the sequences to investigate the lineage-specific adaptations within the genus Misgurnus. In total, 51 orphan genes (19 in M. anguillicaudatus, 18 in M. bipartitus, and 14 in M. mohoity) that may contribute to the species-specific adaptations were identified. An analysis of 1392 one-to-one orthologous genes revealed significantly higher ratios of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitutions in the M. mohoity lineage than in M. anguillicaudatus. The genes displaying signatures of positive selection and rapid evolution in Misgurnus were involved in four function categories, (1) energy metabolism; (2) signal transduction; (3) membrane; and (4) cell proliferation or apoptosis, implying that these candidate genes play critical roles in the thermal adaptation of the fish to their living environments. We also detected more than five positively selected sites in cldn15lb and isca1, which function as important factors in paracellular Na? transport and Fe/S cluster assembly, respectively. Overall, our study provides valuable insights into the adaptive evolution of loaches from different temperature zones in China and is a foundation for future studies to clarify the genetic basis of temperature adaptation in fishes.
Project description:Sexual and polyploidy size dimorphisms are widespread phenomena in fish, but the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Loach (<i>Misgurnus anguillicaudatus</i>) displays both sexual and polyploid growth dimorphism phenomena, and are therefore ideal models to study these two phenomena. In this study, RNA-seq was used for the first time to explore the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between both sexes of diploid and tetraploid loaches in four tissues (brain, gonad, liver, and muscle). Results showed that 21,003, 17, and 1 DEGs were identified in gonad, liver, and muscle tissues, respectively, between females and males in both diploids and tetraploids. Regarding the ploidy levels, 4956, 1496, 2187, and 1726 DEGs were identified in the brain, gonad, liver, and muscle tissues, respectively, between tetraploids and diploids of the same sex. When both sexual and polyploid size dimorphisms were considered simultaneously in the four tissues, only 424 DEGs were found in the gonads, indicating that these gonadal DEGs may play an important regulatory role in regulating sexual and polyploid size dimorphisms. Regardless of the sex or ploidy comparison, the significant DEGs involved in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation pathways were upregulated in faster-growing individuals, while steroid hormone biosynthesis-related genes and fatty acid degradation and elongation-related genes were downregulated. This suggests that fast-growing loaches (tetraploids, females) have higher energy metabolism levels and lower steroid hormone synthesis and fatty acid degradation abilities than slow-growing loaches (diploids, males). Our findings provide an archive for future systematic research on fish sexual and polyploid dimorphisms.
Project description:RNA sequencing and short-read assembly were utilized to produce a transcriptome of livers from loaches (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) fed with three different diets respectively containing fresh fish oil (FO group), medium oxidized fish oil (MO group) and high oxidized fish oil (HO group). A total of 60,663 unigenes were obtained in this study, with mean length 848.74 bp. 50,814, 49,584 and 49,814 unigenes were respectively obtained from FO, MO and HO groups. There were 2,343 differentially expressed genes between FO and MO, with 855 down- and 1,488 up-regulated genes in the MO group. 2,813 genes were differentially expressed between FO and HO, including 1,256 down- and 1,552 up-regulated genes in the HO group. 2,075 differentially expressed genes were found in the comparison of MO and HO, including 1,074 up- and 1,001 down-regulated genes in the MO group. Some differentially expressed genes, such as fatty acid transport protein (fatp), fatty acid binding protein (fabp), apolipoprotein (apo), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (ppar-?), acetyl-CoA synthetase (acs) and arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (alox5), were involved in lipid metabolism, suggesting these genes in the loach were responsive to dietary oxidized fish oil. Results of transcriptome profilings here were validated using quantitative real time PCR in fourteen randomly selected unigenes. The present study provides insights into hepatic transcriptome profile of the loach, which is a valuable resource for studies of loach genomics. More importantly, this study identifies some important genes responsible for dietary oxidized fish oil, which will benefit researches of lipid metabolism in fish.
Project description:Dojo loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus is a freshwater fish species of the loach family Cobitidae, using its posterior intestine as an accessory air-breathing organ. Little is known about the molecular regulatory mechanisms in the formation of intestinal air-breathing function of M. anguillicaudatus. Here high-throughput sequencing of mRNAs was performed from six developmental stages of posterior intestine of M. anguillicaudatus: 4-Dph (days post hatch) group, 8-Dph group, 12-Dph group, 20-Dph group, 40-Dph group and Oyd (one-year-old) group. These six libraries were assembled into 81300 unigenes. Totally 40757 unigenes were annotated. Subsequently, 35291 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were scanned among different developmental stages and clustered into 20 gene expression profiles. Finally, 15 key pathways and 25 key genes were mined, providing potential targets for candidate gene selection involved in formation of intestinal air-breathing function in M. anguillicaudatus. This is the first report of developmental transcriptome of posterior intestine in M. anguillicaudatus, offering a substantial contribution to the sequence resources for this species and providing a deep insight into the formation mechanism of its intestinal air-breathing function. This report demonstrates that M. anguillicaudatus is a good model for studies to identify and characterize the molecular basis of accessory air-breathing organ development in fish.
Project description:Loaches are widely distributed throughout the natural environment and are consumed for medicinal purposes in East Asia. Usually, loaches are cultured in ponds where the water conditions can easily cause bacterial infections. Infections due to bacterial pathogens such as Aeromonas have been well described in cultured loaches; however, there is no report regarding Chryseobacterium infection. This study focused on the elucidation of the pathogenic and antibiotic resistance characteristics of C. cucumeris, SKNUCL01, isolated from diseased loaches (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). SKNUCL01 forms a biofilm, which is associated with its virulence. Koch's postulates were satisfied with a lethal dose 50 (LD50) of 8.52 × 107 colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. Abrasion facilitates the mortality of the fish, which makes it a possible infection route for C. cucumeris. The strain showed resistance to nearly all tested antibiotics, such as trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, levofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, formerly considered effective treatments. Phenotypic analyses for antibiotic resistance-the combined disk test, double-disk synergy test, modified Hodge test, and efflux pump inhibition test-revealed that the resistance of SKNUCL01 originated from metallo-beta lactamases (MBLs) and efflux pumps. Our findings provide evidence that could result in a breakthrough against multidrug-resistant Chryseobacterium infection in the aquaculture industry; the antibiotic resistance-related genes can be elucidated through future study.
Project description:Maternal genes are important in directing early development and determining egg quality in fish. We here report the de novo transcriptome from four tissue libraries of the cyprinid loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, and for the first time identified maternal gene transcripts in unfertilized eggs and suggest their immune system involvement. Expression profiles and functional enrichment revealed a total 24,116 transcripts were expressed as maternal transcripts in unfertilized eggs, which were involved in a wide range of biological functions and pathways. Comparison expression profiles and analysis of tissue specificity revealed that the large numbers of maternal transcripts were stored in unfertilized eggs near the late phase of ovarian maturation and before ovulation. Functional classification showed a total of 279 maternal immune-related transcripts classified with immune system process GO term and immune system KEGG pathway. qPCR analysis showed that transcript levels of identified maternal immune-related candidate genes were dynamically modulated during development and early ontogeny of M. anguillicaudatus. Taken together, this study could not only provide knowledge on the protective roles of maternal immune-related genes during early life stage of M. anguillicaudatus but could also be a valuable transcriptomic/genomic resource for further analysis of maternally provisioned genes in M. anguillicaudatus and other related teleost fishes.
Project description:The co-existence of several ploidy types in natural populations makes the cyprinid loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus an exciting model system to study the genetic and phenotypic consequences of ploidy variations. A first step in such effort is to identify the specific ploidy of an individual. Currently popular methods of karyotyping via cytological preparation or flow cytometry require a large amount of tissue (such as blood) samples, which can be damaging or fatal to the fishes. Here, we developed novel microsatellite markers (SSR markers) from M. anguillicaudatus and show that they can effectively discriminate ploidy using samples collected in a minimally invasive way. Specifically, we generated whole genome transcriptomes from multiple M. anguillicaudatus using the Illumina paired-end sequencing. Approximately 150 million raw reads were assembled into 76,544 non-redundant unigenes. A total of 8,194 potential SSR markers were identified. We selected 98 pairs with more than five tandem repeats for further assays. Out of 45 putative EST-SSR markers that successfully amplified and harbored polymorphism in diploids, 11 markers displayed high variability in tetraploids. We further demonstrate that a set of five EST-SSR markers selected from these are sufficient to distinguish ploidy levels, by first validating them on 69 reference specimens with known ploidy levels and then subsequently using fresh-collected 96 ploidy-unknown specimens. The results from EST-SSR markers are highly concordant with those from independent flow cytometry analysis. The novel EST-SSR markers developed here should facilitate genetic studies of polyploidy in the emerging model system M. anguillicaudatus.