The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Viburnum Japonicum (Adoxaceae), an evergreen broad-leaved shrub.
ABSTRACT: The wax-leafed Viburnum japonicum (Adoxaceae) is an evergreen shrub distributed in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. We sequenced its complete chloroplast (cp) genome to examine its phylogenetic relationship within Dipsacales. This genome is 158,614?bp long and features a large single-copy region (87,059?bp) and a small single-copy region (18,523?bp), separated by two inverted-repeat regions (26,516?bp each). It contains 128 genes, including 84 coding genes, eight rRNAs, and 36 tRNAs. The overall GC content is 38.1%. Our phylogenetic tree showed that V. japonicum is closely related to V. utile and is clustered together with four species in the family Adoxaceae.
Project description:Phylogenetic analyses of complete chloroplast genome sequences have yielded significant improvements in our understanding of relationships in the woody flowering genus Viburnum (Adoxaceae, Dipsacales); however, these relationships were evaluated focusing only on Viburnum species within Central and South America and Southeast Asia. By contrast, despite being a hotspot of Viburnum diversity, phylogenetic relationships of Viburnum species in China are less well known. Here, we characterized the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes of 21 Viburnum species endemic to China, as well as three Sambucus species. These 24 plastomes were highly conserved in genomic structure, gene order and content, also when compared with other Adoxaceae. The identified repeat sequences, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and highly variable plastid regions will provide potentially valuable genetic resources for further population genetics and phylogeographic studies on Viburnum and Sambucus. Consistent with previous combined phylogenetic analyses of 113 Viburnum species, our phylogenomic analyses based on the complete cp genome sequence dataset confirmed the sister relationship between Viburnum and the Sambucus-Adoxa-Tetradoxa-Sinadoxa group, the monophyly of four recognized sections in Flora of China (i.e., Viburnum sect. Tinus, Viburnum sect. Solenotinus, Viburnum sect. Viburnum and Viburnum sect. Pseudotinus) and the nonmonophyly of Viburnum sect. Odontotinus and Viburnum sect. Megalotinus. Additionally, our study confirmed the sister relationships between the clade Valvatotinus and Viburnum sect. Pseudotinus, as well as between Viburnum sect. Opulus and the Odontotinus-Megalotinus group. Overall, our results clearly document the power of the complete cp genomes in improving phylogenetic resolution, and will contribute to a better understanding of plastome evolution in Chinese Adoxaceae.
Project description:The whole chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of <i>Viburnum schensianum</i> has been characterized from Illumina pair-end sequencing. The complete cp genome was 158,408?bp in length, containing a large single copy region (LSC) of 86,998?bp and a small single copy region (SSC) of 18,386?bp, which were separated by a pair of inverted repeat (IR) regions of 26,512?bp. The genome contained 130 genes, including 84 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, eight ribosomal RNA genes (four rRNA species), and a pseudogene. Most genes occur as a single copy, whereas 16 gene species are duplicated. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that <i>V. schensianum</i> is closely related to the species of <i>V. utile.</i>
Project description:PREMISE OF THE STUDY:Microsatellite loci were isolated from four species of Viburnum (Adoxaceae) to study population structure and assess species boundaries among morphologically similar South American Viburnum species of the Oreinotinus clade. METHODS AND RESULTS:Using a microsatellite-enriched library and mining next-generation sequence data, 16 microsatellites were developed. Each locus was tested on two populations of V. triphyllum and one population of V. pichinchense. For nuclear loci, one to 13 alleles were recovered, expected heterozygosity ranged from 0 to 0.8975, Simpson diversity index ranged from 0.0167 to 1.000, and Shannon diversity index ranged from 0 to 2.3670 in a given population. For the mitochondrial locus, three to six alleles were recovered and unbiased haploid diversity values ranged from 0.756 to 0.853 in a given population. CONCLUSIONS:The 16 microsatellite loci developed for the Oreinotinus clade (Viburnum, Adoxaceae) will inform investigations of population structure and species boundaries within this group.
Project description:<i>Viburnum erosum</i> is a deciduous shrub distributed in eastern Asia. As part of the systematic study to understand the phylogenetic relationship of <i>V</i>. <i>erosum</i>, we present the complete chloroplast genome of <i>V</i>. <i>erosum</i>. Its length is 158,624?bp and it has four subregions: 87,060?bp of large single-copy and 18,530?bp of small single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeat regions of 26,517?bp each, including 129 genes (84 protein-coding genes, 8 rRNAs, and 37 tRNAs). Phylogenetic analyses show that <i>V. erosum</i> is sister to <i>Viburnum japonicum</i>, supporting morphological affinity of the two species.
Project description:We presented the second complete chloroplast genome of the plant. The length of chloroplast genome is 158,587?bp, consisting of four subregions: 87,050?bp of LSC and 18,503?bp of SSC regions separated by a pair of 26,517?bp IR regions. It includes 129 genes (84 protein-coding genes, 8 rRNAs, and 37 tRNAs). A low-level of molecular variation within <i>Viburnum erosum</i> was found with 16 SNPs and 49 indels. The phylogenetic tree shows that the two accessions of <i>V. erosum</i> are clustered with <i>Viburnum japonicum</i> with no resolution between the species, suggesting that chloroplast genome in these species evolve slowly.
Project description:In general, the chloroplast genomes of angiosperms are considered to be highly conserved and affected little by adaptive evolution. In this study, we tested this hypothesis based on sequence differentiation and adaptive variation in the plastid genomes in the order Dipsacales. We sequenced the plastid genomes of one Adoxaceae species and six Caprifoliaceae species, and together with seven previously released Dipsacales chloroplasts, we determined the sequence variations, evolutionary divergence of the plastid genomes, and phylogeny of Dipsacales species. The chloroplast genomes of Adoxaceae species ranged in size from 157,074 bp (Sinadoxa corydalifolia) to 158,305 bp (Sambucus williamsii), and the plastid genomes of Caprifoliaceae varied from 154,732 bp (Lonicera fragrantissima var. lancifolia) to 156,874 bp (Weigela florida). The differences in the number of genes in Caprifoliaceae and Adoxaceae species were largely due to the expansion and contraction of inverted repeat regions. In addition, we found that the number of dispersed repeats (Adoxaceae = 37; Caprifoliaceae = 384) was much higher than that of tandem repeats (Adoxaceae = 34; Caprifoliaceae = 291) in Dipsacales species. Interestingly, we determined 19 genes with positive selection sites, including three genes encoding ATP protein subunits (atpA, atpB, and atpI), four genes for ribosome protein small subunits (rps3, rps7, rps14, and rps15), four genes for photosystem protein subunits (psaA, psaJ, psbC, and pabK), two genes for ribosome protein large subunits (rpl22 and rpl32), and the clpP, infA, matK, rbcL, ycf1, and ycf2 genes. These gene regions may have played key roles in the adaptation of Dipsacales to diverse environments. In addition, phylogenetic analysis based on the plastid genomes strongly supported the division of 14 Dipsacales species into two previously recognized sections. The diversification of Adoxaceae and Caprifoliaceae was dated to the late Cretaceous and Tertiary periods. The availability of these chloroplast genomes provides useful genetic information for studying taxonomy, phylogeny, and species evolution in Dipsacales.
Project description:Angiosperms with simple vessel perforations have evolved many times independently of species having scalariform perforations, but detailed studies to understand why these transitions in wood evolution have happened are lacking. We focus on the striking difference in wood anatomy between two closely related genera of Adoxaceae, Viburnum and Sambucus, and link the anatomical divergence with climatic and physiological insights.After performing wood anatomical observations, we used a molecular phylogenetic framework to estimate divergence times for 127 Adoxaceae species. The conditions under which the genera diversified were estimated using ancestral area reconstruction and optimization of ancestral climates, and xylem-specific conductivity measurements were performed.Viburnum, characterized by scalariform vessel perforations (ancestral), diversified earlier than Sambucus, having simple perforations (derived). Ancestral climate reconstruction analyses point to cold temperate preference for Viburnum and warm temperate for Sambucus This is reflected in the xylem-specific conductivity rates of the co-occurring species investigated, showing that Viburnum lantana has rates much lower than Sambucus nigra CONCLUSIONS: The lack of selective pressure for high conductive efficiency during early diversification of Viburnum and the potentially adaptive value of scalariform perforations in frost-prone cold temperate climates have led to retention of the ancestral vessel perforation type, while higher temperatures during early diversification of Sambucus have triggered the evolution of simple vessel perforations, allowing more efficient long-distance water transport.
Project description:Comparative wood anatomy of Viburnum was carried out to understand the differences in wood features amongst the species which might be useful for taxonomic discrimination in the genus. Altogether, nine taxa belonging to five clades were investigated using a sliding microtome and light microscopy. The growth rings are well represented and earlywood and latewood are distinguishable in cross-section. Some of the important wood features include angular, oval and rounded vessels with scalariform perforation plates, opposite to scalariform inter-vessel pitting, rounded pits with slit-like apertures, thick-walled xylem tracheids with simple, rounded bordered pits, diffuse axial parenchyma, uni- and multiseriate rays, 2-4 cells wide. In general, there is a remarkable uniformity in the qualitative wood features in Viburnum species, although quantitative measurement showed some disparities. The most significant quantitative wood variables which might be useful for taxonomic groupings of the species comprise a frequency of vessels and rays, the diameter of the vessels and tracheids in the radial and tangential planes and height and width of rays in the tangential plane.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The expression of floral symmetry genes is examined in the CYCLOIDEA lineage following duplication, and these are linked to changes in flower morphology. The study focuses on Dipsacales, comparing DipsCYC2 gene expression in Viburnum (radially symmetrical Adoxaceae) to members of early-diverging lineages of the bilaterally symmetrical Caprifoliaceae (Diervilla and Lonicera). METHODS: Floral tissue from six species, which included dorsal, lateral and ventral regions of the corolla, was dissected. RNA was extracted from these tissues and each copy of DipsCYC2 was amplified with reverse transcriptase PCR. KEY RESULTS: Members of DipsCYC2 were expressed across the corolla in the radially symmetrical Viburnum plicatum. A shift to bilaterally symmetrical flowers at the base of the Caprifoliaceae was accompanied by a duplication of the DipsCYC2 gene, resulting in DipsCYC2A and DipsCYC2B, and by loss of expression of both of these copies in the ventral petal. In Lonicera (Caprifolieae), there is a shift from flowers with two dorsally and three ventrally oriented corolla lobes to a clear differentiation of dorsal, lateral and ventral lobes. This shift entailed a decoupling of expression of DipsCYC2A and DipsCYC2B; DipsCYC2B continues to be expressed in the dorsal and lateral lobes, while DipsCYC2A expression is restricted to just the two dorsal lobes. A reversion to more radially symmetrical flowers within Lonicera was accompanied by a re-expansion of expression of both DipsCYC2A and DipsCYC2B. CONCLUSIONS: The transition to bilateral symmetry in Caprifoliaceae involved: (a) duplication of an ancestral DipsCYC2 gene; (b) the loss of expression of both of these copies in the ventral petal; and (c) changes in the zone of expression, with one copy continuing to be expressed across the dorsal and lateral petals, and the other copy becoming restricted in expression to the dorsal corolla lobes.
Project description:Background and Aims:Enlarged sterile flowers on the periphery of inflorescences increase the attractiveness of floral displays, and previous studies have generally demonstrated that these have positive effects on insect visitation and/or reproductive success. However, experiments have not specifically been designed to examine the benefits of sterile flowers under conditions that reflect the early stages in their evolution, i.e. when plants that produce sterile flowers are at low frequency. Methods:Over three years, three experiments were performed in natural populations of Viburnum lantanoides, which produces sterile marginal flowers (SMFs). The first experiment established that fruit production in V. lantanoides increases with the receipt of outcross pollen. The second tested the role of SMFs under extant conditions, comparing fruit production in two populations composed entirely of intact plants or entirely of plants with the SMFs removed. The third was designed to mimic the presumed context in which SMFs first evolved; here, SMFs were removed from all but a few plants in a population, and rates of insect visitation and fruit set were compared between plants with intact and denuded SMFs. Key Results:In comparing whole populations, the presence of SMFs nearly doubled fruit set. Under simulated 'ancestral' conditions within a population, plants with intact SMFs received double the insect visits and produced significantly more fruits than denuded plants. There was no significant effect of the number of inflorescences or fertile flowers on insect visitation or fruit set, indicating that the presence of SMFs accounted for these differences. Conclusions:The presence of SMFs significantly increased pollinator attraction and female reproductive success both in contemporary and simulated ancestral contexts, indicating that stabilizing selection is responsible for their maintenance, and directional selection likely drove their evolution when they first appeared. This study demonstrates a novel approach to incorporating historically relevant scenarios into experimental studies of floral evolution.